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Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier

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181. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MicroRNAs with Susceptibility to Hepatitis B Virus Infection and HBV-related Liver Complications: A Study in a Saudi Arabian Population. (PubMed)

Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MicroRNAs with Susceptibility to Hepatitis B Virus Infection and HBV-related Liver Complications: A Study in a Saudi Arabian Population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of 10 SNPs in different microRNAs (miRNAs) with susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV clearance, persistence of chronic HBV infection, and progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were categorized (...) into the following groups: inactive HBV carrier, active HBV carrier, HBV-cleared subject and cirrhosis+HCC. Samples were analysed for 10 SNPs in microRNAs using either PCR-based genotyping or the TaqMan assay. We found that rs1358379 was associated with susceptibility to HBV infection, HBV clearance, persistent chronic HBV infection and liver cirrhosis+HCC. In addition, we found that rs2292832 and rs11614913 were associated with risk of HBV infection, viral clearance and cirrhosis+HCC, whereas rs2910164

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2017 Journal of viral hepatitis

182. Genome-wide association analysis identifies a GLUL haplotype for familial hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed)

Genome-wide association analysis identifies a GLUL haplotype for familial hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. A family history of liver cancer increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by 2-fold to 10-fold among patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previous genome-wide association studies have identified many possible susceptible loci associated with sporadic HBV-related HCC. However, despite family history being a well-known risk factor for HBV (...) -related HCC, to the authors' knowledge its genetic mechanisms and associating loci remain largely unknown or unexplored, most likely due to the relative rarity of familial HCC and the difficulty of sample collection.The authors conducted a genome-wide association study with 139 male cases with familial HBV-related HCC and 139 non-HCC male controls with chronic HBV. The results were corroborated further with an independent cohort of 101 patients with familial HBV-related HCC and comparison with both

2017 Cancer

183. Evaluation of the G145R Mutant of the Hepatitis B Virus as a Minor Strain in Mother-to-Child Transmission. (PubMed)

were born to HBV carrier mothers and became HBV carriers despite immnoprophylaxis (n = 25). The control cohort consisted of HBV carriers who had no history of receiving the hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or antiviral treatment (n = 126). The pregnant cohort comprised pregnant women with chronic HBV infection (n = 31). In the breakthrough cohort, 6 showed positive PCR results (major, 2; minor, 4). In the control cohort, 13 showed positive PCR results (major, 0; minor, 13). HBeAg (...) Evaluation of the G145R Mutant of the Hepatitis B Virus as a Minor Strain in Mother-to-Child Transmission. The role of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutant G145R, with a single change in amino acid 145 of the surface protein, as a minor population remains unknown in mother-to-child transmission. The minor strain as well as the major strain of the G145R mutant were evaluated in three cohorts using a locked nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The breakthrough cohort consisted of children who

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2016 PLoS ONE

184. Time to End the Military’s Ban on Enlistees with Hepatitis B

discovered they have hepatitis B. This military code historically barred people with serious medical conditions because they were considered unfit to serve, suspected to incur high healthcare costs and could pose an infection risk to fellow soldiers. The code prohibits enlistees with the, “Presence of … current acute or chronic hepatitis carrier state, hepatitis in the preceding six months or persistence of symptoms after six months, or objective evidence of impairment of liver function.” But most people (...) Time to End the Military’s Ban on Enlistees with Hepatitis B Time to End the Military's Ban on Enlistees with Hepatitis B - Hepatitis B Foundation , Time to End the Military’s Ban on Enlistees with Hepatitis B Image courtesy of vectorolie at FreeDigitalPhotos.net. By Christine Kukka One of the most glaring civil rights abuses facing people with hepatitis B in the United States today is the military’s continued refusal to allow anyone with chronic hepatitis B to enlist. This prohibition

2017 hepbblog

185. Elimination of Hepatitis B: Is It a Mission Possible? (PubMed)

-to-infant transmission in pregnant women with a high viral load. For patients with chronic HBV infection, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen is a useful tool to define inactive carriers and to guide antiviral therapy. Quantification of HBV mutants is also useful in predicting long-term outcomes more precisely than ever. The next challenge is how to achieve an HBV cure; although immunotherapy is a promising strategy, the current results from two clinical trials using therapeutic vaccines to induce (...) Elimination of Hepatitis B: Is It a Mission Possible? Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. Although the disease cannot be cured effectively, disease management has been improved over the past decade. The introduction of potent nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) to suppress viral replication represented a giant leap in the control of this disease. It has been shown that tenofovir treatment, a potent NA, complements current immunoprophylaxis to diminish mother

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2017 BMC Medicine

186. Long term outcome of Inactive and Active, Low Viremic HBeAg negative Hepatitis B Virus infection: benign course towards HBsAg clearance. (PubMed)

Long term outcome of Inactive and Active, Low Viremic HBeAg negative Hepatitis B Virus infection: benign course towards HBsAg clearance. The difference between the long-term outcome of low-viraemic (HBV-DNA≤20 000-IU/mL, LV-AC) and inactive HBsAg carriers (HBV-DNA≤2000-IU/mL, IC) remains to be defined. We studied prospectively 153 HBeAg-negative HBsAg-carriers with baseline HBV-DNA≤20 000-IU/mL and normal transaminases.IC, LV-AC or chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (HBV-DNA persistently ≤2000-IU/mL (...) , ≤20 000-IU/mL or >20 000-IU/mL respectively) were diagnosed after 1-year, 3-monthly monitoring. Thereafter IC and LV-AC were followed-up for additional 57.2 (8.5-158.3) months. HBV-DNA, HBsAg, HBV"core-related"Antigen (HBcrAg) and total-anti-HBc were quantified at baseline.After the 1st year diagnostic follow-up CHB [higher HBV-DNA (P=.005), total-anti-HBc (P=.012), ALT (P=.007) and liver-stiffness (P=.021)] was identified in 20 (13.1%) carriers; baseline HBsAg≤1000IU/HBV-DNA≤2000IU/mL excluded

2017 Liver International

187. Overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among community children in Northwest China. (PubMed)

Overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection among community children in Northwest China. Although a universal newborn hepatitis B (HB) immunization programme has been implemented in China, hepatitis B virus (HBV) breakthrough infection, including HB surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive infection and occult HBV infection (OBI), still occurs during infancy or childhood. Obtaining the actual prevalence of HBV infection in general children is important for preventing and controlling the spread of HB (...) . Accordingly, we investigated the prevalence of overt infection and OBI in community children and compared the serological and virological characteristics of OBI and HBsAg carrier children to clarify the mechanisms related to OBI. In total, 6 706 community children <12 years of age were included from a population-based HBV seroepidemiological investigation in Northwest China. The HBsAg carrier rate in community children was 1.60% (107/6706), and the anti-HBs positive rate was 57.35% (3846/6706

2017 Journal of viral hepatitis

188. A critical role of hepatitis B virus polymerase in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and steatosis (PubMed)

A critical role of hepatitis B virus polymerase in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and steatosis Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world; more than 350 million people are carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chronic HBV infection (CHB) leads to liver diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and steatosis. Despite its seriousness in terms of public health, the pathogenic mechanism of how CHB leads to liver diseases, especially cirrhosis

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2017 FEBS open bio

189. Heparin at physiological concentration can enhance PEG-free in vitro infection with human hepatitis B virus (PubMed)

Heparin at physiological concentration can enhance PEG-free in vitro infection with human hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a blood-borne pathogen responsible for chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The mechanism of HBV entry into hepatocytes remains to be investigated. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was discovered as a major HBV receptor based on an in vitro infection system using NTCP-reconstituted HepG2 cells. However, this infection (...) . This system based on the HepG2-NTCP-AS cells can support in vitro infection with HBV genotypes B and C, as well as using serum samples from HBeAg positive and negative chronic carriers. In summary, our study provides a PEG-free infection system closely resembling human natural infection. In addition, it points to a future research direction for heparin and heparin-binding host factor(s) in the blood, which are potentially involved in viral entry. To our knowledge, this is the first soluble and circulatory

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2017 Scientific reports

190. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X gene mutations and their association with liver disease progression in HBV-infected patients (PubMed)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X gene mutations and their association with liver disease progression in HBV-infected patients Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated the clinical impact of single and combinational mutations in HBx gene on the pathogenesis of HCC during progressive stages of liver disease. The patients were categorized into inactive HBV carriers, active (...) carriers, cirrhosis and HCC groups based on disease severity. Male sex, age > 50 years, and high serum alanine aminotransferase level were associated with risk of progressive liver disease. I127T, V131I, and F132Y/I/R mutations showed a significant increasing trend associated with the disease progression to HCC. H94Y and K130M mutations were also significantly associated with severe liver disease. One double mutation (K130M+V131I) and two triple mutations (I127T+K130M+V131L and K130M+V131I+F132Y) were

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2017 Oncotarget

191. Classification and sensitivity analysis of the transmission dynamic of hepatitis B (PubMed)

Classification and sensitivity analysis of the transmission dynamic of hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection caused by the hepatitis B virus is one of the most serious viral infections and a global health problem. In the transmission of hepatitis B infection, three different phases, i.e. acute infected, chronically infected, and carrier individuals, play important roles. Carrier individuals are especially significant, because they do not exhibit any symptoms and are able to transmit the infection (...) . Here we assessed the transmissibility associated with different infection stages of hepatitis B and generated an epidemic model.To demonstrate the transmission dynamic of hepatitis B, we investigate an epidemic model by dividing the infectious class into three subclasses, namely acute infected, chronically infected, and carrier individuals with both horizontal and vertical transmission.Numerical results and sensitivity analysis of some important parameters are presented to show that the proportion

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2017 Theoretical biology & medical modelling

192. Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination on HBs Antigenemia

Description: open label Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination on HBsAg Kinetics, Interferon-inducible Protein 10 Level and Recurrence of Viremia Actual Study Start Date : August 1, 2011 Actual Primary Completion Date : October 1, 2015 Actual Study Completion Date : October 1, 2015 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Active Comparator: chronic HBV with persistent HBsAg (...) Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination on HBs Antigenemia Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination on HBs Antigenemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Impact of Hepatitis B Vaccination on HBs Antigenemia

2017 Clinical Trials

193. Hepatitis B virus infection in undocumented immigrants and refugees in Southern Italy: demographic, virological, and clinical features (PubMed)

Hepatitis B virus infection in undocumented immigrants and refugees in Southern Italy: demographic, virological, and clinical features The data on hepatitis b virus (HBV) infection in immigrants population are scanty. The porpoise of this study was to define the demographic, virological, and clinical characteristics of subjects infected with HBV chronic infection in a cohort of immigrants living in Naples, Italy.A screening for HBV infection was offered to 1,331 immigrants, of whom 1,212 (91 (...) their diagnostic itinerary at a third-level infectious disease unit: 29 (32.2%) were asymptomatic non-viremic HBsAg carriers, 43 (47.8%) were asymptomatic viremic carriers, 14 (15.6%) had chronic hepatitis, and four (4.4%) had liver cirrhosis, with superimposed hepatocellular carcinoma in two.The data illustrate the demographic, clinical and virological characteristics of HBV infection in immigrants in Italy and indicate the need for Italian healthcare authorities to enhance their support for providing

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2017 Infectious diseases of poverty

194. Hepatitis B virus induced cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-mediated vasculitis causing subarachnoid hemorrhage, acute transverse myelitis, and nephropathy: a case report (PubMed)

of the above presentations who is cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive and a chronic carrier of hepatitis B.A 33-year-old Nepalese man presented to our hospital with headache, swelling of his body, paraplegia, and back pain that developed over a period of 10 days. Laboratory studies showed proteinuria and elevated levels of serum urea and creatinine. Viral serology was suggestive of chronic inactive hepatitis B carrier state. A computed tomography scan of his head revealed features (...) Hepatitis B virus induced cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-mediated vasculitis causing subarachnoid hemorrhage, acute transverse myelitis, and nephropathy: a case report Transverse myelitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and nephropathy are established but rare complications of hepatitis B virus infection that can potentially be triggered by an antibody-mediated vasculitis as a result of a viral infection. The following is a case report detailing a patient presenting with all three

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2017 Journal of medical case reports

195. Hepatitis B Virus Immunopathology, Model Systems, and Current Therapies (PubMed)

Hepatitis B Virus Immunopathology, Model Systems, and Current Therapies Most people develop acute hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis that is controlled by both humoral and cellular immune responses following acute infection. However, a number of individuals in HBV-endemic areas fail to resolve the infection and consequently become chronic carriers. While a vaccine is available and new antiviral drugs are being developed, elimination of persistently infected cells is still a major issue (...) . Standard treatment in HBV infection includes IFN-α, nucleoside, or nucleotide analogs, which has direct antiviral activity and immune modulatory capacities. However, immunological control of the virus is often not durable. A robust T-cell response is associated with control of HBV infection and liver damage; however, HBV-specific T cells are deleted, dysfunctional, or become exhausted in chronic hepatitis patients. As a result, efforts to restore virus-specific T-cell immunity in chronic HBV patients

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

196. IL-18 polymorphisms contribute to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility in Chinese population: a case-control study (PubMed)

controls, chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) carriers, liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) groups with each group of 250 persons. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) with or without adjustment were calculated. Haplotype analysis was also performed. The results showed people carrying rs187238 CG genotype had a lower risk of LC (CG vs. CC: OR = 0.59, 95%CI = 0.38-0.91, P = 0.02), while GG genotype carriers had a higher risk of HCC (GG vs. CC+CG: OR = 4.73, 95%CI = 1.01 (...) IL-18 polymorphisms contribute to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility in Chinese population: a case-control study IL-18 polymorphisms influence the transcriptional activity of the IL-18 gene and associated with various diseases. However, their relationships with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases had not reached a consensus. So we conducted this case-control study with a view to clarifying the association. We included four groups: healthy

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2017 Oncotarget

197. Pediatric hepatitis B treatment (PubMed)

Pediatric hepatitis B treatment Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected (...) in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection. Guidelines and experts' opinion show how to identify children who should be treated and how to treat them. If decompensated cirrhosis is absent, interferon-alpha is the first-line antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir, are also available

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2017 Annals of Translational Medicine

198. Identification and characterization of interferon signaling-related microRNAs in occult hepatitis B virus infection (PubMed)

levels of serum IFN signaling-related miRNAs in OBI and to evaluate their potential values for OBI diagnosis.Twenty serum samples for training test (10 healthy controls and 10 OBI patients) and 438 validation serum samples from healthy controls, asymptomatic HBsAg carriers (ASC), and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and OBI patients were collected. Expression levels of 32 IFN signaling-related miRNAs were analyzed in training and validation sets of samples using RT-qPCR.Among 32 IFN signaling-related miRNAs (...) Identification and characterization of interferon signaling-related microRNAs in occult hepatitis B virus infection Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is an important risk factor of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling-related miRNAs were significantly associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the characteristics of serum IFN signaling-related miRNAs in OBI remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the expression

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2017 Clinical epigenetics

199. Nationwide overview of the distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in Brazil: a 1000-sample multicentre study (PubMed)

Brazilian regions in an effort to better understand the viral variants of HBV circulating among chronic carriers. Seven HBV genotypes were found circulating in Brazil. Overall, HBV/A was the most prevalent, identified in 589 (58.7 %) samples, followed by HBV/D (23.4 %) and HBV/F (11.3 %). Genotypes E, G, C and B were found in a minor proportion. The distribution of the genotypes differed markedly from the north to the south of the country. While HBV/A was the most prevalent in the North (71.6 (...) Nationwide overview of the distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in Brazil: a 1000-sample multicentre study The influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in the natural history of the disease and its response to antiviral treatment have been addressed in many studies. In Brazil, studies on HBV genotype circulation have been restricted to specific population groups and states. Here, we have conducted a nationwide multicentre study with an unprecedented sample size representing all

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2017 The Journal of general virology

200. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B (PubMed)

Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin (...) that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis

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2014 Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

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