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1. Changes in choroidal blood flow and choroidal thickness after treatment in two cases of pediatric anisohypermetropic amblyopia (PubMed)

Changes in choroidal blood flow and choroidal thickness after treatment in two cases of pediatric anisohypermetropic amblyopia We aimed to examine the changes in choroidal blood flow (CBF) and central choroidal thickness (CCT) in children with anisohypermetropic amblyopia using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).The patients were both 6-year-old Japanese male children with complaints of worsening right visual acuity and were

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2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

2. Pathologic study of early manifestations of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and pathogenesis of choroidal neo-vascularization (PubMed)

Pathologic study of early manifestations of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and pathogenesis of choroidal neo-vascularization To describe the histopathologic features of an early case of presumably bilateral polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in two eyes obtained at autopsy from a patient with no prior ocular therapy.The choroid of both eyes at the macular and peripapillary regions was greatly thickened with dilated, thin walled choroidal venules intertwining with arteriosclerotic (...) arterioles in the Sattler's layer of the choroidal vasculature. At the temporal and nasal equatorial regions of both eyes many of these congested venular channels abruptly disappeared and were replaced by loose connective tissue with loss of the normal choroidal stromal tissue and uveal melanocytes. A few remaining venules showed intraluminal sloughing of endothelial cells and deposition of fibrinous material networks suggesting occlusion of these choroidal venules. At this equatorial location, serous

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2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

3. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: Outer Retinal and Choroidal Changes and Neovascularization Development in the Fellow Eye. (PubMed)

Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: Outer Retinal and Choroidal Changes and Neovascularization Development in the Fellow Eye. We investigated the outer retinal, RPE, and choroidal changes and the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in fellow eyes of patients with unilateral polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy or aneurysmal type 1 neovascularization (PCV/AT1).In this retrospective observational cohort study, 263 patients with unilateral PCV/AT1 were enrolled. Fundus photography

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2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

4. SUBFOVEAL CHOROIDAL THICKNESS AND VASCULAR ARCHITECTURE IN FELLOW EYES OF PATIENTS WITH CIRCUMSCRIBED CHOROIDAL HEMANGIOMA. (PubMed)

SUBFOVEAL CHOROIDAL THICKNESS AND VASCULAR ARCHITECTURE IN FELLOW EYES OF PATIENTS WITH CIRCUMSCRIBED CHOROIDAL HEMANGIOMA. To evaluate the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and vascular architecture in the fellow eyes of patients with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH).In this retrospective observational study, patients were selected from outpatient ophthalmology clinics at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York. Subfoveal (...) choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography from the outer portion of Bruch membrane to the choroidal-scleral interface. Choroidal vascular architecture was qualitatively examined. The main outcome measure was SFCT in fellow eyes of patients with CCH, which was compared with an age- and gender-matched control group.Thirty-one fellow eyes (15 right eyes and 16 left eyes) of patients with CCH (23 males and 8 females) were examined. The fellow

2019 Retina

5. Choroidal neovascularization emerged right from the focal choroidal excavation in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy post half-dose photodynamic therapy: a case report. (PubMed)

Choroidal neovascularization emerged right from the focal choroidal excavation in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy post half-dose photodynamic therapy: a case report. Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) is a common concurrent disease with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was able to cease the course of CSC with efficacy and safety. To retrospectively observed and followed up a special course in eyes with CSC

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2019 BMC Ophthalmology

6. Choroidal Structural Changes in Smokers Measured Using Choroidal Vascularity Index. (PubMed)

Choroidal Structural Changes in Smokers Measured Using Choroidal Vascularity Index. Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for vascular dysfunction. This study evaluated choroidal structural changes in smokers using the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) derived from image binarization on spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans with enhanced depth imaging (EDI-OCT).This cross-sectional study included 39 smokers and 44 non-smokers. Choroidal images on EDI-OCT were binarized (...) into luminal area (LA) and stromal area (LA). CVI was calculated as the ratio of LA to total choroid area (TCA). CVI, foveal retinal thickness (FRT), and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) between smokers and non-smokers were compared using likelihood ratio test with linear mixed model. Trend and subgroup analysis were performed to investigate the dose-dependent relationship between CVI/FRT/SFCT and pack-years.CVI in smokers (65 ± 2%) was lower compared to non-smokers (67 ± 2%, P = 0.0001

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2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

7. Evaluation of changes in choroidal thickness and the choroidal vascularity index after hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease by using swept-source optical coherence tomography. (PubMed)

Evaluation of changes in choroidal thickness and the choroidal vascularity index after hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease by using swept-source optical coherence tomography. To evaluate the effect of hemodialysis on choroidal thickness and the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by using swept-source optical coherence tomography.Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were recruited prospectively. Detailed (...) ophthalmologic examinations and swept-source optical coherence tomography were performed immediately before and after hemodialysis. Choroidal thickness maps were generated automatically by using built-in software. The CVI was calculated using binarized choroidal optical coherence tomography images. Systemic parameters such as body weight and blood pressure were also measured. The changes in systemic and ocular parameters during hemodialysis were evaluated. Subjects were divided into 2 groups (diabetes

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2019 Medicine

8. Choroidal excavation in choroidal osteoma complicated by choroidal neovascularization (PubMed)

Choroidal excavation in choroidal osteoma complicated by choroidal neovascularization PurposeTo describe multimodal imaging features of choroidal osteoma (CO) complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and focal choroidal excavation (FCE).MethodsPatients presenting with CO and CNV between January and October 2016 were considered for this study. Diagnosis of CO was confirmed by ultrasound examination. All patients underwent multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT (...) of one eye with FCE.ConclusionsFCE may be found in eyes with choroidal osteoma and CNV. OCT-A was a valuable tool for detection of CNV complicating choroidal osteoma. Decalcification of choroidal osteoma may represent a common pathogenic pathway for development of FCE and CNV in choroidal osteoma.

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2017 Eye

9. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for choroidal neovascularisation in people with pathological myopia. (PubMed)

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for choroidal neovascularisation in people with pathological myopia. Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a common complication of pathological myopia. Once developed, most eyes with myopic CNV (mCNV) experience a progression to macular atrophy, which leads to irreversible vision loss. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is used to treat diseases characterised by neovascularisation and is increasingly used to treat mCNV.To assess (...) the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), compared with other treatments, sham treatment or no treatment, in people with pathological myopia.We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL and Ovid MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. Electronic

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2016 Cochrane

10. Intravitreal ranibizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to a bilateral choroidal osteoma (PubMed)

Intravitreal ranibizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to a bilateral choroidal osteoma Choroidal osteomas are benign intraocular tumors that classically present in females. Despite their benign nature, significant visual acuity loss can occur due to retinal pigment epithelium degeneration. We report an unusual case of bilateral choroidal osteoma in a young boy.A 16 year old boy presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital with a history of painless, bilateral (...) deteriorating vision over past few months. Examination showed best corrected visual acuity as 20/200 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Funduscopy revealed a well-defined lesion in the juxtafoveal region of both eyes. A diagnosis of (bilateral) choroidal osteoma was subsequently made on the basis of optical coherence tomography, fundus fluorescein angiography, Indocyanine green and B-scan ultrasonography. The presence of choroidal neovascularization with sub retinal fluid was also established

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2016 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

11. CHOROIDAL MORPHOLOGY IN EYES WITH PERIPAPILLARY POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY. (PubMed)

CHOROIDAL MORPHOLOGY IN EYES WITH PERIPAPILLARY POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY. This study analyzes a subset of patients with peripapillary polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) to determine whether quantifiable pachychoroid features colocalize with disease foci.Patients with PCV diagnosed by indocyanine green angiography were identified for the analysis of medical records and multimodal imaging and classified as having peripapillary or macular PCV. The ratio of Haller layer thickness (...) to total choroidal thickness was calculated at the fovea and at the site of dilated Haller vessels that showed spatial correlation with the origin of neovascularization. Choroidal thickness was measured horizontally across the fovea and circumferentially around the temporal side of the disk to study its relationship to neovascularization.Three hundred and fourteen eyes of 299 patients with PCV were identified, of which 17 eyes (5%) had peripapillary disease. Although eyes with peripapillary PCV

2018 Retina

12. Type 2 choroidal neovascularisation in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a retrospective case series. (PubMed)

Type 2 choroidal neovascularisation in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a retrospective case series. To demonstrate the coexistence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) with type 2 neovascularisation (NV), we used multimodal imaging, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA), to identify both types of lesions in the same eye.This retrospective case series reviewed patients with PCV diagnosed with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fluorescein

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

13. An efficacy analysis of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for choroidal neovascularization secondary to multifocal choroiditis and comparison with wet age-related macular degeneration (PubMed)

An efficacy analysis of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for choroidal neovascularization secondary to multifocal choroiditis and comparison with wet age-related macular degeneration To evaluate the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to multifocal choroiditis (MFC) and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD).In this retrospective, comparative study, 20 unique eyes with CNV were divided into two

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2018 Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B

14. Erythropoietin Signaling Increases Choroidal Macrophages and Cytokine Expression, and Exacerbates Choroidal Neovascularization (PubMed)

Erythropoietin Signaling Increases Choroidal Macrophages and Cytokine Expression, and Exacerbates Choroidal Neovascularization Erythropoietin (EPO) is recognized for neuroprotective and angiogenic effects and has been associated with aging and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We hypothesized that systemic EPO facilitates the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Wild type mice expressed murine EPOR (mWtEPOR) in RPE/choroids at baseline and had significantly (...) increased serum EPO after laser treatment. To test the role of EPO signaling, we used human EPOR knock-in mice with the mWtEPOR gene replaced by either the human EPOR gene (hWtEPOR) or a mutated human EPOR gene (hMtEPOR) in a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LCNV) model. Loss-of-function hWtEPOR mice have reduced downstream activation, whereas gain-of-function hMtEPOR mice have increased EPOR signaling. Compared to littermate controls (mWtEPOR), hMtEPOR with increased EPOR signaling developed

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2018 Scientific reports

15. OCT angiography and evaluation of the choroid and choroidal vascular disorders. (PubMed)

OCT angiography and evaluation of the choroid and choroidal vascular disorders. The recent introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has remarkably expanded our knowledge of the choroid through in vivo investigation of the anatomical and pathological features of this important vascular layer. New insights elucidating the morphological features of the choroid, in both physiological and pathological conditions, indicate that this vascular structure plays a crucial role (...) in many chorioretinal disorders. In this article, a review of the salient histological and anatomical features of the choroid, essential for the proper interpretation of in vivo imaging, is followed by a discussion of the fundamental principles of OCTA and the application of this advanced imaging modality to study and understand the choroid. The current limitations of OCTA and potential advancements that may improve the widespread adoption of this tool are also discussed. A detailed review of the OCTA

2018 Progress in Retinal and Eye Research

16. TYPICAL POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY AND POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION. (PubMed)

TYPICAL POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY AND POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION. To compare typical polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (T-PCV) and polypoidal choroidal neovascularization (P-CNV), which can be defined as two subtypes of PCV, and to elucidate the significance of the classification.Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with PCV and followed up for more than 12 months were reviewed. The PCV cases were divided into a T-PCV group (n = 36) and a P-CNV group (n = 41) according

2018 Retina

17. Defective Choroidal Blood Flow Baroregulation and Retinal Dysfunction and Pathology Following Sympathetic Denervation of Choroid. (PubMed)

Defective Choroidal Blood Flow Baroregulation and Retinal Dysfunction and Pathology Following Sympathetic Denervation of Choroid. We sought to determine if sympathetic denervation of choroid impairs choroidal blood flow (ChBF) regulation and harms retina.Rats received bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), which depleted choroid of sympathetic but not parasympathetic innervation. The flash-evoked scotopic ERG and visual acuity were measured 2 to 3 months after SCGx (...) was upregulated 2.5-fold, and Iba1+ microglia were increased 3-fold. Dopaminergic amacrine cell fibers in inner plexiform layer were reduced in SCGx rats, and photoreceptors were slightly depleted. Functional deficits and pathology were correlated with impairments in sympathetic regulation of ChBF.These studies indicate that sympathetic denervation of choroid impairs ChBF baroregulation during elevated ABP, leading to choroidal overperfusion. This defect in ChBF regulation is associated with impaired retinal

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHOROIDAL CAVERNS AND CHOROIDAL VASCULAR HYPERPERMEABILITY IN EYES WITH PACHYCHOROID DISEASES. (PubMed)

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHOROIDAL CAVERNS AND CHOROIDAL VASCULAR HYPERPERMEABILITY IN EYES WITH PACHYCHOROID DISEASES. To investigate the association between choroidal caverns, choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (CVH), and pachyvessels in eyes with pachychoroid disease.This was a retrospective review of swept-source optical coherence tomography and indocyanine green angiography imaging performed on eyes with pachychoroid disease.Imaging from 21 eyes with pachychoroid disease entities (8 eyes (...) with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy, 11 eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, and 3 eyes with pachychoroid neovasculopathy) from 11 patients (mean 49.5 years, male/female: 10/1, all white) was available for review. In all study eyes, pachyvessels traversed the areas of CVH visible in mid- and late-phase indocyanine green angiography. A total of 504 choroidal caverns were identified in 11 study eyes (52%). Of the 504 choroidal caverns, 445 (88%) were seen within the areas of CVH compared with 59 (12

2018 Retina

19. Posterior Choroidal Stroma Reduces Accuracy of Automated Segmentation of Outer Choroidal Boundary in Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography. (PubMed)

Posterior Choroidal Stroma Reduces Accuracy of Automated Segmentation of Outer Choroidal Boundary in Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography. To determine the influence of choroidal boundary morphology on the accuracy of automated measurements of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT).A retrospective image analysis of foveal-centered horizontal line scans from normal and diseased eyes using the Topcon DRI OCT-1 Atlantis SSOCT was conducted (...) . Subfoveal choroid-scleral junction (CSJ) and retina-choroidal junction (RCJ) morphologies were graded by two observers. Automated SFCT (A-SFCT) was compared with manual SFCT (M-SFCT) measurements from Bruch's membrane to the posterior limits of choroidal vessel, hyperreflective stroma, and hyporeflective lamina fusca. Agreement in boundary grading was assessed by Cohen's kappa. A-SFCT and M-SFCT were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and paired t-tests.A total of 200 eyes of 100 patients with a mean

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

20. CHOROIDAL MORPHOLOGY IN EYES WITH POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY AND NORMAL OR SUBNORMAL SUBFOVEAL CHOROIDAL THICKNESS. (PubMed)

CHOROIDAL MORPHOLOGY IN EYES WITH POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY AND NORMAL OR SUBNORMAL SUBFOVEAL CHOROIDAL THICKNESS. To subsegment the choroid in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and to determine whether the ratio of choriocapillaris/Sattler layer thickness to total choroidal thickness is decreased at sites of polypoidal pathology.Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. A total of 320 eyes of 305 patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were studied (...) with optical coherence tomography and dye angiography. The ratio of choriocapillaris/Sattler layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was calculated at polypoidal lesion sites in eyes with subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) ≤200 μm.Mean SFCT was 267.7 ± 118.5 μm for the entire cohort. Mean SFCT was 151.2 ± 35.0 μm in eyes with SFCT ≤200 μm (n = 124, 39%). In this subgroup, dilated Haller vessels (pachyvessels) were identified under the site of neovascular ingrowth in 117 eyes (94%). Choroidal

2016 Retina

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