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301. Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

, Vice Chair , PhD , MD, MPH, FAHA , MD, FAHA , ScD , MD, FAHA , MD, MPH , and MD MD, PhD, FAHA, Chairon behalf of the American Heart Association Professional and Public Education Committee of the Council on Hypertension; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; and Stroke Council Fernando Elijovich , Myron H. Weinberger , Cheryl A.M. Anderson , Lawrence J. Appel , Michael Bursztyn , Nancy R. Cook , Richard A. Dart , Christopher H. Newton-Cheh , Frank M. Sacks , and Cheryl L. Laffer (...) and on behalf of the American Heart Association Professional and Public Education Committee of the Council on Hypertension; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; and Stroke Council Originally published 21 Jul 2016 Hypertension. 2016;68:e7–e46 You are viewing the most recent version of this article. Previous versions: Introduction The simplest definition of salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) states that it is a physiological trait present in rodents and other mammals, including

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2016 American Heart Association

302. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

surveillance system, provides information on the availability of school-based physical activity programs, including physical education, school sports, recess, and other physical activity opportunities, at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Blood Lipids/Total Cholesterol The 2011 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents noted that the 1992 guidelines targeted the identification (...) the mid-1980s and mid-1990s in the United States. , US data from 2009 to 2010 indicate that 17% of 2- to 19-year-olds are obese and an additional 15% are overweight. , Youth with obesity have significantly worse circulating lipid profiles (higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and higher blood pressure (BP), glucose, and insulin concentrations than their nonobese peers. , , Obesity in youth is also linked

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2016 American Heart Association

303. Clinics and activities in primary care can reduce heart disease deaths

patients treated over a six year period. Much of what is proposed in the intervention - education, risk factor management and structured use of resources - forms part of current routine general practice in the UK. The review further highlights the need for long term follow up trials and the need for a sustained approach to engaging with hard to reach individuals, particularly those with on-going elevated risk. Carl Heneghan, General Practitioner and Professor of Evidence Based Medicine, University (...) interventions lasted between one and three years and included activities like organising dedicated clinics to monitor and adjust medication to meet recommended blood pressure and cholesterol levels or drop-in sessions to encourage healthy lifestyle. The results are in line with 2012 NICE guidance that encourages organisations to take action to help people with known heart disease take their medicines as prescribed, and reduce risk factors through lifestyle changes. Share your views on the research. Why

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

304. Establishing breastfeeding

in supporting the breastfeeding mother 87 : o Offer support and education to partners on the importance of breastfeeding and include them in breastfeeding education classes, pregnancy and postpartum care • Peer support counsellors and professionals have a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes 37 • Face-to-face support is more likely to be effective Breastfeeding advice and information • Offer and support access to breastfeeding education/resources 77 • Discuss and offer information about: o (...) , current, or accurate in every respect. The guideline is not a substitute for clinical judgement, knowledge and expertise, or medical advice. Variation from the guideline, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. This guideline does not address all elements of standard practice and accepts that individual clinicians are responsible for: • Providing care within the context of locally available resources, expertise, and scope of practice • Supporting consumer rights and informed

2016 Queensland Health

305. Pharmacist-Led Chronic Disease Management: Effectiveness and Harms Compared to Usual Care

chronic disease management compared with usual care for clinical outcomes, such as clinical events, all-cause mortality, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and resource utilization. Moderate-strength evidence indicates that pharmacist-led chronic disease management increases goal attainment for HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. The report found little reporting of access to care and drug-related problems. Authors note these results suggest that future programs are likely to achieve (...) . If you have any questions or comments about this Brief, please . The Center for Information Dissemination and Education Resources (CIDER) is a VA HSR&D Resource Center charged with disseminating important HSR&D findings and information to policy makers, managers, clinicians, and researchers working to improve the health and care of Veterans. - This report is a product of VA/HSR&D's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative's (QUERI) Evidence-Based Synthesis Program (ESP), which was established

2016 Veterans Affairs - R&D

306. Contrast-induced Nephropathy

consider this report in the same way as any medical reference and in conjunction with all other pertinent information, i.e., in the context of available resources and circumstances presented by individual patients. This document is made available to the public under the terms of a licensing agreement between the author and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. This report may be used and reprinted without permission except those copyrighted materials that are clearly noted in the report (...) . It is possible that the findings reported in the studies of statins could be partly explained by a direct effect of statins on glomerular filtration rate that is independent of a protective effect on kidney function, as has been reported in one study. 14 However, with increasing recognition of the beneficial cholesterol- independent vascular effects of statins, it may be time to reassess the role of statins in preventing CIN, especially since statins are readily available, easy to administer, and relatively

2016 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

307. Diabetes Prevention Programs

& Human Services ICSI Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement IFG Impaired fasting glucose IGT Impaired glucose tolerance NDEP National Diabetes Education Program NDPP National Diabetes Prevention Program NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIH National Institutes of Health OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test P4P Pay for performance PICOTS Population, Intervention, Comparators, Outcomes, Timing, and Settings PRISMA Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (...) coaching messages through a fully-automated system based on algorithms. b In addition to the DPP curriculum publicly available from the CDC, organizations offering DPPs can submit their curricula to the CDC for review. If approved, organizations can then seek recognition. ©Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2016 Page ES3 Evidence Report – Diabetes Prevention Programs Return to Table of Contents Table ES1. Key Features of DPPs Format Scalability Cost* Typical Group Size Key Resources Examples

2016 California Technology Assessment Forum

308. Collaboration in Practice: Implementing Team-Based Care

arranges for the clinic social worker to visit with the patient and her husband to discuss resources available to promote adherence to the diet recommendations. Because the patient is already taking medication for hypertension and high cholesterol, the clinical care coordinator arranges for the patient to speak to her local pharmacist about potential interactions. The pharmacist then checks in with the patient during each prescription refill to answer questions about taking the medication. As a result (...) -6920 Collaboration in Practice: Implementing Team-Based Care was developed under the direction of the Task Force on Collaborative Practice. The information in Collaboration in Practice: Implementing Team-Based Care should not be viewed as a body of rigid rules. This guidance is general and intended to be adapted to many different situations, taking into account the needs and resources particular to the locality, the institution, or the type of practice. Variations and innovations that improve

2016 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

309. Depression

Depression 1 Quality Department Guidelines for Clinical Care Ambulatory Depression Guideline Team Team leaders Thomas L Schwenk, MD Family Medicine Linda B Terrell, MD General Medicine Team members R Van Harrison, PhD Medical Education Amy L Tremper, MD Obstetrics & Gynecology Marcia A Valenstein, MD Psychiatry Consultant Jolene R Bostwick, PhD College of Pharmacy Initial Release March, 1998 Most Recent Major Update August, 2011 Interim/Minor Revisions September, 2014 December, 2016 Ambulatory (...) response to intervention, suicidal ideation, side effects, and psychosocial support systems [ID*]. • Continuation therapy. Continuation therapy (9-12 months after acute symptoms resolve) decreases the incidence of relapse of major depression [IA*]. Long-term maintenance or life-time drug therapy should be considered for selected patients based on their history of relapse and other clinical features [IIB*]. • Education/support. Patient education and support are essential. Social stigma and patient

2016 University of Michigan Health System

310. Telemedicine quality and outcomes in stroke

to identify candidates for transfer to stroke centers with a higher level of care can also be successfully initiated via telemedicine for patients with malignant infarcts who are likely to need decompressive surgery. Five recent randomized trials demonstrating significant benefit with large treatment effects established the efficacy of endovascular treatment of stroke. Endovascular treatment requires extensive infrastructure resources and experience, which is currently provided primarily in CSCs (...) in patients evaluated by telemedicine before transfer. In some situations, stroke expertise delivered through telemedicine may reduce long-distance transports. , In some networks, telemedicine is used to establish specialized stroke unit care on site in a telestroke unit, often with supplementary resources such as speech or physical therapy provided on site, allowing patients to remain in their local hospital with a higher quality of stroke care. These data reinforce the central principle of telestroke

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2016 American Academy of Neurology

311. Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work

Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Discover Portal Discover Portal Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Published on 8 November 2016 doi: Brief education and motivational interventions delivered by primary care professionals in several short consultations had only a marginal effect (...) % of children aged two to 15 are obese and a further 14% are overweight. Children who are overweight or obese can experience bullying and low self-esteem which can lead to anxiety and depression and they are also much more likely to be obese as adults. Obesity can also cause high blood pressure, fatty deposits in arteries and raised cholesterol, which increase the risk of long term conditions, such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity can be hard to treat effectively. National and local strategies set out a range

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

312. Establishing breastfeeding

in supporting the breastfeeding mother 87 : o Offer support and education to partners on the importance of breastfeeding and include them in breastfeeding education classes, pregnancy and postpartum care • Peer support counsellors and professionals have a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes 37 • Face-to-face support is more likely to be effective Breastfeeding advice and information • Offer and support access to breastfeeding education/resources 77 • Discuss and offer information about: o (...) , current, or accurate in every respect. The guideline is not a substitute for clinical judgement, knowledge and expertise, or medical advice. Variation from the guideline, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. This guideline does not address all elements of standard practice and accepts that individual clinicians are responsible for: • Providing care within the context of locally available resources, expertise, and scope of practice • Supporting consumer rights and informed

2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

313. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke

Features Resources & Education For Authors & Reviewers National Center 7272 Greenville Ave. Dallas, TX 75231 Customer Service 1-800-AHA-USA-1 1-800-242-8721 ABOUT US OUR SITES TAKE ACTION ONLINE COMMUNITIES Follow (...) (“business as usual”), the analysis first estimated the proportion of CVD and stroke deaths in 1990 and 2013 resulting from raised systolic BP, tobacco smoking, high body mass index (BMI), and high fasting plasma glucose using a population-attributable fraction. The effect of serum cholesterol was not included because it was not listed among the 8 primary WHO 25 by 25 targets. The theoretical minimum risk exposure distribution used for the GDB 2010 study was applied except for systolic BP, for which

2016 American Heart Association

315. Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Prevailing Evidence, Burden, and Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

quantifying the economic impact of SHS exposure–induced cardiovascular consequences in children, the above data support the global adverse economic impact of SHS exposure in childhood. Economics of Tobacco Cessation Programs/Efforts The best way to reduce SHS exposure in children is to eliminate the source of the exposure. Thus, tobacco cessation programs for adults are an effective modality for decreasing the prevalence of SHS exposure. Resources spent on education, counseling, and health promotion (...) 3 to 11 years of age; and dashed line, adolescents 12 to 19 years of age. These declining trends in SHS exposure among children, however, are not consistent worldwide. A recent study of SHS exposure in rural areas of China identified that 68% of children were exposed to SHS at home and that exposure prevalence was amplified in households with low income or low educational status of the head of household. The prevalence of adult SHS exposure is ≈35% in Shanghai but was surprisingly higher

2016 American Heart Association

316. Recommended Dietary Pattern to Achieve Adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

observational cohort studies. However, the totality of the evidence continues to support population-wide recommendations to lower saturated fat intake. There is strong evidence that intake of polyunsaturated fat substituted for saturated fat decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduces cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. , Studies that apply substitution methods, for example, replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with other fatty acids or other foods, clearly demonstrate (...) (predominantly monounsaturated fat). Each of the diets tested in OmniHeart was similar to the original DASH diet: Each was reduced in SFAs, cholesterol, and sodium and rich in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. Although each diet lowered systolic BP, the diets rich in either protein or unsaturated fat further lowered BP, albeit slightly. The OmniHeart diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids is similar in many respects to Mediterranean-style diets. Reductions in LDL-C and triglycerides also

2016 American Heart Association

317. Enhancing Literacy in Cardiovascular Genetics: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

that educational tools and resources be made available to enable the clinician to know when to refer a patient for a genetic evaluation and to acquire sufficient knowledge to understand the findings from these evaluations to help their patients. Core competencies in genetics for health professionals were published in 2007 by the National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics to guide effective integration of genetics and genomics advances into practice and education throughout the professions (...) “Genetics Education and Training.” The latter includes the genetics education and training needs of point-of-care health professionals, the public health workforce, and patients and consumers, and it provides recommendations to address these needs. The present statement is restricted to recommendations for core competencies in specific areas of cardiovascular genetics that are most often encountered by a cardiovascular practitioner. Many of the resources described apply to practitioners based

2016 American Heart Association

318. AHA/ASA Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery

recognition of their clinical impact and ability to reduce the risk of downstream medical morbidity resulting from immobility, depression, loss of autonomy, and reduced functional independence. The provision of comprehensive rehabilitation programs with adequate resources, dose, and duration is an essential aspect of stroke care and should be a priority in these redesign efforts. ( Stroke. 2016;47:e98-e169. DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000098.) Introduction Between 2000 and 2010, the relative rate of stroke (...) , and many of them remain with residual functional deficits. Thus, the need for effective stroke rehabilitation is likely to remain an essential part of the continuum of stroke care for the foreseeable future. Despite the extensive resources devoted to stroke rehabilitation and aftercare, large-scale, rigorous, clinical trials in this field have been few and have been conducted only in the past decade or so. Thus, many gaps continue to be seen in the evidence base for stroke rehabilitation, for which

2016 American Heart Association

319. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guidelines for Comprehensive Medical Care of Patients with Obesity

Summary consisting of 123 clinical practice recommendations with 160 specific statements, organized in response to 9 broad questions cov- ering the spectrum of obesity management. The objectives of these CPGs are to provide an evidence-based resource addressing rational approaches to the care of patients with obesity and an educational resource for the development of a comprehensive care plan for clinical endocrinologists and other health care professionals who care for patients with obesity (...) . The presented recommendations may not be appropriate in all situations. Any decision by practitioners to apply these guidelines must be made in light of local resources and individual patient circumstances. From 1 Professor and Chair, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Director, UAB Diabetes Research Center, GRECC Investigator & Staff Physician, Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama; 2 Director, Metabolic Support, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division

2016 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

320. Clinical Practice Guidelines on Obesity

for weight loss 63 11 Treatment: Medical treatment of obesity and related morbidities 65 12 Treatment: Surgical and related options 71 13 Special focus: Children and adolescents 81 14 Special focus: Pregnancy 95 15 Clinical quality improvements 100 Annex A – Caloric and nutritional information for local select foods 101 Annex B – Tools and resources for information and communication technology (ICT) and weight loss 103 Annex C – Glossary for behavioural modifications and related therapy 106 References (...) cessation) • Current level of motivation for and barriers to weight loss • Current and past medical history including psychiatric history • Current and past drug history including over-the-counter and traditional medications • Lifestyle factors including details on dietary habits (e.g. binge eating), exercise, sleep hygiene, smoking and alcohol intake • Attitude of family members and co-workers to diet and physical activity • Financial resources or lack of, and its impact on food choices and lifestyle

2016 Ministry of Health, Singapore

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