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Chloral Hydrate

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1. Chloral hydrate as a sedating agent for neurodiagnostic procedures in children. (PubMed)

Chloral hydrate as a sedating agent for neurodiagnostic procedures in children. Paediatric neurodiagnostic investigations, including brain neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG), play an important role in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders. The use of an appropriate sedative agent is important to ensure the successful completion of the neurodiagnostic procedures, particularly in children, who are usually unable to remain still throughout the procedure.To assess (...) the effectiveness and adverse effects of chloral hydrate as a sedative agent for non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures in children.We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We searched MEDLINE (OVID SP) (1950 to July 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2017), Embase (1980 to July 2017), and the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (via CENTRAL) using a combination of keywords and MeSH headings.We included

2017 Cochrane

2. Comparison of rescue techniques for failed chloral hydrate sedation for magnetic resonance imaging scans--additional chloral hydrate vs intranasal dexmedetomidine. (PubMed)

Comparison of rescue techniques for failed chloral hydrate sedation for magnetic resonance imaging scans--additional chloral hydrate vs intranasal dexmedetomidine. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used sedative in children during noninvasive diagnostic procedures, is associated with side effects like prolonged sedation, paradoxical excitement, delirium, and unpleasant taste. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α-2 agonist, has better pharmacokinetic properties than chloral hydrate. We conducted (...) this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of intranasal dexmedetomidine with that of a second oral dose of chloral hydrate for rescue sedation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in infants.One hundred and fifty infants (age group: 1-6 months), who were not adequately sedated after initial oral dose of 50 mg · kg(-1) chloral hydrate, were randomly divided into three groups with the following protocol for each group. Group C: second oral dose chloral hydrate 25

2016 Paediatric anaesthesia

3. The cost-effectiveness of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures

The cost-effectiveness of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures The cost-effectiveness of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures The cost-effectiveness of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures Burnett H, Lambley R, West S, Ungar WJ, Mireskandari K Record Status This is a bibliographic (...) record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Burnett H, Lambley R, West S, Ungar WJ, Mireskandari K. The cost-effectiveness of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures. Toronto: Technology Assessment at SickKids (TASK). 2014 Authors' objectives The primary objective was to determine the incremental cost of paediatric eye examinations

2014 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

4. A randomized controlled trial of oral chloral hydrate vs intranasal dexmedetomidine plus buccal midazolam for auditory brainstem response testing in children. (PubMed)

A randomized controlled trial of oral chloral hydrate vs intranasal dexmedetomidine plus buccal midazolam for auditory brainstem response testing in children. Moderate to deep sedation is required for an auditory brainstem response test when high-intensity stimulation is used. Chloral hydrate is the most commonly used sedative, whereas intranasal dexmedetomidine is increasingly used in pediatric non-painful procedural sedations.The aim of this study was to compare the sedation success rate (...) after oral chloral hydrate at 50 mg kg-1 and intranasal dexmedetomidine at 3 μg kg-1 plus buccal midazolam at 0.1 mg kg-1 for an auditory brainstem response test.Children who required an auditory brainstem response test were recruited and randomly assigned to receive oral chloral hydrate at 50 mg kg-1 and intranasal placebo, or intranasal dexmedetomidine at 3 μg kg-1 with buccal midazolam 0.1 mg kg-1 . The primary outcome was the rate of successful sedation for auditory brainstem response

2018 Paediatric anaesthesia

5. Comparison of sedation by intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral chloral hydrate for pediatric ophthalmic examination. (PubMed)

Comparison of sedation by intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral chloral hydrate for pediatric ophthalmic examination. Pediatric ophthalmic examinations can be conducted under sedation either by chloral hydrate or by dexmedetomidine. The objective was to compare the success rates and quality of ophthalmic examination of children sedated by intranasal dexmedetomidine vs oral chloral hydrate.One hundred and forty-one children aged from 3 to 36 months (5-15 kg) scheduled to ophthalmic examinations (...) were randomly sedated by either intranasal dexmedetomidine (2 μg·kg-1 , n = 71) or oral chloral hydrate (80 mg·kg-1 , n = 70). The primary endpoint was successful sedation to complete the examinations including slit-lamp photography, tonometry, anterior segment analysis, and refractive error inspection. The secondary endpoints included quality of eye position, intraocular pressure, onset time, duration of examination, recovery time, discharge time, any side effects during examination, and within 48

2018 Paediatric anaesthesia

6. Comparison of sedative effects of oral midazolam/chloral hydrate and midazolam/promethazine in pediatric dentistry (Full text)

Comparison of sedative effects of oral midazolam/chloral hydrate and midazolam/promethazine in pediatric dentistry Background. The aim of this investigation was to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam/chloral hydrate and midazolam/promethazine combinations on fearful children needing dental treatment. Methods. This crossover double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 30 children aged 2‒6 years, who had at least two similar teeth needing pulp treatment. Standard vital signs were (...) recorded before and after premedication. Wilson sedation scale was used to judge the level of sedation. Cases were divided into two groups based on the sequence of medication received. This was to overcome the sequence effect. Group I received oral midazolam (0.4 mg/kg/chloral hydrate (50 mg/kg) at the first visit while they received midazolam (0.4 mg/kg)/promethazine (5 mg/kg) in their second visit. Group II received the premedication in the opposite sequence. The operator and child were blinded

2018 Journal of dental research, dental clinics, dental prospects PubMed

7. Effect of Chloral Hydrate Sedation on Intraocular Pressure in a Pediatric Population. (PubMed)

Effect of Chloral Hydrate Sedation on Intraocular Pressure in a Pediatric Population. To determine the effect of oral chloral hydrate (CH) sedation on intraocular pressure (IOP) in an outpatient pediatric population.Prospective, noncomparative case series.Children aged 1 month to 5 years undergoing CH sedation for ocular imaging/evaluation at a tertiary eye hospital were included. IOP was measured using an Icare tonometer prior to sedation (in some, not all), at 25 minutes after sedation

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

8. Differential modulation of the auditory steady state response and inhibitory gating by chloral hydrate anesthesia (Full text)

Differential modulation of the auditory steady state response and inhibitory gating by chloral hydrate anesthesia Auditory steady state response (ASSR) and inhibitory gating (IG) are electrophysiological examinations commonly used to evaluate the sensory and cognitive functions of the brain. In some clinic examinations and animal experiments, general anesthesia is necessary to conduct electrophysiological recordings. However, the effects of anesthesia on ASSR and IG remain unclear (...) . For this reason, we recorded local field potentials though electrodes implanted in different brain areas of rats: the auditory cortex (AC), hippocampus (HC), amygdala (AMY), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and compared the characteristics of ASSR and IG under anesthetized and conscious conditions. We found that ASSR signals were the strongest in the AC, and decreased sequentially in the HP, AMY, and PFC. Chloral hydrate anesthesia significantly reduced the power and phase-locking of ASSR in the AC, HP, and AMY

2018 Scientific reports PubMed

9. Chloral hydrate administered by a dedicated sedation service can be used safely and effectively for pediatric ophthalmic examination. (PubMed)

Chloral hydrate administered by a dedicated sedation service can be used safely and effectively for pediatric ophthalmic examination. To determine safety and efficacy of oral chloral hydrate sedation (CHS) for outpatient pediatric ophthalmic procedures.Prospective, interventional case series.Setting: King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital.Children aged 1 month to 5 years undergoing CHS for ocular imaging/evaluation.Details on chloral hydrate dose administered, sedation achieved, vital signs (...) , and adverse events were recorded.Primary outcome was percentage of patients with a sedation level ≥ 4 at 45 minutes post chloral hydrate administration. Secondary outcomes were time from sedation to discharge and adverse events, including changes in vital signs following chloral hydrate administration.A total of 324 children were recruited with a mean age of 2.2 (SD: 1.3) years and mean weight of 10.9 (SD: 3.3) kg. Adequate sedation was obtained with a mean chloral hydrate first dose of 77.4 (SD: 14.7) mg

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

10. Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for conscious sedation of infants in the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit. (Full text)

Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for conscious sedation of infants in the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate administration for the conscious sedation of infants in the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit (PCICU).We conducted a retrospective review of the charts of 165 infants with congenital heart disease who received chloral hydrate in our PCICU between January 2014 and December 2014. Chloral hydrate (...) no clinically significant changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, or peripheral oxygen saturation before, during, or after use of the chloral hydrate. There were no significant differences regarding sedative effects in the subgroups (cyanotic vs acyanotic group, with pulmonary infection vs without pulmonary infection group, and with pulmonary hypertension vs without pulmonary hypertension group).Our experience suggests that chloral hydrate is a safe and efficacious agent

2017 Medicine PubMed

11. A randomised controlled trial of oral chloral hydrate vs. intranasal dexmedetomidine before computerised tomography in children. (Full text)

A randomised controlled trial of oral chloral hydrate vs. intranasal dexmedetomidine before computerised tomography in children. Chloral hydrate is commonly used to sedate children for painless procedures. Children may recover more quickly after sedation with dexmedetomidine, which has a shorter half-life. We randomly allocated 196 children to chloral hydrate syrup 50 mg.kg-1 and intranasal saline spray, or placebo syrup and intranasal dexmedetomidine spray 3 μg.kg-1 , 30 min before (...) computerised tomography studies. More children resisted or cried after drinking chloral hydrate syrup than placebo syrup, 72 of 107 (67%) vs. 42 of 87 (48%), p = 0.009, but there was no difference after intranasal saline vs. dexmedetomidine, 49 of 107 (46%) vs. 40 of 87 (46%), p = 0.98. Sedation was satisfactory in 81 of 107 (76%) children after chloral hydrate and 64 of 87 (74%) children after dexmedetomidine, p = 0.74. Of the 173 children followed up for at least 4 h after discharge, 38 of 97 (39%) had

2017 Anaesthesia PubMed

12. Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Although chloral hydrate (CH) has been used as a sedative for decades, it is not widely accepted as a valid choice for ophthalmic examinations in uncooperative children. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the drug's safety and efficacy.We searched PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL, Google Scholar and Trip database to 1 (...) October 2015, using the keywords 'chloral hydrate', 'paediatric' and 'procedural sedation OR diagnostic sedation'. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed.A total of 6961 articles were screened and 104 were included in the review. Thirteen of these concerned paediatric ophthalmic examination, while 13 others were RCTs and were meta-analysed. CH was reported to have been administered in a total of 24 265 sedation episodes in children aged from <1 month to 18 years. The meta

2017 The British journal of ophthalmology

13. Chloral hydrate enteral infusion for sedation in ventilated children: the CHOSEN pilot study (Full text)

Chloral hydrate enteral infusion for sedation in ventilated children: the CHOSEN pilot study We aimed to test a novel method of delivery of chloral hydrate (CH) sedation in ventilated critically ill young children.Children < 12 years old, within 72 hours of admission, who were ventilated, receiving enteral tube-feeds, with intermittent CH ordered were enrolled after signed consent. Patients received a CH loading-dose of 10 mg/kg enterally, then a syringe-pump enteral infusion at 5 mg/kg/hour

2017 Critical Care PubMed

14. Comparison Between Oral and Enema of Chloral Hydrate

Comparison Between Oral and Enema of Chloral Hydrate Comparison Between Oral and Enema of Chloral Hydrate - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparison Between Oral and Enema of Chloral Hydrate (...) to Brief Summary: To compare the clinical sedative effect and safety using 10% chloral hydrate during ophthalmic examinations for oral vs enema group.The patients were randomly divided into two groups (oral group and enema group) using a computer random number generator with a 1:1 allocation (simple randomization, odd number for oral group and even number for enema group). Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Congenital Cataract Drug: oral chloral hydrate Drug: enema chloral hydrate

2017 Clinical Trials

15. Chloral Hydrate Toxicity

Chloral Hydrate Toxicity Chloral Hydrate Toxicity - First10EM Search Chloral Hydrate Toxicity by | Published - Updated Case #1 A 4 year old girl was prescribed chloral hydrate to be taken at home prior to a procedure by her dentist. After a successful procedure, she was monitored for 1 hour, at which point she was described as tired but rousable and she was discharged home. Three hours later her mother finds her unresponsive and calls 911. Paramedics arrive to find a child in respiratory arrest (...) into management, chloral hydrate is used pretty rarely these days, so many of us aren’t that familiar with its presentation. Chloral hydrate is metabolized into trichloroethanol, which binds to GABA receptors, resulting in CNS depression. (Gussow 2014) Ataxia is also possible. It can cause hypotension and myocardial depression, but the most important cardiovascular side effects are tachydysrhythmias because of catecholamine hypersensitivity. (Nordt 2014) Gastrointestinal complications are common, including

2017 First10EM

16. Chloral Hydrate, Chloral Hydrate - Promethazine and Chloral Hydrate -Hydroxyzine Efficacy in Electroencephalography Sedation. (PubMed)

Chloral Hydrate, Chloral Hydrate - Promethazine and Chloral Hydrate -Hydroxyzine Efficacy in Electroencephalography Sedation. To compare efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate (CH), chloral hydrate and promethazine (CH + P) and chloral hydrate and hydroxyzine (CH + H) in electroencephalography (EEG) sedation.In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, ninety 1-7 y-old uncooperative kids who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University, Yazd, Iran from (...) April through August 2012, were randomly assigned to receive 40 mg/kg of chloral hydrate or 40 mg/kg of chloral hydrate and 1 mg/kg of promethazine or 40 mg/kg of chloral hydrate and 2 mg/kg of hydroxyzine. The primary endpoint was efficacy in sufficient sedation (obtaining four Ramsay sedation score) and successful completion of EEG. Secondary endpoint was clinical adverse events.Thirty nine girls (43.3 %) and 51 boys (56.7 %) with mean age of 3.34 ± 1.47 y were assessed. Sufficient sedation

2014 Indian journal of pediatrics

17. Chloral hydrate or midazolam: which is better for sedating children for painless diagnostic imaging?

Chloral hydrate or midazolam: which is better for sedating children for painless diagnostic imaging? BestBets: Chloral hydrate or midazolam: which is better for sedating children for painless diagnostic imaging? Chloral hydrate or midazolam: which is better for sedating children for painless diagnostic imaging? Report By: Dr Michelle Hare - Consultant in Paediatrics Institution: Sheffield Children's Hospital, Western Bank, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK Date Submitted: 14th September 2012 Last (...) Modified: 14th September 2012 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [children who require sedation for painless diagnostic imaging] is [chloral hydrate better than midazolam] in achieving [effective and safe sedation]? Clinical Scenario A 2-year-old child is acutely admitted at night to a district general hospital following a prolonged focal seizure. A CT scan of the head without sedation fails as the child is too active and distressed, and as the on-call paediatric registrar, you

2012 BestBETS

18. An Observational Study of the Use of Chloral Hydrate for Ophthalmic Procedures in Children

An Observational Study of the Use of Chloral Hydrate for Ophthalmic Procedures in Children An Observational Study of the Use of Chloral Hydrate for Ophthalmic Procedures in Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) studies before adding more. An Observational Study of the Use of Chloral Hydrate for Ophthalmic Procedures in Children The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02985567 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : December 7, 2016 Last Update Posted : December 7, 2016 Sponsor: Johns Hopkins

2016 Clinical Trials

19. Chloral hydrate sedation for auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing in children: Safety and effectiveness. (PubMed)

Chloral hydrate sedation for auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing in children: Safety and effectiveness. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test is used to identify hearing loss and measure hearing thresholds of infants and children who cannot be tested using standard behavioral hearing testing methods. In order for the ABR to yield useful data, a child must be asleep throughout the duration of the test. In many centers, this is achieved through the use of a general anesthetic, with its (...) inherent risks and costs. Since 2004, ABRs have been routinely conducted at BC Children's Hospital in an ambulatory care setting under oral chloral hydrate sedation, with monitoring by a specialist nurse. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of nurse-led sedation with chloral hydrate for ABR testing at our tertiary pediatric center.Medical and audiology records were reviewed for children aged 6 months to 17 years who underwent ABR testing from 2004 to 2012. We

2016 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

20. Rescue Sedation With Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Pediatric Ophthalmic Examination After Chloral Hydrate Failure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. (PubMed)

Rescue Sedation With Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Pediatric Ophthalmic Examination After Chloral Hydrate Failure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. It is a challenge to rescue ophthalmology examinations performed in children in the sedation room after initial chloral hydrate failure. Intranasal dexmedetomidine can be used in rescue sedation in children undergoing computed tomography. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal dexmedetomidine use in children (...) undergoing ophthalmic examination after chloral hydrate failure.Sixty uncooperative pediatric patients with cataract (aged 5-36 months; weight, 7-15 kg) presented for follow-up ophthalmic examination. Patients who experienced chloral hydrate failure were randomized to 1 of 2 groups to receive intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 or 2 μg/kg for rescue sedation. Each group contained 30 patients. The primary outcome was the rate of a successful ophthalmic examination. Secondary outcomes included sedation onset time

2016 Clinical therapeutics

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