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Child Safety Seat

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1101. Ensuring the safety of school age passengers : Booster seats are necessary for optimal protection (PubMed)

Ensuring the safety of school age passengers : Booster seats are necessary for optimal protection 12003867 2002 05 31 2018 11 13 1756-1833 324 7346 2002 May 11 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Ensuring the safety of school age passengers. 1108-9 Mickalide Angela D AD DiCapua Karen K Paul Heather H eng Comment Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM BMJ. 2002 May 11;324(7346):1123 12003883 Accidents, Traffic statistics & numerical data Adolescent Child Child Care methods Child, Preschool (...) Humans Protective Devices Seat Belts Wounds and Injuries prevention & control 2002 5 11 10 0 2002 6 1 10 1 2002 5 11 10 0 ppublish 12003867 PMC1123076 BMJ. 2002 May 11;324(7346):1123 12003883 Pediatrics. 2001 Dec;108(6):E109 11731636 Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001 Dec;17(6):474-7 11753199

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2002 BMJ : British Medical Journal

1102. Child seating position and restraint use in three states (PubMed)

to be restrained and most likely to be improperly restrained. Restraint use was higher when the driver was belted, but about 30% of 3-6 year olds were unrestrained even with a belted driver.Efforts should continue to educate parents about the importance of correct restraint use and rear seating for children, particularly once children move from child safety seats into adult belts. Efforts also should be made to enforce the seat belt laws that exist in every state. (...) Child seating position and restraint use in three states Because of risks from deploying airbags to children in front seats, extensive publicity has been aimed at getting them restrained and in rear seats. The objective of this study was to assess restraint use and seating positions among children in vehicles with and without airbags.Surveys were conducted in cities in Michigan, North Carolina, and Texas 1998. Restraint use and seating position were noted for all children, as well

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2000 Injury Prevention

1103. NHTSA announces "ease of use" child safety seat ratings. (PubMed)

NHTSA announces "ease of use" child safety seat ratings. 14603546 2003 11 21 2008 11 20 0033-3549 118 6 2003 Nov-Dec Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) Public Health Rep NHTSA announces "ease of use" child safety seat ratings. 562-3 eng News United States Public Health Rep 9716844 0033-3549 AIM IM Automobiles standards Child, Preschool Humans Infant Infant Equipment classification standards Infant, Newborn Product Labeling standards Safety standards United States United States

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2003 Public Health Reports

1104. Factors associated with seatbelt, helmet, and child safety seat use in a spanish high-risk injury area. (PubMed)

Factors associated with seatbelt, helmet, and child safety seat use in a spanish high-risk injury area. Focus of motor vehicle crashes death prevention is actually placed on preinjury period. The purpose of this study was to estimate predictors of using seatbelts, helmet and children safety seats.Data from a cross-sectional survey was analyzed. The behaviors were explored as dichotomous variables. Multivariate logistic regression models are proposed to predict them.The educational level

2006 Journal of Trauma

1105. How readable are child safety seat installation instructions? (PubMed)

How readable are child safety seat installation instructions? To measure the required reading level of a sample of child safety seat (CSS) installation instructions and to compare readability levels among different prices of CSSs to determine whether the lower cost seats to which low-income parents have greater access are written to a lower level of education.A CD-ROM containing CSS installation instructions was obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Pricing (...) . No significant associations were found to exist between readability and seat prices; this was observed whether the data were treated as continuous or categorical.CSS instruction manuals are written at a reading level that exceeds the reading skills of most American consumers. These instruction sets should be rewritten at a lower reading level to encourage the proper installation of CSSs.

2003 Pediatrics

1106. Development of a child safety seat Hassles Scale in a largely low-income Latino population. (PubMed)

Development of a child safety seat Hassles Scale in a largely low-income Latino population. High rates of use of child safety seats have been achieved. A remaining challenge in child passenger safety is to reach the Healthy People 2010 objective of child safety seat use to 100%. Several factors have been reported to influence child safety seat use. A child safety seat Hassles Scale was developed to explore hassles that are associated with child safety seat nonuse.Focus groups with violators (...) of the California Child Passenger Safety Law provided data to construct the 29-item Hassles Scale. The scale was used in an interview that was conducted with 132 parents who were cited for violation of the law and whose children were 12 to 47 months of age and weighed 20 to 40 pounds. Interviews were conducted 3 months after parents paid the fine for the citation. Each hassle was rated 0 to 3 on frequency and intensity. Parent report of child safety seat use was obtained. Factor analysis was used to construct

2006 Pediatrics

1107. Tipping the scales: obese children and child safety seats. (PubMed)

Tipping the scales: obese children and child safety seats. To shed light on the extent to which childhood obesity affects the types of appropriate child safety seats for young children, by providing an estimate of the number of US children whose weight renders them unable to use safely the majority of child safety seat types currently available.The types of appropriate child safety seats were assessed by using National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2005 Child Safety Seat Ease of Use (...) Ratings. Estimates of the numbers of children weighing above the maximal weight for those child safety seats were calculated by using the tabulations of growth curves based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2000 data that were assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census for the year 2000.A total of 283,305 children 1 to 6 years of age would have a difficult (if not impossible) time finding a safe child safety seat because of their age and weight

2006 Pediatrics

1108. Effectiveness of child safety seats vs safety belts for children aged 2 to 3 years. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of child safety seats vs safety belts for children aged 2 to 3 years. To compare the effectiveness of child safety seats and lap-shoulder belts in rear passenger vehicle seats for 2- to 3-year-old crash survivors.Cohort study.The January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2004, US data on a nationally representative sample of crashes that resulted in at least 1 vehicle being towed away.Toddlers who were sitting in rear vehicle seats and using lap-shoulder belts or child seats when involved (...) in highway crashes.Child safety seat vs safety belt.Presence of any injury after a crash.The adjusted odds of injury were 81.8% lower (95% confidence interval, 58.3%-92.1% lower) for toddlers in child seats than belted toddlers.Child safety seats seem to be more effective rear seat restraints than lap-shoulder safety belts for children aged 2 to 3 years. Laws requiring that children younger than 4 years travel in child safety seats have a sound basis and should remain in force.

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2007 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

1109. The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats (PubMed)

The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats This study finds that the break-even point for child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements is dollars 121 a year per child seat in use, annual misuse reduction program cost is dollars 6, and Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) cost dollars 13 annually per seat in use (in 2004 dollars). To estimate societal injury cost savings (...) we compared tow-away crash outcomes for children ages 0-4, traveling in child seats in the back of passenger vehicles in 1984-1986 vs. 1999-2005. Both injury frequency and severity were compared and entered into the calculation of mean injury costs. To analyze the economic benefits of child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements for children sitting in rear seats of passenger vehicles, we compared outcomes of tow-away crashes for children ages 0-4 traveling

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2007 Annual Proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

1110. Not all child safety seats are created equal: the potential dangers of shield booster seats. (PubMed)

Not all child safety seats are created equal: the potential dangers of shield booster seats. Children are safest when traveling in a child safety seat appropriate for their age and size. Previous research indicates that children are often transitioned to shield booster seats (SBSs) before reaching the 40-lb weight limit for their forward-facing child safety seat (FFCSS). These children could have otherwise been restrained in a FFCSS as is currently recommended by the American Academy (...) of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The objective of this study was to compare the injury patterns among children who were restrained in SBSs and FFCSSs. Children in FFCSSs were chosen as a comparison group because SBS are predominantly used to restrain children who are <40 lb and could have been restrained in an FFCSS, and SBSs are no longer certified for use in children who are >40 lb.This is a cohort study involving restrained crash victims who were admitted to a level 1

2004 Pediatrics

1111. Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes. To provide an estimate of benefit, if any, of child restraint systems over seat belts alone for children aged from 2 through 6 years.Cohort study.A sample of children in US passenger vehicle crashes was obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration by combining cases involving a fatality from the US Department of Transportation Fatality Analysis (...) Reporting System with a probability sample of cases without a fatality from the National Automotive Sampling System.Children in tow-away [corrected] crashes occurring between 1998 and 2003.Use of child restraint systems (rear-facing and forward-facing car seats, and shield and belt-positioning booster seats) vs seat belts. Potentially confounding variables included seating position, vehicle type, model year, driver and passenger ages, and driver survival status.Death of child passengers from injuries

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2006 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

1112. Child passenger safety: potential impact of the Washington State booster seat law on childcare centers (PubMed)

Child passenger safety: potential impact of the Washington State booster seat law on childcare centers To examine factors associated with compliance and with perceived readiness for the new Washington State booster seat law, and to identify perceived barriers to compliance among licensed childcare centers.Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 550 licensed childcare centers in Washington State, approximately nine months before the law was to go into effect.Only 18% of centers reported being (...) compliant with the law at the time of the survey. Factors associated with current compliance included awareness and knowledge of the law, and being comfortable asking staff and parents to use booster seats. A lack of center-owned booster seats was associated with a lower likelihood of compliance. Only 43% of centers had already started preparing for the law, and only 48% believed they would definitely be ready in time.This study suggests that Washington State childcare centers need support

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2002 Injury Prevention

1113. Child safety seat Co-op in New Hampshire. (PubMed)

Child safety seat Co-op in New Hampshire. 3752335 1986 10 20 2008 11 20 0090-0036 76 10 1986 Oct American journal of public health Am J Public Health Child safety seat Co-op in New Hampshire. 1251 Chamberlin A N AN eng Letter United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 AIM IM Accident Prevention Automobiles Child, Preschool Humans Infant Infant, Newborn New Hampshire Protective Devices 1986 10 1 1986 10 1 0 1 1986 10 1 0 0 ppublish 3752335 PMC1646657

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1986 American Journal of Public Health

1114. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue. (PubMed)

High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue. To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland.Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat (...) restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust.The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers.Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts

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1997 Injury Prevention

1115. Child safety seat knowledge among parents utilizing emergency services in a level I trauma center in Southern California. (PubMed)

Child safety seat knowledge among parents utilizing emergency services in a level I trauma center in Southern California. To determine the level of child safety seat (CSS) and airbag safety knowledge in parents who utilize emergency care services for their children and to determine factors that influence knowledge of safe transportation of children.A prospective survey study was conducted in a 42 000-visit-per-year Level I trauma center and emergency department (ED) in Southern California from (...) May through October 2000. Subjects were parents of ED-registered children (< or =6 years). Research assistants administered the survey in the subject's native language. Parent knowledge of age-appropriate restraint use and airbag safety was collected.Six hundred fifty-five subjects were enrolled. Most parents (97%) reported a regular source of pediatric medical care, and 57% had a previous ED visit. Eighty-six percent reported owning a CSS or booster seat. Eighty-one percent were aware

2002 Pediatrics

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