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Child Safety Seat

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1101. The impact of verbal prompts on child safety-belt use in shopping carts. (PubMed)

The impact of verbal prompts on child safety-belt use in shopping carts. Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use increased following implementation of the verbal prompt. This study extends (...) the literature on the efficacy of verbal prompting in the promotion of safety-belt use.

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2004 Journal of applied behavior analysis

1102. Using a computer kiosk to promote child safety: results of a randomized, controlled trial in an urban pediatric emergency department. (PubMed)

Using a computer kiosk to promote child safety: results of a randomized, controlled trial in an urban pediatric emergency department. The effects of a computer kiosk intervention on parents' child safety seat, smoke alarm, and poison storage knowledge and behaviors were evaluated in a pediatric emergency department serving predominantly low-income, urban families. The effects of parent anxiety and the reason for the child's emergency department visit also were examined.A randomized, controlled (...) was more likely to report correct child safety seat use. Neither parent anxiety nor the reason for the emergency department visit was related to the safety behaviors. Virtually all (93%) intervention parents read at least some of the report; 57% read it all, and 68% discussed it with others. Lower-income intervention parents who read all of the report and discussed it with others were more likely than control parents to practice safe poison storage. Higher-income intervention parents were more likely

2007 Pediatrics

1103. Critical gaps in child passenger safety practices, surveillance, and legislation: Georgia, 2001. (PubMed)

Critical gaps in child passenger safety practices, surveillance, and legislation: Georgia, 2001. Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death among US children 1 year of age and older. Although age-appropriate child passenger restraint use and back seating position are effective injury prevention strategies, many children 12 years of age and younger ride inappropriately restrained and seated in the front seat. In Georgia and in most states, surveillance of child passenger restraint (...) use is less than optimal. Although child safety seat legislation is 1 of the most effective mechanisms for increasing correct restraint use and back seating position, Georgia's child occupant restraint law, like the laws in most states, falls short of practices recommended by government and child advocacy safety groups. The objective of this study was to document child passenger restraint use and seating position among children aged 0 to 12 years in Georgia and to use these study results

2005 Pediatrics

1104. Violators of a child passenger safety law. (PubMed)

Violators of a child passenger safety law. Nonuse of child car safety seats (CSSs) remains significant; in 2000, 47% of occupant fatalities among children <5 years of age involved unrestrained children. Nonusers and part-time users of CSSs represent small proportions of the US population that have not responded to intervention efforts. Our study examined the factors contributing to nonuse or part-time use of CSSs and the effects of exposure to a class for violators of the California Child (...) Passenger Safety (CPS) law.Focus groups (in English and Spanish) were conducted with individuals cited for violation of the law (N = 24). A thematic analysis of notes made by an observer, supplemented by audiotapes of the sessions, was conducted. In addition, a study of the effects of exposure to a violator class on knowledge and correct CSS use was conducted among violators. Certified CPS technicians conducted the classes and interviews. Subjects were parents cited as the driver with a child of 20

2004 Pediatrics

1105. Child passenger safety for inner‐city Latinos: new approaches from the community (PubMed)

Child passenger safety for inner‐city Latinos: new approaches from the community Motor vehicle crashes injuries, the leading cause of death for Latino children in the United States, can be reduced by the correct use of child safety seats. This study evaluated the ability of a community health worker education program to improve proper child safety seat usage in urban low income Latino families.At a series of check events, proper child safety seat usage in families who had received (...) child safety seats were checked. Families exposed to the intervention were more likely to have their child's seat within the manufacturer's recommended weight/height range, their child facing the correct direction, the harness straps positioned properly, to have not been in a crash, the harness straps snug, the harness retainer clip used correctly, the seat belt routed correctly, and the seat belt locked.Exposure to an educational intervention provided by community health workers trained as child

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2006 Injury Prevention

1106. Child and family safety device affordability by country income level: an 18 country comparison (PubMed)

Child and family safety device affordability by country income level: an 18 country comparison To compare availability, urban price, and affordability of child/family safety devices between 18 economically diverse countries.Descriptive: urban price surveys by local safety organisations or shoppers.Retail stores and internet vendors.Prices expressed in US dollars, and affordability measured by hours of factory work needed to buy a child safety seat, a belt-positioning booster seat, a child (...) bicycle helmet, and a smoke alarm.Prices of child and family safety devices varied widely between countries but the variation for child safety seats and bicycle helmets did not relate strongly to country income. Safety devices were expensive, often prohibitively so, in lower income countries. Far more hours of factory work were required to earn a child safety device in lower income than middle income, and middle income than higher income, countries. A bicycle helmet, for example, cost 10 hours

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2004 Injury Prevention

1107. Racial differences in child safety restraint use in Tennessee (PubMed)

Racial differences in child safety restraint use in Tennessee To evaluate the appropriate use of child safety restraints (CSR) in black and white children.Cross sectional, observational study of drivers of children age 0-10 years involving an on-site vehicle and CSR inspection and brief driver interview.Data were obtained on 244 white and 204 black children; results were stratified by race due to effect modification of race on driver restraint use and CSR use. Twenty four percent of black (...) and 13% of white child passengers aged 4-10 years were completely unrestrained (p=0.003). Of the 168 black and 220 white child passengers aged 0-10 years who were restrained, 64% of black and 58% of white children had inappropriate restraint use. Appropriate CSR use was significantly lower in 4-8 year old passengers compared with appropriately restrained children aged <4 years and 9-10 years (p<0.0001 for both black and white child passengers).Black child passengers and all child passengers aged 4-8

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2005 Injury Prevention

1108. Evaluation of two comprehensive infant car seat loaner programs with 1-year follow-up. (PubMed)

Evaluation of two comprehensive infant car seat loaner programs with 1-year follow-up. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics instituted the "First Ride-Safe Ride" campaign, many child passenger safety programs have reported that they have achieved less than optimal results. The present study compared two comprehensive programs for encouraging new parents to use child restraint devices consistently and correctly and compared the present results with the results of a previous program (...) that was conducted at the same hospital. A total of 129 mother-newborn pairs were randomly assigned to two groups. All of the participants had their babies at a hospital that had an established car seat loaner program with strong support from the medical staff, the nursing staff, and the hospital administration; the hospital was in a state that had a law mandating child restraint seat usage. One group was exposed to the regular hospital program and the other group had, in addition: a mock-up demonstration

1985 Pediatrics

1109. Barriers to booster seat use and strategies to increase their use. (PubMed)

Barriers to booster seat use and strategies to increase their use. Children who have outgrown child safety seats and been placed in adult seat belts are at increased risk for injury. Pediatricians and other advocates have been called on to encourage booster seat use in these children. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to booster seat use and strategies to increase their use.A qualitative study consisting of focus groups and follow-up in-depth discussions were conducted among (...) parents and/or children to elicit barriers and strategies to appropriate/best practice child restraint system use. Phase I focus groups (parents and children) identified barriers to booster seat use along with children's self-reported likes and dislikes about booster seats. Phase II focus groups (parents only) identified additional barriers to booster seat use and suggestions for strategies to increase the use of booster seats. In-depth telephone discussions (parents only) were conducted after each

2002 Pediatrics

1110. Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece (PubMed)

Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0-11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children's hospitals in Athens; emergency cases (...) through the regular use of a proper child restraint. The data also indicate that, in the absence of a child restraint system, a rear seating position conveys substantial protection and could explain the low mortality of children as car passengers in Greece, a country which is characterised by a high overall road traffic mortality as well as a high childhood accident mortality.

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1998 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1111. Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes (PubMed)

& jurisprudence Child Child, Preschool Humans Infant Risk Factors Safety Seat Belts Wounds and Injuries mortality 1999 5 14 1999 5 14 0 1 1999 5 14 0 0 ppublish 10323579 PMC1730452 (...) Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes 10323579 1999 07 13 2008 11 20 1353-8047 5 1 1999 Mar Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention Inj. Prev. Seating positions and children's risk of dying in motor vehicle crashes. 78 Shield J J eng Comment Letter England Inj Prev 9510056 1353-8047 IM Inj Prev. 1998 Sep;4(3):181-7 9788087 Accidents, Traffic Australia epidemiology Automobile Driving legislation

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1999 Injury Prevention

1112. Kids in the back seat: Brazil's strides in enforcing its new traffic law (PubMed)

Brazil Child Child, Preschool Health Promotion Humans Infant Safety Seat Belts 1999 5 14 1999 5 14 0 1 1999 5 14 0 0 ppublish 10323578 PMC1730470 (...) Kids in the back seat: Brazil's strides in enforcing its new traffic law 10323578 1999 07 13 2008 11 20 1353-8047 5 1 1999 Mar Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention Inj. Prev. Kids in the back seat: Brazil's strides in enforcing its new traffic law. 77 Blank D D eng Comment Letter England Inj Prev 9510056 1353-8047 IM Inj Prev. 1998 Sep;4(3):181-7 9788087 Accidents, Traffic Air Bags Automobile Driving legislation & jurisprudence

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1999 Injury Prevention

1113. Misuse of booster seats (PubMed)

Misuse of booster seats To describe several aspects of booster seat use and misuse in a sample of children attending child safety seat clinics.Booster seat practices were assessed at 76 child safety seat clinics held between April 1997 and January 1999 in Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey. At each assessment, a child passenger safety team evaluated the booster seat and identified modes of misuse.Altogether 227 booster seats were observed. Sixty eight per cent (68%) of shield boosters and 20 (...) of children in this study were less than 40 lb. In this weight range, a convertible child restraint system provides better protection than a booster seat. Booster seat use should only be initiated once the child has completely outgrown their convertible child restraint system.

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2000 Injury Prevention

1114. Use of automobile seat restraints by children in two Canadian cities. (PubMed)

Use of automobile seat restraints by children in two Canadian cities. A telephone survey was conducted in Montreal and Calgary to determine the extent to which parents use safety restraints for their children in cars, the types of restraints used and the factors associated with such use. Of the combined sample 39% reported that their child regularly used a restraint, and 47% of the children in Montreal and 55% of those in Calgary wore an age-appropriate safety device. Birth order (...) and the child's and the respondent's ages were significantly related to the use of restraints. However, the respondent's use of seatbelts was the factor most likely to affect the rate of use of restraints for children. Although a large proportion of the parents with younger children owned a carseat, one in four did not use it regularly. Parents who did not use carseats believed they were useless or dangerous; many preferred to hold the child in their laps or arms. The seatbelt law in Quebec and the existence

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1982 Canadian Medical Association Journal

1115. A risky treat: exploring parental perceptions of the barriers to seating their children in the rear seats of passenger vehicles (PubMed)

A risky treat: exploring parental perceptions of the barriers to seating their children in the rear seats of passenger vehicles Sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle rather than in the front seat reduces children's risk of injury or death by > or =35% in the event of a crash. As road trauma is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality in highly motorised nations, even in countries where restraint use is high, encouraging parents to place children in the rear seats of vehicles offers (...) a low-cost avenue to improving children's overall health. However, little is known about the factors that affect parents' decisions about seating positions.To explore parental perceptions of barriers to placing their children in the rear seat of passenger vehicles whenever possible.Focus group discussions were held with urban parent-drivers to elicit their concerns about children's car safety and barriers to rear-seat use.Most parents had a rule that children should sit in the rear seat. Parents

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2007 Injury Prevention

1116. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes (PubMed)

0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws.A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based (...) Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities.The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable.In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were

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2002 Injury Prevention

1117. Injury reduction by mandatory child passenger safety laws. (PubMed)

Injury reduction by mandatory child passenger safety laws. 3966615 1985 02 20 2018 11 13 0090-0036 75 2 1985 Feb American journal of public health Am J Public Health Injury reduction by mandatory child passenger safety laws. 128-9 Agran P F PF Wehrle P F PF eng Editorial United States Am J Public Health 1254074 0090-0036 AIM IM Accidents, Traffic prevention & control Child, Preschool Humans Infant Legislation as Topic Seat Belts United States Wounds and Injuries prevention & control 1985 2 1

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1985 American Journal of Public Health

1118. Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection (PubMed)

Car safety seats for children: rear facing for best protection To compare the injury risk between rear-facing (RFCS) and forward-facing (FFCS) car seats for children less than 2 years of age in the USA.Data were extracted from a US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration vehicle crash database for the years 1988-2003. Children 0-23 months of age restrained in an RFCS or FFCS when riding in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, or light trucks were included in the study. Logistic (...) . Use of an RFCS, in accordance with restraint recommendations for child size and weight, is an excellent choice for optimum protection up to a child's second birthday.

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2007 Injury Prevention

1119. Car seat safety for premature and LBW infants (PubMed)

Car seat safety for premature and LBW infants 16243892 2005 11 28 2008 11 20 1468-2044 90 11 2005 Nov Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Car seat safety for premature and LBW infants. 1205-6 Narasimhan R R Moorcraft J J Latif A H A AH eng Letter England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 AIM IM Humans Infant Equipment standards Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Newborn Infant, Premature Patient Discharge Safety Transportation of Patients standards 2005 10 26 9 0 2005 12 13 9 0 2005

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2005 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1120. Too small for a seatbelt: predictors of booster seat use by child passengers. (PubMed)

logistic regression, adjusted for clustering by car and site.We observed 2880 children traveling in cars, 1539 of whom were eligible for booster seat use. Eighty-eight percent of drivers agreed to respond to our survey. Only 16.5% of children for whom a booster seat was recommended were properly restrained, compared with 80% of younger children for whom a child safety seat was recommended and 55% of children for whom an adult seatbelt was recommended. Relative to a 4-year-old booster-eligible child (...) , a 6-year-old was only half as likely to use a booster seat (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.71) and an 8-year-old almost never used a booster seat (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.19). Booster use was more common when the driver wore a seatbelt (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8-5.4). Parents whose children were using booster seat cited "safety" (61%) and "child comfort and visibility" (12%) as their primary concerns. When a child was not using a booster seat, parents most often believed

2003 Pediatrics

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