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Chikungunya

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1761. Resurgence of chikungunya. (Abstract)

Resurgence of chikungunya. Chikungunya, an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has recently increased dramatically in incidence and geographic extent. Large outbreaks have affected islands of the Indian Ocean, India and other parts of South and Southeast Asia, Africa and most recently Italy. International travellers have disseminated new strains of the virus, some into regions from which chikungunya has hitherto been absent. In parallel, over the past 30 years international trade

2008 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1762. A serological study of Chikungunya virus transmission in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: evidence for the first outbreak since 1982. (Abstract)

A serological study of Chikungunya virus transmission in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: evidence for the first outbreak since 1982. A study of epidemic transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIK) was initiated in April 1999 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Three hundred seventeen volunteers from three kelurahans (sub-districts) were recruited. Anti-CHIK IgG antibodies were detected in 68% to 74% of cases and 28% to 32% of controls. In the kelurahan with no reported CHIK illness, 29% of cases and 28% of controls

2004 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

1763. Drought-associated chikungunya emergence along coastal East Africa. (Abstract)

Drought-associated chikungunya emergence along coastal East Africa. Epidemics of chikungunya fever, an Aedes spp.-borne viral disease, affected hundreds of thousands of people in western Indian Ocean islands and India during 2005-2006. The initial outbreaks occurred in coastal Kenya (Lamu, then Mombasa) in 2004. We investigated eco-climatic conditions associated with chikungunya fever emergence along coastal Kenya using epidemiologic investigations and satellite data. Unusually dry, warm (...) conditions preceded the outbreaks, including the driest since 1998 for some of the coastal regions. Infrequent replenishment of domestic water stores and elevated temperatures may have facilitated Chikungunya virus transmission. These results suggest that drought-affected populations may be at heightened risk for chikungunya fever, and underscore the need for safe water storage during drought relief operations.

2007 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1764. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus infection on Grande Comore Island, union of the Comoros, 2005. (Abstract)

Seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus infection on Grande Comore Island, union of the Comoros, 2005. An outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness associated with high fever combined with prolonged and severe arthralgias occurred on Grande Comore Island from January through May 2005; 5,202 cases were reported. A seroprevalence study was conducted to define the extent of transmission on the island. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 481

2007 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1765. Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: A review. (Abstract)

Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: A review. An outbreak of chikungunya virus is currently ongoing in many countries in Indian Ocean since January 2005. The current outbreak appears to be the most severe and one of the biggest outbreaks caused by this virus. India, where this virus was last reported in 1973, is also amongst affected countries. Chikungunya virus has affected millions of the people in Africa and Southeast Asia, since it was first reported (...) in 1952 in Tanzania. Even then, natural history of this disease is not fully understood. The intra-outbreak studies, point towards recent changes in the viral genome facilitating the rapid spread and enhanced pathogenecity. The available published scientific literature on chikungunya virus was searched to understand the natural history of this disease, reasons for the current outbreak and the causes behind re-emergence of the virus in India. The paucity of the scientific information on various

2006 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

1766. Tracking the re-emergence of epidemic chikungunya virus in Indonesia. (Abstract)

Tracking the re-emergence of epidemic chikungunya virus in Indonesia. Twenty-four distinct outbreaks of probable chikungunya (CHIK) etiology were identified throughout Indonesia from September 2001 to March 2003, after a near 20-year hiatus of epidemic CHIK activity in the country. Thirteen outbreak reports were based on clinical observations alone, and 11 confirmed by serological/virological methods. Detailed epidemiological profiles of two investigated outbreaks in Bogor and Bekasi

2005 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1767. Optic neuritis associated with chikungunya virus infection in South India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optic neuritis associated with chikungunya virus infection in South India. To define optic neuritis associated with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in a clinical setting.This observational case series includes 14 patients with clinical features of CHIKV infection and associated optic neuritis. Complete ophthalmic evaluations were performed, as well as other examinations, including Mantoux test, Widal test, blood profile, color vision, neuroimaging, visual fields, visual evoked potentials

2007 Archives of Ophthalmology

1768. Differential infectivities of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya virus isolates in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (Abstract)

Differential infectivities of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya virus isolates in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are closely related alphaviruses that cause human disease in Africa and Asia. Like most alphaviruses, CHIKV is vectored by culicine mosquitoes. ONNV is considered unusual as it primarily infects anopheline mosquitoes; however, there are relatively few experimental data to support this. In this study, three strains

2005 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1769. Effect of temperature stress on immature stages and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus. (Abstract)

Effect of temperature stress on immature stages and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus. A high temperature stress of 44.5 degrees C for 10 minutes on the larval stages was found to affect the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus. At this temperature, the mortality of the mosquito larvae was found to be approximately 95%, whereas a temperature greater than 45 degrees C for 10 minutes was found to be lethal. A temperature tolerant (TT

2004 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1770. Determinants of vector specificity of o'nyong nyong and chikungunya viruses in Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. (Abstract)

Determinants of vector specificity of o'nyong nyong and chikungunya viruses in Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. The alphaviruses o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) provide a unique system to study the viral genes involved in vector specificity. ONNV infects both anopheline and culicine mosquitoes, whereas CHIKV infects only culicine mosquitoes. In this study, chimeric viruses were constructed that contained genes from both ONNV and CHIKV. These chimeras and previously

2006 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1771. Chikungunya: A risk for Mediterranean countries? (Abstract)

Chikungunya: A risk for Mediterranean countries? The Italian outbreak of the 2007 summer and the active spreading of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in southern Europe, raise the possibility of local transmission of chikungunya (CHIK) in Mediterranean countries. Established in at least 12 countries in southern Europe since the end of the 1970s and in southern France since 2004, Ae. albopictus, is invading the French Mediterranean coast from East to West. To determine the possibility

2007 Acta Tropica

1772. Rapid detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus by a one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction real-time assay. (Abstract)

Rapid detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus by a one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction real-time assay. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus. A large outbreak of CHIKV disease occurred in 2005 in the Indian Ocean Islands. Many cases have been imported in European countries. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is mandatory for control measures during an outbreak. We report a novel, real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain

2007 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1773. A major epidemic of chikungunya virus infection on Reunion Island, France, 2005-2006. (Abstract)

A major epidemic of chikungunya virus infection on Reunion Island, France, 2005-2006. In January 2005, an epidemic of chikungunya fever broke out in the Comoro Islands and lasted until May 2005. In April, cases were also reported in Mayotte and Mauritius. On Réunion Island, the first cases were reported at the end of April. Surveillance of this epidemic required an adaptive system, which at first was based on active and retrospective case detection around the cases reported, then relied (...) on a sentinel network when the incidence increased. Emerging and severe forms of infection were investigated. Death certificates were monitored. By April 2006, the surveillance estimate was 244,000 cases of chikungunya virus infection, including 123 severe cases and 41 of maternoneonatal transmission, with an overall attack rate of 35%. Chikungunya infection was mentioned on 203 death certificates and significant mortality was observed. This epidemic highlighted the need for a mutual strategy of providing

2007 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

1774. Mother-to-child transmission of Chikungunya virus infection. (Abstract)

Mother-to-child transmission of Chikungunya virus infection. In 2005-2006 Reunion Island experienced a massive outbreak of chikungunya, a mosquito-borne alphavirus infection. During this epidemic, early neonatal cases were observed with a highly probable mother-to-child transmission.A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in 5 neonatal medicine departments. Chikungunya virus infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or specific serology in mothers (...) lesions or intraparenchymal hemorrhages or both were found. Echocardiography (16) showed myocardial hypertrophy (5), ventricular dysfunction (2), pericarditis (2), and coronary artery dilatation (6). One neonate died of necrotizing enterocolitis.The chikungunya epidemic that occurred on La Reunion Island revealed for the first time the possibility of mother-to-child transmission in the perinatal period with a high rate of morbidity.

2007 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

1775. Ocular involvement associated with an epidemic outbreak of chikungunya virus infection. (Abstract)

Ocular involvement associated with an epidemic outbreak of chikungunya virus infection. To study the range of ocular symptoms in a cohort of patients with chikungunya infection.Retrospective, observational case series.Patients attending a tertiary eye care hospital in South India were included in the study. We included adult patients with serologically confirmed chikungunya virus infection who received clinical care at the Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, South India. They were assessed (...) for demographic characteristics, ocular symptoms, laboratory parameters, and chikungunya virus infection severity. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination that included visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, and indirect funduscopic examination. Visual outcome at the end of three months was the main outcome measure.The charts of 37 patients were analyzed based on the clinical picture and the serologic results. Forty patients were included as controls and tested negative. There were 21 males

2007 American Journal of Ophthalmology

1776. Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients. Chikungunya is a reemerging disease. In 2005-2006, a severe outbreak occurred on Reunion Island in the southwestern part of the Indian Ocean. Other islands in this area were affected during the same period.Adult patients with acute chikungunya (defined as onset of fever and/or polyarthralgia in the 5 days preceding consultation) and laboratory-confirmed chikungunya who were referred (...) to Groupe Hospitalier Sud Reunion during the period from March 2005 through April 2006 were included in this retrospective study. Their clinical and laboratory features are reported.Laboratory-confirmed acute chikungunya was documented in 157 patients. The mean age of patients was 57.9 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.24 : 1. Sixty percent of patients had at least 1 comorbidity. Ninety-seven patients (61.8%) were hospitalized, and 60 (38.2%) were treated as outpatients. Five

2007 Clinical Infectious Diseases

1777. Chikungunya fever in travelers: clinical presentation and course. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chikungunya fever in travelers: clinical presentation and course. An outbreak of chikungunya virus infection emerged in the southwest Indian Ocean islands in 2005, spread out to India, and resulted in an ongoing outbreak that has involved >1.5 million patients, including travelers who have visited these areas.Our study investigated 69 travelers who developed signs and symptoms compatible with chikungunya fever after returning home from countries involved in the epidemic. Twenty cases (...) of illness, and the virus was successfully isolated from blood samples obtained from 2 of these patients. Chikungunya virus-specific immunoglobulin M and/or immunoglobulin G antibodies were detected in all patients. However, initial testing of serum samples yielded negative results for 3 of 5 patients during the first week.Chikungunya fever must be considered in travelers who develop fever and arthritis after traveling to areas affected by an ongoing epidemic. Related arthritis mainly affects smaller

2007 Clinical Infectious Diseases

1778. Novel chikungunya virus variant in travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Novel chikungunya virus variant in travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Indian Ocean islands in 2005 and is causing an ongoing outbreak that involves >260,000 patients, including travelers returning home from these islands. We investigated cases in 4 patients returning from Mayotte and Reunion Islands with CHIKV infection and a nurse infected in metropolitan France after direct contact with the blood of a traveler. Four patients had tenosynovitis

2006 Emerging Infectious Diseases

1779. Chikungunya infection in travelers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chikungunya infection in travelers. The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.

2006 Emerging Infectious Diseases

1780. Chikungunya outbreaks caused by African genotype, India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chikungunya outbreaks caused by African genotype, India. Chikungunya fever is reported in India after 32 years. Immunoglobulin M antibodies and virus isolation confirmed the cause. Phylogenic analysis based on partial sequences of NS4 and E1 genes showed that all earlier isolates (1963-1973) were Asian genotype, whereas the current and Yawat (2000) isolates were African genotype.

2006 Emerging Infectious Diseases

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