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Chikungunya

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81. The Burden of Dengue Fever and Chikungunya in Southern Coastal Ecuador: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Phylogenetics from the First Two Years of a Prospective Study. (PubMed)

The Burden of Dengue Fever and Chikungunya in Southern Coastal Ecuador: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Phylogenetics from the First Two Years of a Prospective Study. Here, we report the findings from the first 2 years (2014-2015) of an arbovirus surveillance study conducted in Machala, Ecuador, a dengue-endemic region. Patients with suspected dengue virus (DENV) infections (index cases, N = 324) were referred from five Ministry of Health clinical sites. A subset of DENV-positive index (...) acute or recent DENV infections in associates. Of associates with acute DENV infections, 68% reported dengue-like symptoms, with the highest prevalence of symptomatic acute infections in children aged less than 10 years. The first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections were detected on epidemiological week 12 in 2015; 43.1% of index cases and 3.5% of associates had acute CHIKV infections. No Zika virus infections were detected. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates of DENV from 2014 revealed genetic

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2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

82. Case Report: An Acute Chikungunya Infection and a Recent Secondary Dengue Infection in a Peripartum Case in Ecuador. (PubMed)

Case Report: An Acute Chikungunya Infection and a Recent Secondary Dengue Infection in a Peripartum Case in Ecuador. Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by the same mosquito vectors and now co-circulate in many parts of the world; however, coinfections and serial infections are not often diagnosed or reported. A 38-week pregnant woman was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of suspected DENV and CHIKV in southern coastal Ecuador. The pregnancy was complicated

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

83. Inactivation of chikungunya virus in blood components treated with amotosalen/ultraviolet A light or amustaline/glutathione. (PubMed)

Inactivation of chikungunya virus in blood components treated with amotosalen/ultraviolet A light or amustaline/glutathione. Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, often co-circulates with the Zika, dengue, and yellow fever viruses in Aedes mosquito-infested areas where cases of arbovirus transfusion-transmitted infections have been reported. Building on past experience to help maintain the availability of safe components during major outbreaks of chikungunya virus in La Reunion, Italy (...) , and Thailand and of Zika virus in the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Americas, pathogen inactivation is a mitigation strategy to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Inactivation of chikungunya virus was investigated for platelets in 100% plasma using amotosalen/ultraviolet A light, and in red blood cells using amustaline/glutathione.Platelets in 100% plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) were spiked with chikungunya virus. Infectious chikungunya virus titers were measured in contaminated

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2018 Transfusion

84. Molecular epidemiology of Dengue, Yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya arboviruses: An Update. (PubMed)

Molecular epidemiology of Dengue, Yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya arboviruses: An Update. Arboviruses are a group of viruses transmitted by arthropods. They are characterized by a wide geographic distribution, which is associated with the presence of the vector, and cause asymptomatic infections or febrile diseases in humans in both enzootic and urban cycles. Recent reports of human infections caused by viruses such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya have raised concern regarding public health (...) to different lineages. Until recently, the emergence of new lineages has primarily been related to geographical distribution and dispersion, allowing us to ascertain the possible origins and direction of expansion of each virus type, and to make predictions regarding regions where active infections in humans are likely to occur. Therefore, this review is focused on untangling the molecular epidemiology of Dengue, Yellow fever, Zika and Chikungunya due to their recent epidemics in Latinamerica but provides

2018 Acta Tropica

85. Circulation of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti in Maranhão, Northeast Brazil. (PubMed)

Circulation of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti in Maranhão, Northeast Brazil. The simultaneous circulation of Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) arboviruses have placed Brazil among the main worldwide endemic areas. Brazilian Northeast region concentrates the highest incidence of infections caused by CHIKV and ZIKV. In Maranhão, the second biggest northeastern state, there are cases of human infections caused by these three arboviruses and presence of Aedes

2018 Acta Tropica

86. Chikungunya in Children: A Clinical Review. (PubMed)

Chikungunya in Children: A Clinical Review. Chikungunya (CHIKV) is an emerging arboviral infection with recent spikes in transmission in the Americas. Chikungunya is most commonly transmitted by mosquitos, specifically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are found throughout many parts of the United States. The classic tetrad of symptoms for CHIKV is fever, symmetric polyarthralgia, maculopapular rash, and nonpurulent conjunctivitis. Although the majority (3 of 4) of infected

2018 Pediatric Emergency Care

87. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus after Its Emergence in Brazil. (PubMed)

Seroprevalence of Chikungunya Virus after Its Emergence in Brazil. Chikungunya has had a substantial impact on public health because of the magnitude of its epidemics and its highly debilitating symptoms. We estimated the seroprevalence, proportion of symptomatic cases, and proportion of chronic form of disease after introduction of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 cities in Brazil. We conducted the population-based study through household interviews and serologic surveys during October-December (...) 2015. In Feira de Santana, we conducted a serologic survey of 385 persons; 57.1% were CHIKV-positive. Among them, 32.7% reported symptoms, and 68.1% contracted chronic chikungunya disease. A similar survey in Riachão do Jacuípe included 446 persons; 45.7% were CHIKV-positive, 41.2% reported symptoms, and 75.0% contracted the chronic form. Our data confirm intense CHIKV transmission during the continuing epidemic. Chronic pain developed in a high proportion of patients. We recommend training health

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

88. Intensive Care Admissions for Severe Chikungunya Virus Infection, French Polynesia. (PubMed)

Intensive Care Admissions for Severe Chikungunya Virus Infection, French Polynesia. During the 2014-2015 chikungunya outbreak in French Polynesia, 64 patients with confirmed chikungunya virus infection were admitted into intensive care. Sixty-three were nonpregnant adults; 11 had an atypical form, 21 had severe sepsis or septic shock, and 18 died. These findings indicate that critical illness frequently complicates the course of chikungunya virus infection.

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

89. Susceptibility of Chikungunya Virus to Inactivation by Heat and Commercially and WHO-Recommended Biocides. (PubMed)

Susceptibility of Chikungunya Virus to Inactivation by Heat and Commercially and WHO-Recommended Biocides. Despite increasing clinical relevance of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, caused by a rapidly emerging pathogen, recommended guidelines for its inactivation do not exist. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of CHIKV to inactivation by heat and commercially available hand, surface, and World Health Organization-recommended disinfectants to define CHIKV prevention protocols

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2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

90. Occurrence of Chronic Stage Chikungunya in the General Population of Martinique during the First 2014 Epidemic: A Prospective Epidemiological Study. (PubMed)

Occurrence of Chronic Stage Chikungunya in the General Population of Martinique during the First 2014 Epidemic: A Prospective Epidemiological Study. Chronic stage chikungunya (CHIK), defined by persisting symptoms more than 3 months after initial diagnosis of acute infection, is frequent. However, its burden and impact have rarely been described prospectively in a general population during an ongoing epidemic in the Caribbean. From January 2014 to January 2015, a severe CHIK outbreak occurred

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

91. Summary results of the 2014-2015 DARPA Chikungunya challenge. (PubMed)

Summary results of the 2014-2015 DARPA Chikungunya challenge. Emerging pathogens such as Zika, chikungunya, Ebola, and dengue viruses are serious threats to national and global health security. Accurate forecasts of emerging epidemics and their severity are critical to minimizing subsequent mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. The recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika virus to the Americas underscores the need for better methods for disease surveillance and forecasting.To explore (...) the suitability of current approaches to forecasting emerging diseases, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched the 2014-2015 DARPA Chikungunya Challenge to forecast the number of cases and spread of chikungunya disease in the Americas. Challenge participants (n=38 during final evaluation) provided predictions of chikungunya epidemics across the Americas for a six-month period, from September 1, 2014 to February 16, 2015, to be evaluated by comparison with incidence data reported

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

92. Use of Bead-Based Serologic Assay to Evaluate Chikungunya Virus Epidemic, Haiti. (PubMed)

Use of Bead-Based Serologic Assay to Evaluate Chikungunya Virus Epidemic, Haiti. The index case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Haiti was reported during early 2014; the vector, the pervasive Aedes aegypti mosquito, promoted rapid spread throughout the country. During December 2014-February 2015, we collected blood samples from 4,438 persons at 154 sites (62 urban, 92 rural) throughout Haiti and measured CHIKV IgG by using a multiplex bead assay. Overall CHIKV seroprevalence was 57.9

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

93. Vector competence of <i>Aedes albopictus</i> for the Indian Ocean lineage (IOL) chikungunya viruses of the 2007 and 2017 outbreaks in Italy: a comparison between strains with and without the E1:A226V mutation. (PubMed)

Vector competence of Aedes albopictus for the Indian Ocean lineage (IOL) chikungunya viruses of the 2007 and 2017 outbreaks in Italy: a comparison between strains with and without the E1:A226V mutation. We compared the vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for two strains of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), with and without E1:A226V mutation, responsible for outbreaks in 2007 in the Emilia Romagna region and 2017 in the Lazio and Calabria regions, respectively. Ae

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2018 Euro Surveillance

94. Global prevalence and distribution of coinfection of malaria, dengue and chikungunya: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Global prevalence and distribution of coinfection of malaria, dengue and chikungunya: a systematic review. Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya are vector borne diseases with shared endemic profiles and symptoms. Coinfections with any of these diseases could have fatal outcomes if left undiagnosed. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of coinfections is necessary to improve diagnosis and designing therapeutic interventions.We have carried out a systematic search of the published literature (...) based on PRISMA guidelines to identify cases of Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya coinfections. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify eligible studies and extracted data regarding cases of coinfection from cross sectional studies, case reports, retrospective studies, prospective observational studies and surveillance reports.Care full screening resulted in 104 publications that met the eligibility criteria and reported Malaria/Dengue, Dengue/Chikungunya, Malaria/Chikungunya and Malaria

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2018 BMC Public Health

95. Reptiles and Amphibians as Potential Reservoir Hosts of Chikungunya Virus. (PubMed)

Reptiles and Amphibians as Potential Reservoir Hosts of Chikungunya Virus. Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads

2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

96. An Assessment of Household and Individual-Level Mosquito Prevention Methods during the Chikungunya Virus Outbreak in the United States Virgin Islands, 2014-2015. (PubMed)

An Assessment of Household and Individual-Level Mosquito Prevention Methods during the Chikungunya Virus Outbreak in the United States Virgin Islands, 2014-2015. Recent large-scale chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus epidemics in the Americas pose a growing public health threat. Given that mosquito bite prevention and vector control are the main prevention methods available to reduce transmission of these viruses, we assessed adherence to these methods in the United States Virgin Islands

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2018 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

97. Emergence and treatment of chikungunya arthritis. (PubMed)

Emergence and treatment of chikungunya arthritis. To review the emergence, clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of acute chikungunya (CHIK) fever and chronic CHIK arthritis.Since 2004, CHIK, an arboviral infection, has spread throughout the world, infecting millions of people. The illness occurs in two phases: an acute viremic infection followed by chronic arthritis. In less developed countries, there are limited resources and effective treatment. For acutely ill CHIK fever patients

2018 Current Opinion in Rheumatology

98. Co-circulation and simultaneous co-infection of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses in patients with febrile syndrome at the Colombian-Venezuelan border. (PubMed)

Co-circulation and simultaneous co-infection of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses in patients with febrile syndrome at the Colombian-Venezuelan border. In Colombia, the dengue virus (DENV) has been endemic for decades, and with the recent entry of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (2014) and the Zika virus (ZIKV) (2015), health systems are overloaded because the diagnosis of these three diseases is based on clinical symptoms, and the three diseases share a symptomatology of febrile syndrome

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

99. A summary of the imported cases of Chikungunya fever in Japan from 2006 to June 2016. (PubMed)

A summary of the imported cases of Chikungunya fever in Japan from 2006 to June 2016. Due to the huge 2-way human traffic between Japan and Chikungunya (CHIK) fever-endemic regions, 89 imported cases of CHIK fever were confirmed in Japan from January 2006 to June 2016. Fifty-four of 89 cases were confirmed virologically and serologically at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan and we present the demographic profiles of the patients and the phylogenetic features of 14 CHIK virus

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2018 Journal of Travel Medicine

100. Chikungunya in a Pediatric Traveler. (PubMed)

Chikungunya in a Pediatric Traveler. Chikungunya is a mosquito-transmitted virus found primarily in Africa and Asia. In late 2013, chikungunya virus emerged in the Western hemisphere, spreading from the Caribbean to South, Central, and North America (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:1121-1128). Symptoms can be similar to nonspecific viral presentations including fever, joint pain, joint swelling, and rash. The diagnosis of infectious tropical diseases in the emergency department often (...) requires a high index of suspicion, given the nonspecific early findings that characterize many of these tropical diseases. This report presents a case of chikungunya in a pediatric patient traveling from Guatemala to the United States. Proper recognition of infection and diagnosis are vital from a public health perspective. Considering patients will remain viremic for up to a week and potentially expose local mosquitoes to infection, it is important to educate the patient on mosquito bite prevention

2018 Pediatric Emergency Care

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