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Chikungunya

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21. Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015 (PubMed)

Seroprevalence of Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibodies in Children and Adults in Managua, Nicaragua, After the First Chikungunya Epidemic, 2014-2015 Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report (...) autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years) and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April

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2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

22. Fatal leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infection: Do not forget leptospirosis during chikungunya outbreaks (PubMed)

Fatal leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infection: Do not forget leptospirosis during chikungunya outbreaks In endemic areas, leptospirosis can be missed by erroneous clinical or laboratory diagnosis of arboviroses or co-infections with arboviruses and an increase in mortality due to leptospirosis has already been reported during arboviruses outbreaks. During the French Polynesian chikungunya virus outbreak in 2014-2015, two leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infections were reported, one of which (...) was fatal. Diagnosis of leptospiroses was delayed in the context of chikungunya outbreak. In the context of arbovirus outbreak, the risk of misdiagnosis of leptospirosis is maximum and clinicians should initiate early antibiotic therapy if leptospirosis is suspected. A delayed diagnosis of leptospirosis can be responsible for fatal outcome. Leptospirosis should be considered even if dengue or chikungunya virus infections are confirmed by reference molecular testing.

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2016 IDCases

23. Epidemiology of chikungunya based on laboratory surveillance data-India, 2016-2018. (PubMed)

Epidemiology of chikungunya based on laboratory surveillance data-India, 2016-2018. We analysed the laboratory surveillance data generated by the network of virology laboratories from January 2016 to July 2018 to describe the epidemiology of chikungunya in India.Suspected patients reporting to virology laboratories are investigated for the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as evidence of recent infection. We analysed the data to describe (...) the distribution of seropositive individuals by time, place and demographic characteristics.Of the 49 380 sera tested from suspected patients, 20.5% were seropositive. CHIKV IgM positivity was seen throughout the year, with a peak between September and December. The laboratories diagnosed 28 outbreaks of chikungunya during the study period.Laboratory surveillance data indicate continued transmission of CHIKV in many regions of India.

2019 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

24. Differential Shedding and Antibody Kinetics of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses, Brazil. (PubMed)

Differential Shedding and Antibody Kinetics of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses, Brazil. In seroconversion panels obtained from patients from Brazil, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection was improved by combining multiple antibody isotypes, techniques, and antigens, but sensitivity remained suboptimal. In contrast, chikungunya virus diagnostic testing was unambiguous. Recurrent recent arbovirus infections suggested by serologic data and unspecific symptoms highlight the need for exhaustive

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

25. East/Central/South African Genotype in a Chikungunya Outbreak, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2017. (PubMed)

East/Central/South African Genotype in a Chikungunya Outbreak, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2017. In 2017, an unprecedented increase in febrile illness was observed in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Real-time reverse transcription PCR confirmed that 603 (40.2%) of 1,500 cases were chikungunya fever. Phylogenetic analysis revealed circulation of the non-A226V East/Central/South African genotype of chikungunya virus in Bangladesh.

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

26. Spectrum of neurological complications in chikungunya fever: experience at a tertiary care centre and review of literature. (PubMed)

Spectrum of neurological complications in chikungunya fever: experience at a tertiary care centre and review of literature. Chikungunya (CHIK) has re-emerged as a potential neurotropic virus, with outbreaks recently being reported from many parts of India. The present study was conducted to study the spectrum and outcome of neurological complications in patients of CHIK during the 2016 outbreak in Delhi. A total of 42 cases seropositive for IgM CHIK antibodies by MAC-ELISA and developing

2019 Tropical Doctor

27. Duplex nucleic acid test for the detection of chikungunya and dengue RNA viruses in blood donations. (PubMed)

Duplex nucleic acid test for the detection of chikungunya and dengue RNA viruses in blood donations. Chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) viruses are primarily mosquito-borne, but transfusion transmission can occur (DENV) or is likely (CHIKV). In the absence of commercially available blood screening assays, a variety of strategies to ensure recipient safety in the face of expanding CHIKV and/or DENV outbreaks have been used.Performance of cobas CHIKV/DENV, a qualitative RNA detection assay

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2019 Transfusion

28. No chikungunya virus infections among Dutch long-term travellers to (sub)tropical countries: a prospective study 2008-2011. (PubMed)

No chikungunya virus infections among Dutch long-term travellers to (sub)tropical countries: a prospective study 2008-2011. Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne viral disease now identified in over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread in the last 15 years to many countries, causing large local outbreaks. CHIKV infection can be clinically misdiagnosed in areas where dengue and/or Zika infections occur. Prospective studies are necessary (...) of anti-CHIKV IgG in the pre-travel sample, suggestive of previous CHIKV infection, was found for 3/603 participants (0.5%); all three had been previously travelling in either Africa or Asia. In one traveler who visited Latin America, a seroconversion was found (0.2%) but the CHIKV neutralisation test was negative, making the incidence rate 0.No chikungunya virus infections were found in this 2008-2011 prospective cohort of long-term travellers. We recommend the research be repeated, particularly

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

29. Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019. (PubMed)

Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019. We report nine travellers with confirmed chikungunya virus infection, returning from tourist areas of Thailand to Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Romania, Israel and France, diagnosed in January and February 2019. These sentinel tourists support the intensification of chikungunya virus circulation in Thailand and highlight

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2019 Euro Surveillance

30. Global Outbreaks and Origins of a Chikungunya Virus Variant Carrying Mutations Which May Increase Fitness for <i>Aedes aegypti</i>: Revelations from the 2016 Mandera, Kenya Outbreak. (PubMed)

Global Outbreaks and Origins of a Chikungunya Virus Variant Carrying Mutations Which May Increase Fitness for Aedes aegypti: Revelations from the 2016 Mandera, Kenya Outbreak. In 2016, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was reported in Mandera, Kenya. This was the first major CHIKV outbreak in the country since the global reemergence of this virus in Kenya in 2004. We collected samples and sequenced viral genomes from this outbreak. All Kenyan genomes contained two mutations, E1:K211E

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2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

31. A new "American" subgroup of African-lineage Chikungunya virus detected in and isolated from mosquitoes collected in Haiti, 2016. (PubMed)

A new "American" subgroup of African-lineage Chikungunya virus detected in and isolated from mosquitoes collected in Haiti, 2016. As part of on-going arboviral surveillance activity in a semi-rural region in Haiti, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive mosquito pools were identified in 2014 (the peak of the Caribbean Asian-clade epidemic), and again in 2016 by RT-PCR. In 2014, CHIKV was only identified in Aedes aegypti (11 positive pools/124 screened). In contrast, in sampling in 2016, CHIKV

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2018 PLoS ONE

32. Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development. (PubMed)

Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development. In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test

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2018 PLoS ONE

33. Local transmission of chikungunya in Rome and the Lazio region, Italy. (PubMed)

Local transmission of chikungunya in Rome and the Lazio region, Italy. On September 7, 2017, three potentially autochthonous cases of chikungunya were notified in the Lazio region. An Outbreak investigation based on established surveillance system data and molecular analysis of viral variant(s) were conducted. Epidemiological analysis suggested the occurrence of 3 main foci of local transmission. The major focus involved 317 cases with epidemiological link with the area of Anzio. The other two (...) foci occurred in Rome (80 cases) and Latina (8 cases). Cumulative incidence in Anzio and Latina were 331.4 and 7.13 per 100,000 residents, respectively. Cumulative incidences ranged from 1.4 to 14.3/100,000 residents in Rome. This is the first report of a chikungunya outbreak involving a densely populated urban area in a western country. The outbreak probably started in Anzio, spread by continuity to neighbouring villages, and then to the metropolitan area of Rome and to the Latina area favoured

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2018 PLoS ONE

34. Evolutionary analysis of the Chikungunya virus epidemic in Mexico reveals intra-host mutational hotspots in the E1 protein. (PubMed)

Evolutionary analysis of the Chikungunya virus epidemic in Mexico reveals intra-host mutational hotspots in the E1 protein. The epidemic potential of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently made evident by its introduction and rapid expansion in the Caribbean and the Americas. We sought to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic in Mexico, the country with the highest number of confirmed CHIKV cases in the Americas, and to characterise viral evolution at the population

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2018 PLoS ONE

35. Spatial Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus, Venezuela, 2014. (PubMed)

Spatial Dynamics of Chikungunya Virus, Venezuela, 2014. Since chikungunya virus emerged in the Caribbean region in late 2013, ≈45 countries have experienced chikungunya outbreaks. We described and quantified the spatial and temporal events after the introduction and propagation of chikungunya into an immunologically naive population from the urban north-central region of Venezuela during 2014. The epidemic curve (n = 810 cases) unraveled within 5 months with a basic reproductive number of 3.7 (...) and a radial spread traveled distance of 9.4 km at a mean velocity of 82.9 m/day. The highest disease diffusion speed occurred during the first 90 days, and space and space-time modeling suggest the epidemic followed a particular geographic pathway with spatiotemporal aggregation. The directionality and heterogeneity of transmission during the first introduction of chikungunya indicated existence of areas of diffusion and elevated risk for disease and highlight the importance of epidemic preparedness

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

36. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Measles Virus-vectored Chikungunya Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Measles Virus-vectored Chikungunya Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can result in chikungunya fever (CHIKF), a self-limited acute febrile illness that can progress to chronic arthralgic sequalae in a large percentage of patients. A new Measles virus-vectored vaccine was developed to prevent CHIKF and we tested it for immunogenicity and efficacy in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model.Nine cynomolgus macaques were immunized and boosted (...) with the Measles virus-vectored chikungunya vaccine or sham-vaccinated. Sera were taken at multiple times during the vaccination phase to assess antibody responses against CHIKV. Macaques were challenged with a dose of CHIKV previously shown to cause fever and viremia, and core body temperature, viremia and blood cell and chemistry panels were monitored.The vaccine was well tolerated in all macaques, and all seroconverted (high neutralizing antibody [PRNT80 titers 40-640] and ELISA titers) after the boost

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2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

37. Chikungunya-induced inflammatory myositis: a case report in India. (PubMed)

Chikungunya-induced inflammatory myositis: a case report in India. Chikungunya fever is a benign and self-limiting disease caused by an RNA virus belonging to genus alphavirus and transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes. However, a number of atypical presentations involving various systems have been reported. Among the neurological complications, encephalitis, myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and optic neuritis are commonly seen. However, its presentation as isolated inflammatory myositis (...) causing quadriplegia is extremely rare. We report a 35-year-old woman with quadriplegia caused by chikungunya-induced inflammatory myositis. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination, electromyography study, muscle biopsy findings and exclusion of other causes. There have been case reports of inflammatory myositis in association with various infections as well as in association with other neurological presentations in chikungunya. However, this may be the first case report of isolated

2019 Tropical Doctor

38. Association between air travel and importation of chikungunya into the United States. (PubMed)

Association between air travel and importation of chikungunya into the United States. During infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential, the number of air passengers travelling from the outbreak source to international destinations has been used as a proxy for disease importation risk to new locations. However, evaluations of the validity of this approach are limited. We sought to quantify the association between international air travel and disease importation using the 2014-2016 (...) chikungunya outbreak in the Americas as a case study.We used country-level chikungunya case data to define a time period of epidemic activity for each the 45 countries and territories in the Americas reporting outbreaks between 2014 and 2016. For each country, we identified airports within or proximate to areas considered suitable for chikungunya transmission and summed the number of commercial air passengers departing from these airports during the epidemic period to each United States (U.S.) state. We

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2019 Journal of Travel Medicine

39. Neutralizing Antibodies from Convalescent Chikungunya Virus Patients Can Cross-Neutralize Mayaro and Una Viruses. (PubMed)

Neutralizing Antibodies from Convalescent Chikungunya Virus Patients Can Cross-Neutralize Mayaro and Una Viruses. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and can cause severe disease in domesticated animals and humans. The most notable recent outbreak in the Americas was the 2014 chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak affecting millions and producing disease highlighted by rash and arthralgia. Chikungunya virus is a member of the Semliki Forest (SF) serocomplex, and before its arrival in the Americas

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

40. Manifestations of Atypical Symptoms of Chikungunya during the Dhaka Outbreak (2017) in Bangladesh. (PubMed)

Manifestations of Atypical Symptoms of Chikungunya during the Dhaka Outbreak (2017) in Bangladesh. Chikungunya (CHIK) has emerged as a major public health concern worldwide. Recently, atypical manifestations are drawing special attention because these might be associated with various complications. Information on atypical manifestations of CHIK is still limited. Here, we analyzed a dataset of 1,326 cases from our recent Dhaka outbreak study to explore the demographics and distributions

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

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