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1. Chikungunya virus infection

Chikungunya virus infection Chikungunya virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Chikungunya virus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Notifiable condition. It is important to distinguish from dengue fever and Zika virus infection, which are transmitted by the same vector. Most patients fully recover, but some develop chronic joint disease characterised (...) of antibodies. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction can be used to determine whether a patient is infected with chikungunya, Zika, or dengue virus in one test. Co-infection may occur. There is no specific vaccine or treatment. Avoidance of mosquito bites is the best method of prevention. Definition Chikungunya virus (also known as CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquitoes. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up' in the Makonde language (spoken in a border

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. Chikungunya virus infection

Chikungunya virus infection Chikungunya virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Chikungunya virus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Notifiable condition. It is important to distinguish from dengue fever and Zika virus infection, which are transmitted by the same vector. Most patients fully recover, but some develop chronic joint disease characterised (...) of antibodies. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction can be used to determine whether a patient is infected with chikungunya, Zika, or dengue virus in one test. Co-infection may occur. There is no specific vaccine or treatment. Avoidance of mosquito bites is the best method of prevention. Definition Chikungunya virus (also known as CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquitoes. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up' in the Makonde language (spoken in a border

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Evidence for chikungunya and dengue transmission in Quelimane, Mozambique: Results from an investigation of a potential outbreak of chikungunya virus. (Full text)

Evidence for chikungunya and dengue transmission in Quelimane, Mozambique: Results from an investigation of a potential outbreak of chikungunya virus. In January 2016, health authorities from Zambézia province, Mozambique reported the detection of some patients presenting with fever, arthralgia, and a positive result for chikungunya in an IgM-based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT). We initiated a study to investigate a potential chikungunya outbreak in the city of Quelimane.From February to June

2018 PLoS ONE

5. Virus load and clinical features during the acute phase of Chikungunya infection in children. (Full text)

Virus load and clinical features during the acute phase of Chikungunya infection in children. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a long known mosquito-borne disease that is associated with severe morbidity, characterized by fever, headache, rashes, joint pain, and myalgia. It is believed that virus load has relation with severity of clinical features.We performed this study to assess the relationship between virus load and clinical features in children during the acute phase of CHIKV

2019 PLoS ONE

6. A Case Report of Chikungunya Fever, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Felty’s Syndrome (Full text)

A Case Report of Chikungunya Fever, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Felty’s Syndrome Chronic chikungunya (CHIK) arthritis, an inflammatory arthritis, often follows acute CHIK fever (CHIKF), a viral infection. The pathogenesis of chronic CHIK arthritis is poorly characterized, but may resemble other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Clinically, chronic CHIK arthritis sometimes mimics rheumatoid arthritis (RA).We report a patient with well-characterized CHIKF followed 2 months later by chronic CHIK

2018 Rheumatology and therapy

7. Zika, chikungunya and dengue: the causes and threats of new and re-emerging arboviral diseases (Full text)

Zika, chikungunya and dengue: the causes and threats of new and re-emerging arboviral diseases The recent emergence and re-emergence of viral infections transmitted by vectors-Zika, chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever and others-is a cause for international concern. Using as examples Zika, chikungunya and dengue, we summarise current knowledge on characteristics of the viruses and their transmission, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, burden, history (...) , possible causes of the spread and the expectation for future epidemics. Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, are of difficult diagnosis, can have surprising clinical complications and cause severe burden. The current situation is complex, because there is no vaccine for Zika and chikungunya and no specific treatment for the three arboviruses. Vector control is the only comprehensive solution available now and this remains a challenge because up to now this has not been very effective. Until we

2018 BMJ global health

8. Treatment of chikungunya chronic arthritis: A systematic review. (Full text)

Treatment of chikungunya chronic arthritis: A systematic review. Chikungunya (CHIK) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months

2018 Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira (1992)

9. Chikungunya and Neonatal Immunity: Fatal Vertically Transmitted Chikungunya Infection. (Full text)

Chikungunya and Neonatal Immunity: Fatal Vertically Transmitted Chikungunya Infection. AbstractChikungunya is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has emerged as a global pathogen. The virus can pass vertically from mother to child especially during the perinatal period, with an intrapartum vertical transmission rate of 50%. Approximately half of the neonates infected with chikungunya present with severe symptoms and infrequently death. This report summarizes two severe cases of vertically (...) transmitted neonatal chikungunya infection. One case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the other fulfilled clinical and epidemiological criteria. Both infants presented on day 3 with abdominal distension, reduced perfusion pressure, and hypotension; acrocyanosis progressing to ischemic digits; and respiratory distress. Both died within 24-48 hours of presentation. The severity of symptoms observed is likely due to a combination of contamination of the fetal

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

10. Mosquito Exposure and Chikungunya and Dengue Infection among Travelers during the Chikungunya Outbreak in the Americas. (Full text)

Mosquito Exposure and Chikungunya and Dengue Infection among Travelers during the Chikungunya Outbreak in the Americas. AbstractTravelers are at risk for arbovirus infection. We prospectively enrolled 267 Department of Defense beneficiaries traveling to chikungunya-outbreak regions in the Americas between December 2013 and May 2015 and assessed travel characteristics and serologic exposure to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV). Ten ill-returning travelers were also assessed

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

11. A new "American" subgroup of African-lineage Chikungunya virus detected in and isolated from mosquitoes collected in Haiti, 2016. (Full text)

A new "American" subgroup of African-lineage Chikungunya virus detected in and isolated from mosquitoes collected in Haiti, 2016. As part of on-going arboviral surveillance activity in a semi-rural region in Haiti, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive mosquito pools were identified in 2014 (the peak of the Caribbean Asian-clade epidemic), and again in 2016 by RT-PCR. In 2014, CHIKV was only identified in Aedes aegypti (11 positive pools/124 screened). In contrast, in sampling in 2016, CHIKV

2018 PLoS ONE

12. Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development. (Full text)

Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development. In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test

2018 PLoS ONE

13. Local transmission of chikungunya in Rome and the Lazio region, Italy. (Full text)

Local transmission of chikungunya in Rome and the Lazio region, Italy. On September 7, 2017, three potentially autochthonous cases of chikungunya were notified in the Lazio region. An Outbreak investigation based on established surveillance system data and molecular analysis of viral variant(s) were conducted. Epidemiological analysis suggested the occurrence of 3 main foci of local transmission. The major focus involved 317 cases with epidemiological link with the area of Anzio. The other two (...) foci occurred in Rome (80 cases) and Latina (8 cases). Cumulative incidence in Anzio and Latina were 331.4 and 7.13 per 100,000 residents, respectively. Cumulative incidences ranged from 1.4 to 14.3/100,000 residents in Rome. This is the first report of a chikungunya outbreak involving a densely populated urban area in a western country. The outbreak probably started in Anzio, spread by continuity to neighbouring villages, and then to the metropolitan area of Rome and to the Latina area favoured

2018 PLoS ONE

14. Evolutionary analysis of the Chikungunya virus epidemic in Mexico reveals intra-host mutational hotspots in the E1 protein. (Full text)

Evolutionary analysis of the Chikungunya virus epidemic in Mexico reveals intra-host mutational hotspots in the E1 protein. The epidemic potential of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently made evident by its introduction and rapid expansion in the Caribbean and the Americas. We sought to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic in Mexico, the country with the highest number of confirmed CHIKV cases in the Americas, and to characterise viral evolution at the population

2018 PLoS ONE

15. A systematic review of individual and community mitigation measures for prevention and control of chikungunya virus. (Full text)

A systematic review of individual and community mitigation measures for prevention and control of chikungunya virus. Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted by mosquitoes from the Aedes genus. The virus, endemic to parts of Asia and Africa, has recently undergone an emergence in other parts of the world where it was previously not found including Indian Ocean Islands, Europe, the Western Pacific and the Americas. There is no vaccine against chikungunya virus, which means (...) that prevention and mitigation rely on personal protective measures and community level interventions including vector control.A systematic review (SR) was conducted to summarize the literature on individual and community mitigation and control measures and their effectiveness. From a scoping review of the global literature on chikungunya, there were 91 articles that investigated mitigation or control strategies identified at the individual or community level. Of these, 81 were confirmed as relevant

2019 PLoS ONE

16. Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of the measles-vectored chikungunya virus vaccine MV-CHIK: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled and active-controlled phase 2 trial. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of the measles-vectored chikungunya virus vaccine MV-CHIK: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled and active-controlled phase 2 trial. Chikungunya fever is an emerging viral disease and substantial threat to public health. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated, measles-vectored chikungunya vaccine (MV-CHIK).In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled and active-controlled phase 2 trial, we (...) , which was maintained by use of sterile saline as a placebo injection. The primary endpoint was immunogenicity, defined as the presence of neutralising antibodies against chikungunya virus, at day 56, which is 28 days after one or two immunisations. The primary endpoint was assessed in all participants who completed the study without major protocol deviations (per-protocol population) and in all randomised participants who received at least one study treatment (modified intention-to-treat population

2018 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

17. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Sint Maarten: Long-term arthralgia after a 15-month period. (Full text)

Chikungunya virus outbreak in Sint Maarten: Long-term arthralgia after a 15-month period. The first chikungunya (CHIK) epidemic in the Americas was reported in December 2013. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute febrile illness and is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although earlier studies have described long-term clinical manifestations of CHIK patients infected with the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype, little is known about persistent manifestations (...) in the Caribbean region, for which the Asian genotype is responsible. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of persisting clinical manifestations, specifically arthralgia, in CHIKV-infected patients on the Caribbean Island, Sint Maarten, 15 months after onset of the disease.This retrospective cohort study included confirmed CHIK patients that were recorded by the participating general practitioners (GPs) during the chikungunya outbreak in 2014 in Sint Maarten. Between March and July 2015, 15

2020 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

18. Circulation of chikungunya virus East/Central/South African lineage in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Full text)

Circulation of chikungunya virus East/Central/South African lineage in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has raised serious concerns due to the virus' rapid dissemination into new geographic areas and the clinical features associated with infection. To better understand CHIKV dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, we generated 11 near-complete genomes by means of real-time portable nanopore sequencing of virus isolates obtained directly from clinical samples. To better

2019 PLoS ONE

19. The risk of chikungunya fever in a dengue-endemic area. (Full text)

The risk of chikungunya fever in a dengue-endemic area. Chikungunya, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, causes a febrile disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. This infection is reaching endemic levels in many Southeast Asian countries. Symptoms include sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, joint pain with or without swelling, low back pain, and rash. According to the World Health Organization, there are 2 billion people living (...) in Aedes-infested areas. In addition, traveling to these areas is popular, making the potential risk of infections transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes very high.We proposed a mathematical model to estimate the risk of acquiring chikungunya fever in an Aedes-infested area by taking the prevalence of dengue fever into account. The basic reproduction number for chikungunya fever R(0chik) can be written as a function of the basic reproduction number of dengue R(0dengue) by calculating

2020 Journal of Travel Medicine

20. Treatment of Chronic Chikungunya Arthritis With Methotrexate: A Systematic Review (Full text)

Treatment of Chronic Chikungunya Arthritis With Methotrexate: A Systematic Review Chikungunya virus infection is a rapidly emerging global viral infection that can cause chronic, debilitating arthritis that in some ways mimics rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of methotrexate (MTX), a therapy that is widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, for the treatment of chronic chikungunya arthritis.A systematic literature (...) search was performed to identify all published trials that evaluated MTX as monotherapy or combination therapy in patients with chronic chikungunya arthritis. PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from study inception to August 2017. We also searched Google Scholar, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov.Among 131 possibly relevant studies, 6 met our criteria for evaluation: 4 were retrospective studies, 1 was a non

2018 EvidenceUpdates

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