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Chemical Toxin

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1. Treatment of lateral canthal rhytides with a medium depth chemical peel with or without pretreatment with onabotulinum toxin type A: a randomized control trial (PubMed)

Treatment of lateral canthal rhytides with a medium depth chemical peel with or without pretreatment with onabotulinum toxin type A: a randomized control trial Combination therapies used to treat the photoaged skin have become more popular as studies demonstrate greater efficacy and improved clinical outcomes compared to single treatment modalities.To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of treating the lateral canthal rhytide complex with a Jessner's and 35% TCA peel with and without (...) as compared to the group only receiving the chemical peel (P =0.002). In addition, there was no significant association between skin type and treatment groups (P = 0.11).These findings suggest that treating the lateral canthal rhytide complex with a combination of BTX-A followed by Jessner's and 35% TCA peel is more effective than chemical peel alone. These results are independent of skin type and demonstrate an additional treatment strategy for lateral canthal rhytides.

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2016 International journal of women's dermatology

2. Boosting Teenagers With Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Containing Recombinant or Chemically Inactivated Pertussis Toxin: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Boosting Teenagers With Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Containing Recombinant or Chemically Inactivated Pertussis Toxin: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Protection induced by acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines is partial and short-lived, especially in teenagers, calling for novel immunization strategies.We conducted an investigator-driven proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial in aP-primed adolescents in Geneva to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a novel recombinant aP (r-aP (...) ) vaccine including recombinant pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) coadministered with tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td), compared to a licensed tetanus-diphtheria-aP vaccine containing chemically detoxified PT (cd/Tdap). The primary immunological endpoints were day 28/365 geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of total and neutralizing anti-PT antibodies. Memory B cells were assessed.Sixty-two aP-primed adolescents were randomized and vaccinated with r-aP + Td or cd/Tdap

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

3. Glucosylation of T-2 and HT-2 toxins using biotransformation and chemical synthesis: Preparation, stereochemistry, and stability (PubMed)

Glucosylation of T-2 and HT-2 toxins using biotransformation and chemical synthesis: Preparation, stereochemistry, and stability Plant-derived phase II metabolites of T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 toxin (HT2) were first described in 2011 and further characterized in the following years. Since then, some efforts have been made to understand their biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, toxicokinetics, and finally relevance for consumers. Thus, the probably most important question is whether and how (...) these metabolites contribute to toxicity upon hydrolysis either during food processing or the gastrointestinal passage. To answer this question, firstly, knowledge on the correct stereochemistry of T2 and HT2 glucosides is important as this affects hydrolysis and chemical behavior. So far, contradictory results have been published concerning the number and anomericity of occurring glucosides. For this reason, we set up different strategies for the synthesis of mg-amounts of T2, HT2, and T2 triol glucosides

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2018 Mycotoxin research

4. Chemical component separation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of botulinum toxin for management of ventral hernia. (PubMed)

Chemical component separation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of botulinum toxin for management of ventral hernia. Ventral hernia represents a surgical challenge plagued by high morbidity and recurrence rates. Primary closure of challenging hernias is often prohibited by severe lateral retraction and tension of the abdominal wall musculature. Botulinum toxin injections have recently been identified as a potential pre-operative means to counteract abdominal wall tension, reduce hernia (...) size, and facilitate fascial closure during hernia repair. This systematic review and meta-analysis reviews outcomes associated with botulinum toxin injections in the setting of ventral hernia, and demonstrates an opportunity to leverage this mainstream aesthetic product for use in abdominal wall reconstruction.A literature review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines using MeSH terms 'ventral hernia', 'herniorrhaphy', 'hernia repair', and 'botulinum toxins'. Relevant studies reporting pre

2017 Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery

5. Strategies of chemical anti-predator defences in leaf beetles: is sequestration of plant toxins less costly than de novo synthesis?

Strategies of chemical anti-predator defences in leaf beetles: is sequestration of plant toxins less costly than de novo synthesis? The evolution of defensive traits is driven both by benefits gained from protection against enemies and by costs of defence production. We tested the hypothesis that specialisation of herbivores on toxic host plants, accompanied by the ability to acquire plant defensive compounds for herbivore defence, is favoured by the lower costs of sequestration compared to de (...) novo synthesis of defensive compounds. We measured physiological costs of chemical defence as a reduction in larval performance in response to repeated removal of secretions (simulating predator attack) and compared these costs between five species synthesising defences de novo and three species sequestering salicylic glucosides (SGs) from their host plants. Experiments simulating low predator pressure revealed no physiological costs in terms of survival, weight and duration of development in any

2017 Oecologia

6. A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages (PubMed)

A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages Conditional expression of diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) is widely used for tissue-specific ablation of cells. However, diphtheria toxin (DT) crosses the blood-brain barrier, which limits its utility for ablating peripheral cells using Cre drivers that are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the development of a brain-sparing DT, termed BRAINSPAReDT, for tissue-specific

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2017 Nature communications

7. Corrigendum: A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages (PubMed)

Corrigendum: A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages 28513619 2018 11 08 2041-1723 8 2017 05 17 Nature communications Nat Commun Corrigendum: A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages. 15673 10.1038/ncomms15673 Pereira Mafalda M A MMA Mahú Inês I Seixas Elsa E Martinéz-Sánchez Noelia N Kubasova Nadiya N Pirzgalska Roksana M RM Cohen Paul P Dietrich Marcelo O MO López Miguel M Bernardes Gonçalo J

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2017 Nature communications

8. Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity (PubMed)

Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional studies on animals. In this study, neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) were compared with human neuroblastoma SH (...) neurons are more sensitive to detect cytotoxicity of MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide than retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. P19 neurons are at least as sensitive as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to detect the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential produced by MeHg and the protective effects of extracellular GSH on MeHg toxicity. P19 neurons may be a useful model to study neurotoxic effects of chemicals.

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2017 BMC pharmacology & toxicology

9. Chemical Screens Identify Drugs that Enhance or Mitigate Cellular Responses to Antibody-Toxin Fusion Proteins (PubMed)

Chemical Screens Identify Drugs that Enhance or Mitigate Cellular Responses to Antibody-Toxin Fusion Proteins The intersection of small molecular weight drugs and antibody-based therapeutics is rarely studied in large scale. Both types of agents are currently part of the cancer armamentarium. However, very little is known about how to combine them in optimal ways. Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin gene fusion proteins engineered to target cancer cells via antibody binding to surface antigens (...) inhibitors antagonized immunotoxins and also blocked the toxicity due to native ADP-ribosylating toxins. Thus, our goal of investigating a chemical library was justified based on the identification of several approved compounds that could be developed preclinically as 'enhancers' and at least one class of mitigator to be avoided.

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2016 PloS one

10. Chemical Toxin

Chemical Toxin Chemical Toxin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Chemical Toxin Chemical Toxin Aka: Chemical Toxin (...) (greater inhalation of agents) Lower height (closer to ground level where gases may settle) Thin, more permeable skin (greater toxin absorption and injury) Often dependent on adults to escape exposure Antidote dosing is not well established in children VII. Resources US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense VIII. References Campana, Patel and Martin (2016) Crit Dec Emerg Med 30(2): 14-9 Seeyave (2015) Crit Dec Emerg Med 29(5): 13-21 Medical Response to Chemical Warfare and Terrorism US

2018 FP Notebook

11. Preoperative chemical component relaxation using Botulinum toxin A: enabling laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia. (PubMed)

Preoperative chemical component relaxation using Botulinum toxin A: enabling laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia. Repair of complex ventral hernia can be very challenging for surgeons. Closure of large defects can have serious pathophysiological consequences. Botulinum toxin A (BTA) has recently been described to provide flaccid paralysis to abdominal muscles prior to surgery, facilitating closure and repair.This was a prospective observational study of 32 patients who underwent

2016 Surgical endoscopy

12. Haematological, clinical–chemical and immunological consequences of feeding Fusarium toxin contaminated diets to early lactating dairy cows (PubMed)

Haematological, clinical–chemical and immunological consequences of feeding Fusarium toxin contaminated diets to early lactating dairy cows Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance at the onset of lactation which results in an enhanced vulnerability for infectious diseases. Any dietary imbalances, including Fusarium toxin contamination, might therefore exacerbate this situation. The aim of the present investigations was to study the effects of increasing dietary concentrations (...) of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on clinical-chemical, haematological and immunological traits up to week 14 of lactation. For this purpose, ten cows each were assigned to a control group (CON; 0.02 mg ZEN and 0.06 mg DON per kg diet at 88 % DM), toxin level 1 (TOX-1; 0.29 mg ZEN and 2.31 mg DON per kg diet at 88 % DM) and toxin level 2 (TOX-2; 0.58 mg ZEN and 4.61 mg DON per kg diet at 88 % DM). The measured values of most parameters were affected by parturition but only a few of them were further

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2016 Mycotoxin research

13. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian (PubMed)

Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool (...) throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals

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2016 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

14. Workplace chemical and toxin exposures reported to a Poisons Information Centre: a diverse range causing variable morbidity. (PubMed)

Workplace chemical and toxin exposures reported to a Poisons Information Centre: a diverse range causing variable morbidity. The aim of this study is to determine the period prevalence, nature and causes of workplace chemical and toxin exposures reported to the Victorian Poisons Information Centre (VPIC).All cases classified as 'workplace: acute' when entered into the VPIC database (June 2005-December 2013) were analysed. Data were collected on patient sex, the nature of the chemical or toxin (...) of chemical and toxin exposures and a minimum exposure dataset is recommended.

2016 European Journal of Emergency Medicine

15. CRACKCast E159 – Inhaled Toxins

(asbestos). Therapy targets clinical manifestations of the inhaled toxins. See [Table 153-1] for a long list of common inhaled toxins. They can fall into different classifications: Irritants Simple asphyxiants Chemical asphyxiants (carbon monoxide; hydrogen cyanide; phosphine) 5 recognized categories: Simple asphyxiants (CO2; methane; nitrogen gas; nitrous oxide; noble gases) Displace oxygen Pulmonary irritants (e.g pharmacologic CS or chloroacetophenone gas – tear gas; ammonia; phosgene ozone) Direct (...) . Exogenous surfactant and NO may help this toxin-induced ARDS. Special note on decontamination: remember the chemical exposures podcast: PPE Remove Clothing and place in plastic bags BRUSH OFF DRY CHEMICALS before hydrotherapy Use gentle irrigation with low pressure water [3] Describe the mechanism of cyanide toxicity Cyanide This is a tricky gas, because it doesn’t cause lung or airway injury directly…. Cyanide (gas form) is liberated from burning plastic-containing compounds and in some fumigation

2018 CandiEM

16. CRACKCast E064 – Chemical Injuries

CRACKCast E064 – Chemical Injuries CRACKCast E064 - Chemical Injuries - CanadiEM CRACKCast E064 – Chemical Injuries In , by Adam Thomas February 27, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 64, Chemical Injuries. Whether from a workplace incident or chemical terrorism, these patients require urgent intervention in the ED to prevent progression of their injuries. This episode discusses the approach to a variety of chemical injuries and their management. Shownotes – Rosen’s (...) in Perspective Chemicals are everywhere, >10,000 new ones are made every year → be afraid! Most susceptible organs: skin, eyes, lungs Most commonly release substances: Volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) Herbicides Acids Ammonia Cement Drain cleaner Gasoline Pathophysiology: Most cause damage through a chemical reaction with the skin 1) Describe the difference between Alkali and Acid injuries Acidic compounds: Cause protein denaturation and coagulative necrosis with the skin The necrosis forms eschar → which

2017 CandiEM

17. Evaluation of Chemical Strategies for Improving the Stability and Oral Toxicity of Insecticidal Peptides (PubMed)

Evaluation of Chemical Strategies for Improving the Stability and Oral Toxicity of Insecticidal Peptides Spider venoms are a rich source of insecticidal peptide toxins. Their development as bioinsecticides has, however, been hampered due to concerns about potential lack of stability and oral bioactivity. We therefore systematically evaluated several synthetic strategies to increase the stability and oral potency of the potent insecticidal spider-venom peptide ω-HXTX-Hv1a (Hv1a). Selective (...) chemical replacement of disulfide bridges with diselenide bonds and N- to C-terminal cyclization were anticipated to improve Hv1a resistance to proteolytic digestion, and thereby its activity when delivered orally. We found that native Hv1a is orally active in blowflies, but 91-fold less potent than when administered by injection. Introduction of a single diselenide bond had no effect on the susceptibility to scrambling or the oral activity of Hv1a. N- to C-terminal cyclization of the peptide backbone

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2018 Biomedicines

18. Botulinum Toxin Type A Induces Changes in the Chemical Coding of Substance P-Immunoreactive Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder (PubMed)

Botulinum Toxin Type A Induces Changes in the Chemical Coding of Substance P-Immunoreactive Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a potent neurotoxin which blocks acetylcholine release from nerve terminals, and therefore leads to cessation of somatic motor and/or parasympathetic transmission. Recently it has been found that BTX also interferes with sensory transmission, thus, the present study was aimed at investigating (...) the neurochemical characterization of substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) bladder-projecting sensory neurons (BPSN) after the toxin treatment. Investigated neurons were visualized with retrograde tracing method and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), galanin (GAL), calbindin (CB), and somatostatin (SOM

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2015 Toxins

19. World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of four foodborne chemical toxins, 2010: a data synthesis (PubMed)

World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of four foodborne chemical toxins, 2010: a data synthesis Background Chemical exposures have been associated with a variety of health effects; however, little is known about the global disease burden from foodborne chemicals. Food can be a major pathway for the general population's exposure to chemicals, and for some chemicals, it accounts for almost 100% of exposure.  Methods and Findings Groups of foodborne (...) chemicals, both natural and anthropogenic, were evaluated for their ability to contribute to the burden of disease.  The results of the analyses on four chemicals are presented here - cyanide in cassava, peanut allergen, aflatoxin, and dioxin.  Systematic reviews of the literature were conducted to develop age- and sex-specific disease incidence and mortality estimates due to these chemicals.  From these estimates, the numbers of cases, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated

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2015 F1000Research

20. 3-Amino 1,8-naphthalimide, a structural analog of the anti-cholera drug virstatin inhibits chemically-biased swimming and swarming motility in vibrios (PubMed)

3-Amino 1,8-naphthalimide, a structural analog of the anti-cholera drug virstatin inhibits chemically-biased swimming and swarming motility in vibrios A screen for inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae motility identified the compound 3-amino 1,8-naphthalimide (3-A18NI), a structural analog of the cholera drug virstatin. Similar to virstatin, 3-A18NI diminished cholera toxin production. In contrast, 3-A18NI impeded swimming and/or swarming motility of V. cholerae and V. parahemolyticus suggesting

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2017 Microbes and infection

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