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Cerebral Spinal Fluid

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101. Diagnostic utility of amyloid PET in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. (PubMed)

). (11)C-PiB-PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2* were obtained in 11 nondemented patients fulfilling the Boston criteria for probable CAA-related symptomatic l-ICH (sl-ICH) and 20 HCs without cognitive complaints or impairment. After optimal spatial normalization, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)-corrected PiB distribution volume ratios (DVRs) were obtained. There was no significant difference in whole cortex or regional DVRs between CAA patients and age-matched HCs. The whole cortex (...) Diagnostic utility of amyloid PET in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. By detecting β-amyloid (Aβ) in the wall of cortical arterioles, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging might help diagnose cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (l-ICH). No previous study has directly assessed the diagnostic value of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET in probable CAA-related l-ICH against healthy controls (HCs

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2014 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

102. Innovative Application of Cerebral rSO2 Monitoring During Shunt Tap in Pediatric Ventricular Malfunctioning Shunts. (PubMed)

predictive for shunt malfunction location than right cerebral rSO2 changes. Observing cerebral rSO2 changes in relationship to shunt tap represents a potential surrogate in measuring cerebral pressures and blood flow changes after cerebral spinal fluid drainage. Significantly greater cerebral rSO2 changes occur for distal malfunction versus proximal malfunction after shunt tap, indicating its potential as an adjunct tool for detecting shunt malfunction type. (...) Innovative Application of Cerebral rSO2 Monitoring During Shunt Tap in Pediatric Ventricular Malfunctioning Shunts. This study aimed to determine the reliability and potential application of cerebral regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) monitoring in malfunctioning ventricular shunts during tap.This is a prospective case series using convenience sample in subjects with confirmed malfunctioning shunt who had left and right cerebral rSO2 monitoring every 5 seconds before, during, and 1 hour after

2014 Pediatric Emergency Care

103. High Resolution Imaging of Cerebral Vasculature by Functional Micro-Doppler Sonography During Brain Surgery

of surgical navigation has been an important advance in brain surgery, its utility is limited by the phenomenon known as brain shift. Whenever the brain is exposed, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is lost. Additionally, after the start of resectioning, the position of the surgical field can shift by centimeters, compared to the pre-surgery position. Brain shift makes it potentially hazardous to rely on preoperative images to determine the location of residual tumors. The only way to deal with brain shift (...) High Resolution Imaging of Cerebral Vasculature by Functional Micro-Doppler Sonography During Brain Surgery High Resolution Imaging of Cerebral Vasculature by Functional Micro-Doppler Sonography During Brain Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

2014 Clinical Trials

104. Intrathecal Stem Cells for Cerebral Palsy Phase II

Intrathecal Stem Cells for Cerebral Palsy Phase II Intrathecal Stem Cells for Cerebral Palsy Phase II - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Intrathecal Stem Cells for Cerebral Palsy Phase II (...) Sponsor: Hospital Universitario Dr. Jose E. Gonzalez Information provided by (Responsible Party): Consuelo Mancias Guerra, Hospital Universitario Dr. Jose E. Gonzalez Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the infusion of intrathecal autologous bone marrow total nucleated cells would improve the neurologic evolution of pediatric patients with quadriparetic cerebral palsy. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cerebral Palsy

2014 Clinical Trials

105. Focal Accumulation of Iron in Cerebral Regions in Early ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Patients

Focal Accumulation of Iron in Cerebral Regions in Early ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Patients Focal Accumulation of Iron in Cerebral Regions in Early ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please (...) remove one or more studies before adding more. Focal Accumulation of Iron in Cerebral Regions in Early ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) Patients (SAFEFAIRALS) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02164253 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : June 16, 2014 Last Update Posted

2014 Clinical Trials

106. Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Has Therapeutic Effects against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through the Downregulation of TLR4 Signaling via TLR3 (PubMed)

deprivation models to evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of poly(I:C) treatment. Poly(I:C) was i.p. injected 3 h after ischemia (treatment group). Cerebral infarct volumes and brain edemas were significantly reduced, and neurologic scores were significantly increased. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were markedly decreased, whereas IFN-β levels were greatly increased, in the ischemic brain tissues, cerebral spinal fluid, and serum. Injuries to hippocampal neurons and mitochondria were greatly reduced (...) . The numbers of TUNEL-positive and Fluoro-Jade B(+) cells also decreased significantly in the ischemic brain tissues. Poly(I:C) treatment increased the levels of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Bcl2 and decreased the level of Bax in the ischemic brain tissues. Moreover, poly(I:C) treatment attenuated the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in serum and cerebral spinal fluid of mice stimulated by LPS. However, the protective effects of poly(I:C) against cerebral ischemia were abolished in TLR3(-/-) and TLR4(-/-)mice. Poly(I:C

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2014 The Journal of Immunology Author Choice

107. Coma from wall suction-induced CSF leak complicating spinal surgery (PubMed)

of subarachnoid haemorrhage and signs suggestive of cerebral anoxia. JP drain at the incision produced 170-210 mL/day of fluid, positive for β-2 transferrin, indicating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient fully returned to baseline on hospital day 10. MRI on hospital day 8 normalised. The reversible coma and radiographic findings were most consistent with acute intracranial hypotension relating to acute loss of CSF. Because radiographic findings can mimic hypoxic-ischaemic injury, acute intracranial (...) Coma from wall suction-induced CSF leak complicating spinal surgery A 72-year-old woman was admitted for elective L4/L5 laminectomy. The operative procedure was extradural, and a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain was placed in the tissue bed and set to wall suction during skin closure. During closure, the patient developed a 15 s period of asystole. The patient was haemodynamically stable, but was comatose for 3 days postoperatively. Cardiac enzymes and EEG were unrevealing. Head CT showed traces

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2014 BMJ case reports

108. Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndrome (KTWS) and spontaneous spinal CSF leak: coincidence or link. (PubMed)

Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndrome (KTWS) and spontaneous spinal CSF leak: coincidence or link. To highlight the occurrence of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in the setting of Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndrome (KTWS).KTWS is a congenital multicomponent disorder of angiogenesis plus limb asymmetry. The cause of spontaneous CSF leaks often remains unknown, but the notion of a pre-existing dural weakness related to a disorder of connective tissue matrix is gaining momentum. REPORT (...) OF CASES AND METHODS: Two women with KTWS developed spontaneous CSF leaks. Each underwent extensive head and spine imaging studies. One patient underwent surgery to treat the CSF leak and later an epidural blood patch upon partial recurrence of her symptoms. The other patient, who had intermittent CSF leak, developed cerebral venous thrombosis requiring several months of anticoagulation therapy. Both patients have histories of visceral bleeding: gastrointestinal in 1 patient and genitourinary

2014 Headache

109. Spinal cord gray matter atrophy correlates with multiple sclerosis disability. (PubMed)

Spinal cord gray matter atrophy correlates with multiple sclerosis disability. In multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy correlates more strongly than white matter (WM) atrophy with disability. The corresponding relationships in the spinal cord (SC) are unknown due to technical limitations in assessing SC GM atrophy. Using phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) magnetic resonance imaging, we determined the association of the SC GM and SC WM areas with MS disability (...) significant differences in SC WM areas. Progressive MS patients showed smaller SC GM and SC WM areas compared to RMS patients (all p ≤ 0.004). SC GM, SC WM, and whole cord areas inversely correlated with EDSS (rho: -0.60, -0.32, -0.42, respectively; all p ≤ 0.001). The SC GM area was the strongest correlate of disability in multivariate models including brain GM and WM volumes, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesion load, T1 lesion load, SC WM area, number of SC T2 lesions, age, sex, and disease

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2014 Annals of Neurology

110. Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury (Follow-up)

. If left untreated, autonomic dysreflexia can cause seizures, retinal hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, renal insufficiency, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and, ultimately, death. Complications associated with autonomic dysreflexia result directly from sustained, severe peripheral hypertension. (See the image below.) (A) A strong sensory input (not necessarily noxious) is carried into the spinal cord via intact peripheral nerves. The most common origins are bladder and bowel. (B) This strong (...) , Walker G, Marsh DR. Development of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury is associated with a lack of serotonergic axons in the intermediolateral cell column. J Neurotrauma . 2010 Oct. 27(10):1805-18. . Phillips AA, Ainslie PN, Warburton DE, Krassioukov AV. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Autonomic Dysreflexia in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma . 2016 Feb 1. 33 (3):315-8. . Krassioukov A, Warburton DE, Teasell R, Eng JJ. A systematic review of the management of autonomic

2014 eMedicine.com

111. Congenital Spinal Deformity (Diagnosis)

Congenital Spinal Deformity (Diagnosis) Congenital Spinal Deformity: Background, Embryology of Spine, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI2MDQ0Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Congenital (...) Spinal Deformity Updated: Mar 20, 2017 Author: Mark C Lee, MD; Chief Editor: Jeffrey D Thomson, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Congenital Spinal Deformity Background Congenital deformities of the spine are spinal deformities identified at birth that are a byproduct of anomalous vertebral development in the embryo. Minor bony malformations of all types occur in up to 12% of the general population and are usually not apparent, often identified only on routine chest films

2014 eMedicine Surgery

112. Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury (Overview)

. If left untreated, autonomic dysreflexia can cause seizures, retinal hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, renal insufficiency, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and, ultimately, death. Complications associated with autonomic dysreflexia result directly from sustained, severe peripheral hypertension. (See the image below.) (A) A strong sensory input (not necessarily noxious) is carried into the spinal cord via intact peripheral nerves. The most common origins are bladder and bowel. (B) This strong (...) , Walker G, Marsh DR. Development of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury is associated with a lack of serotonergic axons in the intermediolateral cell column. J Neurotrauma . 2010 Oct. 27(10):1805-18. . Phillips AA, Ainslie PN, Warburton DE, Krassioukov AV. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Autonomic Dysreflexia in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma . 2016 Feb 1. 33 (3):315-8. . Krassioukov A, Warburton DE, Teasell R, Eng JJ. A systematic review of the management of autonomic

2014 eMedicine.com

113. Congenital Spinal Deformity (Follow-up)

Congenital Spinal Deformity (Follow-up) Congenital Spinal Deformity: Background, Embryology of Spine, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI2MDQ0Mi1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Congenital (...) Spinal Deformity Updated: Mar 20, 2017 Author: Mark C Lee, MD; Chief Editor: Jeffrey D Thomson, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Congenital Spinal Deformity Background Congenital deformities of the spine are spinal deformities identified at birth that are a byproduct of anomalous vertebral development in the embryo. Minor bony malformations of all types occur in up to 12% of the general population and are usually not apparent, often identified only on routine chest films

2014 eMedicine Surgery

114. Spinal Stenosis and Neurogenic Claudication (Follow-up)

by experienced injectionists. Transient corticosteroid dose-related side effects include facial flushing, low-grade fever, insomnia, anxiety, agitation, hyperglycemia, and fluid retention. Steroids may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary axis for 3 months following the injection. Lastly, vasovagal reaction, nerve root injury, injectate allergy, and temporary pain exacerbation can occur as well. Results of ESI for spinal stenosis Recent studies assessing efficacy of fluoroscopically guided, contrast-enhanced (...) after surgery include the following: Sustained axial and radicular pain Progressive spinal deformity Cerebrospinal fluid leak Epidural hematoma Pulmonary embolism (PE) Some authors report spondylolisthesis as a complication of lumbar decompression without arthrodesis, especially after total facetectomy. Preoperative risk factors for postoperative development or progression of L4 or L5 spondylolisthesis include the following: Absence of degenerative osteophytosis Small and sagittally oriented facets

2014 eMedicine.com

115. Cardiovascular Concerns in Spinal Cord Injury (Diagnosis)

lead to increased blood pressure. Corticosteroids cause sodium and fluid retention to improve symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, and sympathomimetics augment coronary and cerebral blood flow. Anticholinergics are administered to improve conduction through the atrioventricular (AV) node; this is accomplished by a reduction of vagal tone by way of muscarinic receptor blockade. Previous References Partida E, Mironets E, Hou S, Tom VJ. Cardiovascular dysfunction following spinal cord injury. Neural (...) in the management of orthostatic hypotension Atropine: Drug of choice for bradycardia but rarely used in rehabilitation settings except during emergencies (phenylephrine and dopamine also can be considered) Alpha-adrenergic agonists: Improve the patient's hemodynamic status by increasing myocardial contractility and heart rate Corticosteroids: Cause sodium and fluid retention, resulting in improvements in symptomatic orthostatic hypotension Sympathomimetics: Augment coronary and cerebral blood flow

2014 eMedicine.com

116. Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury (Diagnosis)

. If left untreated, autonomic dysreflexia can cause seizures, retinal hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, renal insufficiency, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and, ultimately, death. Complications associated with autonomic dysreflexia result directly from sustained, severe peripheral hypertension. (See the image below.) (A) A strong sensory input (not necessarily noxious) is carried into the spinal cord via intact peripheral nerves. The most common origins are bladder and bowel. (B) This strong (...) , Walker G, Marsh DR. Development of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury is associated with a lack of serotonergic axons in the intermediolateral cell column. J Neurotrauma . 2010 Oct. 27(10):1805-18. . Phillips AA, Ainslie PN, Warburton DE, Krassioukov AV. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Autonomic Dysreflexia in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma . 2016 Feb 1. 33 (3):315-8. . Krassioukov A, Warburton DE, Teasell R, Eng JJ. A systematic review of the management of autonomic

2014 eMedicine.com

117. Spinal Cord Hemorrhage (Treatment)

”-like lesions with associated hemosiderin rings Possible surgery if recurrent bleeds Coagulation deficits History of warfarin, heparin, or other medications; elevated PTT or INR; sudden onset of deficits; genetic causes; liver or autoimmune disease; malignancy Possible air-fluid levels Anticoagulation reversal; correction of deficient coagulation factor(s); treatment of underlying problem Spinal cord tumor Progressive neurological deficits; known history of cancer (especially renal cell carcinoma (...) Spinal Cord Hemorrhage (Treatment) Spinal Cord Hemorrhage Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NDEzOC10cmVhdG1lbnQ= processing

2014 eMedicine.com

118. Spinal Stenosis and Neurogenic Claudication (Treatment)

by experienced injectionists. Transient corticosteroid dose-related side effects include facial flushing, low-grade fever, insomnia, anxiety, agitation, hyperglycemia, and fluid retention. Steroids may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary axis for 3 months following the injection. Lastly, vasovagal reaction, nerve root injury, injectate allergy, and temporary pain exacerbation can occur as well. Results of ESI for spinal stenosis Recent studies assessing efficacy of fluoroscopically guided, contrast-enhanced (...) after surgery include the following: Sustained axial and radicular pain Progressive spinal deformity Cerebrospinal fluid leak Epidural hematoma Pulmonary embolism (PE) Some authors report spondylolisthesis as a complication of lumbar decompression without arthrodesis, especially after total facetectomy. Preoperative risk factors for postoperative development or progression of L4 or L5 spondylolisthesis include the following: Absence of degenerative osteophytosis Small and sagittally oriented facets

2014 eMedicine.com

119. Cardiovascular Concerns in Spinal Cord Injury (Treatment)

lead to increased blood pressure. Corticosteroids cause sodium and fluid retention to improve symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, and sympathomimetics augment coronary and cerebral blood flow. Anticholinergics are administered to improve conduction through the atrioventricular (AV) node; this is accomplished by a reduction of vagal tone by way of muscarinic receptor blockade. Previous References Partida E, Mironets E, Hou S, Tom VJ. Cardiovascular dysfunction following spinal cord injury. Neural (...) in the management of orthostatic hypotension Atropine: Drug of choice for bradycardia but rarely used in rehabilitation settings except during emergencies (phenylephrine and dopamine also can be considered) Alpha-adrenergic agonists: Improve the patient's hemodynamic status by increasing myocardial contractility and heart rate Corticosteroids: Cause sodium and fluid retention, resulting in improvements in symptomatic orthostatic hypotension Sympathomimetics: Augment coronary and cerebral blood flow

2014 eMedicine.com

120. Autonomic Dysreflexia in Spinal Cord Injury (Treatment)

. If left untreated, autonomic dysreflexia can cause seizures, retinal hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, renal insufficiency, myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and, ultimately, death. Complications associated with autonomic dysreflexia result directly from sustained, severe peripheral hypertension. (See the image below.) (A) A strong sensory input (not necessarily noxious) is carried into the spinal cord via intact peripheral nerves. The most common origins are bladder and bowel. (B) This strong (...) , Walker G, Marsh DR. Development of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury is associated with a lack of serotonergic axons in the intermediolateral cell column. J Neurotrauma . 2010 Oct. 27(10):1805-18. . Phillips AA, Ainslie PN, Warburton DE, Krassioukov AV. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Autonomic Dysreflexia in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma . 2016 Feb 1. 33 (3):315-8. . Krassioukov A, Warburton DE, Teasell R, Eng JJ. A systematic review of the management of autonomic

2014 eMedicine.com

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