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81. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

field testing (perimetry) optic disc photographs MRI of brain with or without contrast lumbar puncture at spinal L3/L4 magnetic resonance venogram of head optical coherence tomography (OCT) Treatment algorithm ACUTE Contributors Authors Professor Department of Neurology and Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics and Iowa City VA Health Care System Iowa City IA Disclosures MW declares that he has no competing interests. Chief Resident in Ophthalmology (...) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Idiopathic intracranial hypertension Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary The most popular hypothesis is that idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome of reduced cerebrospinal fluid absorption. Clinical features include headaches, pulse-synchronous

2018 BMJ Best Practice

82. EMA confirms recommendations to minimise risk of brain infection PML with Tysabri

EMA confirms recommendations to minimise risk of brain infection PML with Tysabri EMA confirms recommendations to minimise risk of brain infection PML with Tysabri | European Medicines Agency Search Search Menu EMA confirms recommendations to minimise risk of brain infection PML with Tysabri Press release 26/02/2016 More frequent MRI scans should be considered for patients at higher risk The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has completed its review of the known risk of progressive multifocal (...) leukoencephalopathy (PML) with the multiple sclerosis medicine Tysabri (natalizumab), and has confirmed initial recommendations 1 aimed at minimising this risk. PML is a rare brain infection caused by John Cunningham (JC) virus. This virus is very common in the general population and is normally harmless; however, it can lead to PML in persons whose immune system is weakened. The most common symptoms of PML are progressive weakness, speech and communication difficulties, vision changes, and sometimes changes

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

83. Incidence of meningeal enhancement on brain MRI secondary to lumbar puncture Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of meningeal enhancement on brain MRI secondary to lumbar puncture Concern for reactive meningeal enhancement after lumbar puncture (LP) is a common reason for performing brain MRI prior to LP. We sought to determine actual incidence of unexplained meningeal enhancement after LP.We collected results from all contrasted brain MRIs in patients admitted to adult neurology at a New York City hospital over a 3-year period. We used electronic medical records to determine whether an LP had (...) been done within 30 days prior to brain MRI. The control group comprised those brain MRIs not preceded by an LP within 30 days prior to imaging. Number of cases of unexplained meningeal enhancement was compared between groups using a Fisher exact test. We recorded variables such as number of LP attempts, needle size, amount of fluid removed, and days from LP to brain MRI.From 2011 to 2013, there were 77 cases of LP prior to brain MRI and 707 controls (n = 784). Of the cases, 3 had meningeal

2016 Neurology: Clinical Practice

84. Decreased Cerebral Spinal Fluid Neurotransmitter Levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decreased Cerebral Spinal Fluid Neurotransmitter Levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with cognitive impairment and a distinct behavioral phenotype that includes autistic features. SLOS is caused by a defect in 3β-hydroxysterol Δ(7)-reductase which leads to decreased cholesterol levels and elevated cholesterol precursors, specifically 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol. However, the pathological processes (...) contributing to the neurological abnormalities in SLOS have not been defined. In view of prior data suggesting defects in SLOS in vesicular release and given the association of altered serotonin metabolism with autism, we were interested in measuring neurotransmitter metabolite levels in SLOS to assess their potential to be used as biomarkers in therapeutic trials. We measured cerebral spinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA

2014 Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease

85. Efficacy and safety of intrathecal meropenem and vancomycin in the treatment of postoperative intracranial infection in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy and safety of intrathecal meropenem and vancomycin in the treatment of postoperative intracranial infection in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This study investigated the improvement and safety of intrathecal meropenem and vancomycin in the treatment of postoperative intracranial infection in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). A retrospective analysis was performed on 86 patients with intracranial infections after cranial trauma operation in Tai'an (...) Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital and Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical University from May 2004 to June 2017. The patients were divided into the control group (43 patients) and the experimental group (43 patients) according to the treatment. Patients in the control group were intravenously infused with vancomycin hydrochloride (1.0 g, Q12H) and meropenem (2.0 g, Q8H). After lumbar cistern drainage was performed for the release of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), patients in the experimental group were

2019 Experimental and therapeutic medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

86. Guidelines for the prescription of a seated wheelchair or mobility scooter for people with a traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury

Guidelines for the prescription of a seated wheelchair or mobility scooter for people with a traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury Guidelines for the prescription of a seated wheelchair or mobility scooter for people with a traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury Guidelines for the prescription of a seated wheelchair or mobility scooter for people with a traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury 2 Guidelines for the prescription of a seated wheelchair or mobility scooter (...) for people with a traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury This publication is endorsed by Occupational Therapy (OT) Australia – NSW Division You may copy, distribute, display and otherwise freely deal with this work for any purpose, provided that you attribute the LTCSA and EnableNSW as the owners. However, you must obtain permission if you wish to (1) charge others for access to the work (other than at cost), (2) include the work in advertising or a product for sale, or (3) modify the work. ISBN

2011 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

87. Brain stem herniation secondary to cerebrospinal fluid drainage in ruptured aneurysm surgery: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain stem herniation secondary to cerebrospinal fluid drainage in ruptured aneurysm surgery: a case report A lumbar drainage catheter is frequently placed intra-operatively to decrease fluid pressure on the brain in aneurysmal subarachnoid cases. In rare cases, this catheter placement can lead to intracranial hypotension, resulting in brain stem herniation termed "brain sag" and it can lead to neurological injury and may prove to be fatal. We present our patient with brain sag secondary (...) to intraoperative lumbar drainage.A 56-year-old woman was admitted with a sudden onset of severe headache. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. After general anesthesia, a lumbar drainage catheter was placed intra-operatively to reduce pressure on the brain and 50 cc of CSF was removed during a 5-h period. Three to five days after operation, her neurologic symptoms became worse with an altered mental state and pupillary

2016 SpringerPlus

88. Concurrent Alzheimer's pathology in patients with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus: correlation of high-volume lumbar puncture results, cortical brain biopsies, and outcomes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Concurrent Alzheimer's pathology in patients with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus: correlation of high-volume lumbar puncture results, cortical brain biopsies, and outcomes. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) remains most often a clinical diagnosis and has been widely considered responsive to the placement of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt. The high incidence of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with NPH symptoms leads to poorer outcomes than would be expected in patients (...) with NPH alone. This article reviews a series of patients operated on for presumed NPH in whom preoperative high-volume lumbar puncture (HVLP) and intraoperative cortical brain biopsies were performed. The data derived from these procedures were then used to understand the incidence of AD in patients presenting with NPH symptoms and to analyze the efficacy of HVLP in patients with NPH and patients with concurrent AD (NPH+AD). A review of the outcomes of shunt surgery is provided.The cases of all

2015 Journal of Neurosurgery

89. Age differences in brain structural and metabolic responses to binge ethanol exposure in fisher 344 rats. (Abstract)

using in vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS). At baseline, total brain volume as well as the volumes of each of the three constituent tissue types (i.e., cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), gray matter, white matter) were greater in old relative to young rats. Baseline metabolite levels (except for GSH) were higher in older than younger animals. Effects of binge ethanol (EtOH) exposure on brain volumes and neurometabolites replicated our previous findings in Wistar (...) Age differences in brain structural and metabolic responses to binge ethanol exposure in fisher 344 rats. An overarching goal of our research has been to develop a valid animal model of alcoholism with similar imaging phenotypes as those observed in humans with the ultimate objective of assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological agents. In contrast to our findings in humans with alcohol use disorders (AUD), our animal models have not demonstrated enduring brain pathology despite chronic

2020 Neuropsychopharmacology

90. Obstructive Hydrocephalus Due to Intraventricular Hemorrhage Following Incidental Durotomy during Lumbar Spine Surgery. (Abstract)

be symptomatic and present with spinal headaches, pseudomeningoceles, wound infection, meningitis and rarely intracerebral hemorrhage.A 76-year-old woman underwent L3-S1 laminectomies and fusion for lumbar spondylosis and stenosis. Intraoperatively, a small incidental durotomy was encountered and primarily repaired.The patient developed altered mental status on postoperative day 2. Computed tomography of the brain revealed obstructive hydrocephalus and intraventricular hemorrhage. The patient was immediately (...) transferred to the neurosurgery intensive care unit and an external ventricular drain was placed emergently with high opening pressure. Her mental status improved immediately after cerebral spinal fluid diversion. The external ventricular drain was successfully removed after 8 days. The patient made a full recovery and was discharged in stable condition.Obstructive hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage is an exceptionally rare but potentially life-threatening complication of incidental

2015 Spine

91. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

to the , just above the back of the neck. The brain stem controls functions such as breathing, , and , and the and muscles used in seeing, hearing, walking, talking, and eating. Most childhood brain stem gliomas are (DIPG), which form in the pons. gliomas form in other parts of the brain stem. Anatomy of the brain. The supratentorial area (the upper part of the brain) contains the cerebrum, lateral ventricle and third ventricle (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), choroid plexus, pineal gland (...) , hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and optic nerve. The posterior fossa/infratentorial area (the lower back part of the brain) contains the cerebellum, tectum, fourth ventricle, and brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla). The tentorium separates the supratentorium from the infratentorium (right panel). The skull and meninges protect the brain and spinal cord (left panel). are the second most common type of in children. This summary is about the treatment of brain tumors ( that begin in the brain). Treatment

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

92. Evidence for Fungal Infection in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Tissue from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for Fungal Infection in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain Tissue from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Among neurogenerative diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal illness characterized by a progressive motor neuron dysfunction in the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease; yet, to date, the exact etiology of ALS remains unknown. In the present work, we have explored the possibility of fungal infection (...) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in brain tissue from ALS patients. Fungal antigens, as well as DNA from several fungi, were detected in CSF from ALS patients. Additionally, examination of brain sections from the frontal cortex of ALS patients revealed the existence of immunopositive fungal antigens comprising punctate bodies in the cytoplasm of some neurons. Fungal DNA was also detected in brain tissue using PCR analysis, uncovering the presence of several fungal species. Finally, proteomic analyses of brain

2015 International journal of biological sciences

93. Gender Modulates the APOE ε4 Effect in Healthy Older Adults: Convergent Evidence from Functional Brain Connectivity and Spinal Fluid Tau Levels Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gender Modulates the APOE ε4 Effect in Healthy Older Adults: Convergent Evidence from Functional Brain Connectivity and Spinal Fluid Tau Levels We examined whether the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on functional brain connectivity is modulated by gender in healthy older human adults. Our results confirm significantly decreased connectivity in the default mode network in healthy older APOE ε4 carriers compared with ε3 homozygotes. More important, further testing revealed (...) a significant interaction between APOE genotype and gender in the precuneus, a major default mode hub. Female ε4 carriers showed significantly reduced default mode connectivity compared with either female ε3 homozygotes or male ε4 carriers, whereas male ε4 carriers differed minimally from male ε3 homozygotes. An additional analysis in an independent sample of healthy elderly using an independent marker of Alzheimer's disease, i.e., spinal fluid levels of tau, provided corresponding evidence for this gender

2012 The Journal of Neuroscience

94. Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital

fluid therapy or within 24 hours of stopping IV fluids Peripheral oedema Pitting oedema in extremities and/or lumbar sacral area No other obvious cause identified (for example, nephrotic syndrome or known cardiac failure) During IV fluid therapy or within 24 hours of stopping IV fluids Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital (CG174) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 21 of 26Hyperkalaemia Serum (...) Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital Intr Intra av venous fluid ther enous fluid therap apy in adults in y in adults in hospital hospital Clinical guideline Published: 10 December 2013 nice.org.uk/guidance/cg174 © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration

2013 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

95. Studies on Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. No. VI : The establishment of Drainage of Intra-Ocular and Intracranial Fluids into the Venous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies on Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. No. VI : The establishment of Drainage of Intra-Ocular and Intracranial Fluids into the Venous System 19972191 2010 06 22 2018 11 13 0097-3599 31 1 1914 Sep The Journal of medical research J Med Res Studies on Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. No. VI : The establishment of Drainage of Intra-Ocular and Intracranial Fluids into the Venous System. 149-166.1 Wegefarth P P eng Journal Article United States J Med Res 17920120R 0097-3599 2009 12 9 6 0 1914 9 1 0 0 1914 9 1 0 1

1914 The Journal of Medical Research

96. Studies on Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. No. VII : The analogous Processes of the cerebral and Ocular Fluids Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies on Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. No. VII : The analogous Processes of the cerebral and Ocular Fluids 19972192 2010 06 22 2010 06 22 0097-3599 31 1 1914 Sep The Journal of medical research J Med Res Studies on Cerebro-Spinal Fluid. No. VII : The analogous Processes of the cerebral and Ocular Fluids. 167-76 Wegefarth P P Weed L H LH eng Journal Article United States J Med Res 17920120R 0097-3599 2009 12 9 6 0 1914 9 1 0 0 1914 9 1 0 1 ppublish 19972192 PMC2094436

1914 The Journal of Medical Research

97. Intrathoracic pressure regulation therapy applied to ventilated patients for treatment of compromised cerebral perfusion from brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

of venous blood and cerebral spinal fluid in the skull, and enhances cerebral blood flow. We examined the feasibility of active intrathoracic pressure regulation therapy in patients with brain injury. We hypothesized that active intrathoracic pressure regulation therapy would be associated with lowered intracranial pressure and increased cerebral perfusion pressure in these patients.At three institutions, active intrathoracic pressure regulation therapy (CirQlator™, ZOLL) was utilized for 2 consecutive (...) Intrathoracic pressure regulation therapy applied to ventilated patients for treatment of compromised cerebral perfusion from brain injury Reducing intrathoracic pressure in the setting of compromised cerebral perfusion due to acute brain injury has been associated with reduced intracranial pressure and enhanced cerebral perfusion pressure and blood flow in animals. Noninvasive active intrathoracic pressure regulation lowers intrathoracic pressure, increases preload, reduces the volume

2018 Journal of medical case reports

98. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and headache after lumbar puncture: a prospective non-invasive imaging study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and headache after lumbar puncture: a prospective non-invasive imaging study. The spatial distribution and clinical correlation of cerebrospinal fluid leakage after lumbar puncture have not been determined. Adult in-patients receiving diagnostic lumbar punctures were recruited prospectively. Whole-spine heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography was carried out to characterize post-lumbar puncture spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakages. Maximum rostral migration (...) was defined as the distance between the most rostral spinal segment with cerebrospinal fluid leakage and the level of lumbar puncture. Eighty patients (51 female/29 male, mean age 49.4 ± 13.3 years) completed the study, including 23 (28.8%) with post-dural puncture headache. Overall, 63.6% of periradicular leaks and 46.9% of epidural collections were within three vertebral segments of the level of lumbar puncture (T12-S1). Post-dural puncture headache was associated with more extensive and more rostral

2015 Brain

99. The Passage of Penicillins into the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid and Brain in Experimental Meningitis: Experimental Investigations on Rabbits Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Passage of Penicillins into the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid and Brain in Experimental Meningitis: Experimental Investigations on Rabbits 14252871 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0032-5473 40 1964 Dec Postgraduate medical journal Postgrad Med J THE PASSAGE OF PENICILLINS INTO THE CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID AND BRAIN IN EXPERIMENTAL MENINGITIS--EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON RABBITS. SUPPL:112-9 LITHANDER A A eng Journal Article England Postgrad Med J 0234135 0032-5473 0 Penicillins OM Animals Brain Cerebrospinal (...) Fluid Humans Meningitis Metabolism Penicillins Pharmacology Rabbits Research BRAIN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID EXPERIMENTAL LAB STUDY MENINGITIS METABOLISM PENICILLIN PHARMACOLOGY RABBITS 1964 12 1 1964 12 1 0 1 1964 12 1 0 0 ppublish 14252871 PMC2483085

1964 Postgraduate medical journal

100. Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (4th edition)

. • At the present time there is insufficient evidence to recommend levetiracetam compared with phenytoin regarding efficacy in preventing early post-traumatic seizures and toxicity. a BtpO 2 , brain tissue O 2 partial pressure; CBF, cerebral blood flow; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid drainage; DC, decompressive craniectomy; EEG, electroencephalogram; EVD, external ventricular drainage; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS-E, Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended; ICP, intracranial pressure; ICU, intensive care unit; LMWH, low (...) with phenytoin regarding efficacy in preventing early post-traumatic seizures and toxicity. a BtpO 2 , brain tissue O 2 partial pressure; CBF, cerebral blood flow; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid drainage; DC, decompressive craniectomy; EEG, electroencephalogram; EVD, external ventricular drainage; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS-E, Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended; ICP, intracranial pressure; ICU, intensive care unit; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; PaCO 2 , partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide; PI, povidone

2016 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

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