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21. Study protocol: ASCRIBED: the impact of Acute SystematiC inflammation upon cerebRospinal fluId and blood BiomarkErs of brain inflammation and injury in dementia: a study in acute hip fracture patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the brain. The impact of Acute SystematiC inflammation upon cerebRospinal fluId and blood BiomarkErs of brain inflammation and injury in Dementia: a study in acute hip fracture patients (ASCRIBED) explores this relationship, to understand the effect of inflammation on the progression of dementia.This protocol describes a multi-centre sample collection observational study. The study utilises the unique opportunity provided by hip fracture operations undertaken via spinal anaesthesia to collect (...) Study protocol: ASCRIBED: the impact of Acute SystematiC inflammation upon cerebRospinal fluId and blood BiomarkErs of brain inflammation and injury in dementia: a study in acute hip fracture patients. Hip fracture represents a substantial acute inflammatory trauma, which may constitute a significant insult to the degenerating brain. Research suggests that an injury of this kind can affect memory and thinking in the future but it is unclear whether, and how, inflammatory trauma injures

2019 BMC Neurology

22. MRI-guided definition of cerebrospinal fluid distribution around cranial and sacral nerves: implications for brain tumors and craniospinal irradiation. (Abstract)

MRI-guided definition of cerebrospinal fluid distribution around cranial and sacral nerves: implications for brain tumors and craniospinal irradiation. Background: The SIOPE-Brain Tumor Group recently published a guideline on craniospinal target volume delineation for highly conformal radiotherapy. In order to spare critical structures like e.g., the lens or cochlea, highly conformal techniques can underdose the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the dural reflections around cranial and sacral nerves (...) the inner table of the skull for the cranial nerves, and outside the spinal canal for the sacral nerves. Results: CSF extension (mean distance [95% CI]) was visible within the dural sheaths surrounding the majority of the cranial nerves: optic nerve (40 mm [38-42]), trigeminal nerve (16 mm [15-19]), facial-vestibulocochlear nerve (11 mm [11-12]), glossopharyngeal-vagus-accessory nerve (7 mm [7-9]) and hypoglossal nerve (8 mm [7-9]). No CSF was observed outside the spinal canal at sacral level

2019 Acta Oncologica

23. Cerebral Spinal Fluid

Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cerebral Spinal Fluid Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cerebral Spinal (...) Fluid Aka: Cerebral Spinal Fluid , CSF II. Definitions Cerebrospinal Fluid Clear, colorless fluid produced in the plexus within the walls of the s Flows through the s within the subarachnoid space Surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord III. Physiology Plexus: Formation of CSF Tufts of capillaries in s Produces CSF at 20 ml/hour (up to 500 ml/day) Pathway See for CSF flows down Magendie and Luschka canals and via subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord CSF Reabsorption CSF

2018 FP Notebook

24. The Microtubule-Modulating Drug Epothilone D Alters Dendritic Spine Morphology in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Microtubule-Modulating Drug Epothilone D Alters Dendritic Spine Morphology in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Microtubule dynamics underpin a plethora of roles involved in the intricate development, structure, function, and maintenance of the central nervous system. Within the injured brain, microtubules are vulnerable to misalignment and dissolution in neurons and have been implicated in injury-induced glial responses and adaptive neuroplasticity in the aftermath of injury (...) . Unfortunately, there is a current lack of therapeutic options for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, using a clinically relevant model of mild TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Thy1-YFPH mice, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of the brain-penetrant microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone D. At 7 days following a single mild lateral FPI the ipsilateral hemisphere was characterized by mild astroglial activation and a stereotypical and widespread pattern

2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience

25. Tumor DNA in cerebral spinal fluid reflects clinical course in a patient with melanoma leptomeningeal brain metastases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tumor DNA in cerebral spinal fluid reflects clinical course in a patient with melanoma leptomeningeal brain metastases Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from brain tumor patients contains tumor cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which provides a less-invasive and routinely accessible method to obtain tumor genomic information. In this report, we used droplet digital PCR to test mutant tumor DNA in CSF of a patient to monitor the treatment response of metastatic melanoma leptomeningeal disease (LMD (...) ). The primary melanoma was known to have a BRAF (V600E) mutation, and the patient was treated with whole brain radiotherapy and BRAF inhibitors. We collected 9 CSF samples over 6 months. The mutant cfDNA fraction gradually decreased from 53 % (time of diagnosis) to 0 (time of symptom alleviation) over the first 6 time points. Three months after clinical improvement, the patient returned with severe symptoms and the mutant cfDNA was again detected in CSF at high levels. The mutant DNA fraction corresponded

2016 Journal of neuro-oncology

26. Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for prevention of Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Prospective, Randomized controlled study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for prevention of Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Prospective, Randomized controlled study. Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite various treatment modalities, the optimal management of vasospasm remains elusive. In this regard; we undertook a prospective, randomized controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage (...) (LCSFD) for prevention of cerebral vasospasm and its sequelae.Patients with aneurysmal SAH who met the inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups - Group I (30 patients) underwent LCSFD whereas Group II (30 patients) did not undergo LCSFD. All patients underwent aneurysmal clipping. Both the groups received standard neurosurgical treatment except for LCSFD. The outcome was measured in terms of (1) clinically evident vasospasm; (2) vasospasm-related cerebral infarction; (3) condition

2019 Asian journal of neurosurgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

27. Paediatric Trauma: Stabilisation of the Cervical Spine

and prolonged immobilisation. - Raising the intracranial pressure in children with traumatic brain injury (although the studies all involve small numbers of adults and show only small rises in pressure which may not be clinically significant)[5][6][7][8]. The lack of evidence of benefit and concerns surrounding potential harm have led the Advanced Paediatric Life Support Group [9], Resuscitation Council UK [10] and International Liaison Committee On Resuscitation (ILCOR) [11][12] to recommend that semi (...) blocks, carefully consider the risks / benefits of trauma anaesthesia and immobilisation versus allowing the child to find a position of comfort. If a cervical spine injury is confirmed by imaging (or suspected despite normal radiographs or CT), ongoing immobilisation can be achieved using an appropriately sized rigid collar, applied by a trained clinician and prescribed by a Registrar or Consultant in Spinal Surgery / Neurosurgery. In summary: ? The use of semi-rigid collars in children

2020 Royal College of Emergency Medicine

28. Sudden cerebral depression detected by bispectral index monitoring in cryptococcal meningitis with elevated near‐fatal cerebrospinal fluid pressure Full Text available with Trip Pro

showed hypertension, went into a coma, and even loss his light reflexes due to CSFP elevation. His BIS values had abruptly dropped before developing these symptoms, but dramatically recovered after lumbar puncture drainage, suggesting that BIS monitoring could reflect cerebral function changes due to CSFP alternations.Inducing continuous spinal drainage to control CSFP provided stable control of blood pressure and brain activity, which was continuously monitored by BIS, enabling us to provide prompt (...) Sudden cerebral depression detected by bispectral index monitoring in cryptococcal meningitis with elevated near‐fatal cerebrospinal fluid pressure An increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) is usually prominent in cryptococcal meningitis, which has a high mortality rate, so aggressive management to control CSFP is crucial. In this case, a 40-year-old-man survived cryptococcal meningitis treated with continuous spinal drainage under bispectral index (BIS) monitoring. He unexpectedly

2017 Acute medicine & surgery

29. Brain Tumor Mutations Detected in Cerebral Spinal Fluid. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain Tumor Mutations Detected in Cerebral Spinal Fluid. Detecting tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the blood of brain tumor patients is challenging, presumably owing to the blood-brain barrier. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) may serve as an alternative "liquid biopsy" of brain tumors by enabling measurement of circulating DNA within CSF to characterize tumor-specific mutations. Many aspects about the characteristics and detectability of tumor mutations in CSF remain undetermined.We used (...) digital PCR and targeted amplicon sequencing to quantify tumor mutations in the cfDNA of CSF and plasma collected from 7 patients with solid brain tumors. Also, we applied cancer panel sequencing to globally characterize the somatic mutation profile from the CSF of 1 patient with suspected leptomeningeal disease.We detected tumor mutations in CSF samples from 6 of 7 patients with solid brain tumors. The concentration of the tumor mutant alleles varied widely between patients, from <5 to nearly 3000

2015 Clinical Chemistry

30. Epidural Blood Patch Performed for Severe Intracranial Hypotension Following Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery. Retrospective Series and Literature Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidural Blood Patch Performed for Severe Intracranial Hypotension Following Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery. Retrospective Series and Literature Review Intracranial hypotension (IH) can occur following lumbar drainage for clipping of an intracranial aneurysm. We observed 3 cases of IH, which were all successfully treated by epidural blood patch (EBP). Herein, the authors report our cases.

2015 Journal of cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgery

31. Effect of goal-directed fluid therapy on early cognitive function in elderly patients with spinal stenosis: A Case-Control Study. (Abstract)

Effect of goal-directed fluid therapy on early cognitive function in elderly patients with spinal stenosis: A Case-Control Study. To explore effect of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on early cognitive function in elderly patients with spinal stenosis.83 elderly patients with spinal stenosis were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 40) and GDFT group (n = 43). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, IL-6 and S100β levels, hemodynamic parameters, cerebral oxygen (...) position of elderly patients with spinal stenosis, improve the balance between perfusion of tissue and organ and supply and demand of oxygen, reduce the inflammatory response, and reduce the incidence of early POCD in this type of surgery.Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 International journal of surgery (London, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

32. Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord: the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord: the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Understanding the normal fluid physiology of the spinal cord may give insight (...) into the pathogenesis of spinal cord oedema and CSF disorders such as syringomyelia. We therefore aimed to determine the fluid outflow pathways in the rat spinal cord.A fluorescent tracer, Alexa-Fluor®-647 Ovalbumin, was injected into the extracellular space of either the cervicothoracic lateral white matter or the grey matter in twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats over 250 s. The rats were sacrificed at 20 or 60 min post injection. Spinal cord segments were sectioned and labelled with vascular antibodies

2018 Fluids and barriers of the CNS

33. Dietary fats promote functional and structural changes in the median eminence blood/spinal fluid interface—the protective role for BDNF Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dietary fats promote functional and structural changes in the median eminence blood/spinal fluid interface—the protective role for BDNF The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats activates an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, damaging key neurons involved in the regulation of caloric intake and energy expenditure. It is currently unknown why the mediobasal hypothalamus is the main target of diet-induced brain inflammation. We hypothesized that dietary fats can damage the median (...) eminence blood/spinal fluid interface.Swiss mice were fed on a high-fat diet, and molecular and structural studies were performed employing real-time PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and metabolic measurements.The consumption of a high fat diet was sufficient to increase the expression of inflammatory cytokines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the median eminence, preceding changes in other circumventricular regions. In addition, it led to an early loss

2018 Journal of neuroinflammation

34. Reduced spinal cord parenchymal cerebrospinal fluid circulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (Abstract)

Reduced spinal cord parenchymal cerebrospinal fluid circulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. An alteration of parenchymal cerebrospinal fluid circulation (CSF) has been proposed to take part in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. By using an intragate T1-weighted high-resolution MRI of the spinal cord of freely breathing mice injected with a gadolinium chelate in the cisterna magna, we show that a parenchymal CSF circulation exists in the spinal cord, in addition (...) to that originally described in the brain. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis, we show a reduction of parenchymal CSF circulation specifically in the spinal cord but not in the brain.

2018 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

35. Comparison of Different Protocols of Fluid Therapy in Severe Preeclamptic Patients Under Spinal Anesthesia

Comparison of Different Protocols of Fluid Therapy in Severe Preeclamptic Patients Under Spinal Anesthesia Comparison of Different Protocols of Fluid Therapy in Severe Preeclamptic Patients Under Spinal Anesthesia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparison of Different Protocols of Fluid Therapy in Severe Preeclamptic Patients Under Spinal Anesthesia The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03478618

2018 Clinical Trials

36. Atraumatic (pencil-point) versus conventional needles for lumbar puncture Full Text available with Trip Pro

, or increased hospital duration of stay. Post-dural-puncture headache, among other adverse effects of lumbar punctures, is attributed to the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the dural defect into the epidural space that is created by the spinal needle during puncture. Conventional needles have a sharp tip (designed to cut through tissues) and a distal opening. In comparison, atraumatic needles are more blunt with a closed pencil-point or cone shaped tip and a side port for injection or collection (...) concerns Inconsistency No serious concerns Publication bias No serious concerns Use of atraumatic needles decreases the probability of returning to hospital for intravenous fluids or controlled analgesia Maximal follow up 2 days – 3 weeks Failed lumbar puncture High More 33 38 No important difference Risk of Bias No serious concerns Imprecision No serious concerns Indirectness No serious concerns Inconsistency No serious concerns Publication bias No serious concerns Use of atraumatic needles has little

2018 BMJ Rapid Recommendations

37. Brain abscess

disease hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia or AVM diabetes mellitus HIV or immunocompromise intravenous drug use chronic granulomatous disease haemodialysis birth prematurity cystic fibrosis Diagnostic investigations FBC serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) serum CRP serum PT and PTT blood culture serum toxoplasma titre MRI with contrast CT head with and without contrast ultrasound head (infants) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) lumbar puncture (LP) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (...) Brain abscess Brain abscess - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Brain abscess Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: August 2018 Summary Potentially life-threatening condition, with clinical and radiological presentation similar to central nervous system tumour. Requires early recognition for optimal outcome. Lesions may be single or multi-focal. Aetiological agents may be bacterial, fungal

2018 BMJ Best Practice

38. Multiple intracranial and spinal cord syphilitic gummas in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative man with untreated syphilis: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple intracranial and spinal cord syphilitic gummas in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative man with untreated syphilis: A case report. Multiple syphilitic gummas involving both the brain and spinal cord are quite rare. Central nervous system (CNS) syphilitic gummas are commonly misdiagnosed as CNS tumors, and clinical suspicion and diagnosis of a syphilitic gumma by physicians are vital to avoiding unnecessary surgeries. Our case emphasizes the importance of routine serologic syphilis (...) tests and standard therapy with penicillin in patients with a CNS mass.A 22-year-old previously healthy man presented with a 9-day history of progressive right lower limb weakness.The diagnosis of gummatous neurosyphilis was based on positive serological, cerebrospinal fluid tests for syphilis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which revealed the presence of multiple dural-based enhancing masses with marked edema.Therapy consisting of intravenous penicillin G at 24 million units daily

2019 Medicine

39. Cerebrospinal Fluid NLRP3 is Increased after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants and Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebrospinal Fluid NLRP3 is Increased after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants and Children Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children (...) with severe TBI.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (n = 34) with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score [GCS] ≤8) who had externalized ventricular drains (EVD) placed for routine care was evaluated for NLRP1 and NLRP3 at 0-24, 25-48, 49-72, and >72 h post-TBI and was compared to infection-free controls that underwent lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection (n = 8). Patient age, sex, initial GCS, mechanism of injury, treatment with therapeutic hypothermia, and 6-month Glasgow outcome score were

2017 Neurocritical care

40. Elevation of brain-enriched miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute ischemic stroke Full Text available with Trip Pro

Elevation of brain-enriched miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute ischemic stroke The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of cerebrospinal fluid miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers of acute ischemic stroke using three different profiling techniques in order to identify and bypass any influence from technical variation.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 21) and controls (n = 21) was collected by lumbar puncture. miRNA analysis (...) was performed with three different methods: 1) Trizol RNA extraction followed by Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on all small RNAs, 2) Exiqon RNA extraction protocol and miRNA qPCR assays, and 3) validation of 24 selected miRNAs with Norgen Biotek RNA extraction protocol and Applied Biosystems qPCR assays.NGS detected 71 frequently expressed miRNAs in CSF of which brain-enriched miR-9-5p and miR-128-3p were significantly higher in CSF of stroke patients compared to controls. When dividing stroke

2017 Biomarker research

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