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Cerebellum Anatomy

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1. Cerebellum Anatomy

Cerebellum Anatomy Cerebellum Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cerebellum Anatomy Cerebellum Anatomy Aka (...) : Cerebellum Anatomy , Cerebellum II. Anatomy: General Communication with Superior peduncle Middle peduncle Inferior peduncle Vascular III. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) IV. Exam See V

2018 FP Notebook

2. The Anatomy of Fear Learning in the Cerebellum: A Systematic Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

The Anatomy of Fear Learning in the Cerebellum: A Systematic Meta-analysis. Recent neuro-imaging studies have implicated the cerebellum in several higher-order functions. Its role in human fear conditioning has, however, received limited attention. The current meta-analysis examines the loci of cerebellar contributions to fear conditioning in healthy subjects, thus mapping, for the first time, the neural response to conditioned aversive stimuli onto the cerebellum. By using the activation (...) likelihood estimation (ALE) technique for analyses, we identified several distinct regions in the cerebellum that activate in response to the presentation of the conditioned stimulus: the cerebellar tonsils, lobules HIV-VI, and the culmen. These regions have separately been implicated in fear acquisition, consolidation of fear memories and expression of conditioned fear responses. Their specific role in these processes may be attributed to the general contribution of cerebellar cortical networks

2015 Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews

3. Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum (PubMed)

Encoding of error and learning to correct that error by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum The primary output cells of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells, make kinematic predictions about ongoing movements via high-frequency simple spikes, but receive sensory error information about that movement via low-frequency complex spikes (CS). How is the vector space of sensory errors encoded by this low-frequency signal? Here we measured Purkinje cell activity in the oculomotor vermis of animals (...) . From these results, we inferred the anatomy of a sensory-to-motor adaptive controller that transformed visual error vectors into motor-corrections.

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2018 Nature neuroscience

4. Functional gradients of the cerebellum (PubMed)

Functional gradients of the cerebellum A central principle for understanding the cerebral cortex is that macroscale anatomy reflects a functional hierarchy from primary to transmodal processing. In contrast, the central axis of motor and nonmotor macroscale organization in the cerebellum remains unknown. Here we applied diffusion map embedding to resting-state data from the Human Connectome Project dataset (n = 1003), and show for the first time that cerebellar functional regions follow

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2018 eLife

5. Structural asymmetries of the human cerebellum in relation to cerebral cortical asymmetries and handedness (PubMed)

. In terms of behavior, hand use elicits asymmetrical activation in the cerebellum, while hand preference is weakly associated with language lateralization. However, it is not known how, or whether, these functional relations are reflected in anatomy. We investigated volumetric gray matter asymmetries of cerebellar lobules in an MRI data set comprising 2226 subjects. We tested these cerebellar asymmetries for associations with handedness, and for correlations with cerebral cortical anatomical asymmetries (...) Structural asymmetries of the human cerebellum in relation to cerebral cortical asymmetries and handedness There is evidence that the human cerebellum is involved not only in motor control but also in other cognitive functions. Several studies have shown that language-related activation is lateralized toward the right cerebellar hemisphere in most people, in accordance with leftward cerebral cortical lateralization for language and a general contralaterality of cerebral-cerebellar activations

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2016 Brain structure & function

6. Visualizing and mapping the cerebellum with serial optical coherence scanner (PubMed)

Visualizing and mapping the cerebellum with serial optical coherence scanner We present the visualization of the mouse cerebellum and adjacent brainstem using a serial optical coherence scanner, which integrates a vibratome slicer and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for ex vivo imaging. The scanner provides intrinsic optical contrasts to distinguish the cerebellar cortical layers and white matter. Images from serial scans reveal the large-scale anatomy in detail and map (...) the nerve fiber pathways in the cerebellum and brainstem. By incorporating a water-immersion microscope objective, we also present high-resolution tiled images that delineate fine structures in the cerebellum and brainstem.

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2016 Neurophotonics

7. Cranial ultrasonography of the immature cerebellum: Role and limitations. (PubMed)

consequences. Early detection is therefore important. This review focuses on techniques that optimize the performance of CUS when studying the preterm cerebellum, including the use of the mastoid fontanel and the adaptation of focus points and scan frequencies. For illustration, CUS images of the normal posterior fossa anatomy as well as examples of abnormalities that may be encountered in preterm infants are included. We also discuss the limitations of CUS and the role of magnetic resonance (...) Cranial ultrasonography of the immature cerebellum: Role and limitations. Cranial ultrasonography (CUS) is a reliable and non-invasive tool to detect frequently occurring brain abnormalities and to monitor brain development and maturation in high risk neonates. Standard CUS views are obtained through the anterior fontanel. However, evaluation of the posterior fossa is often suboptimal with this approach. Cerebellar injury occurs frequently in preterm infants and has important prognostic

2016 Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine

8. Reconstructing the Neanderthal brain using computational anatomy (PubMed)

Reconstructing the Neanderthal brain using computational anatomy The present study attempted to reconstruct 3D brain shape of Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens based on computational neuroanatomy. We found that early Homo sapiens had relatively larger cerebellar hemispheres but a smaller occipital region in the cerebrum than Neanderthals long before the time that Neanderthals disappeared. Further, using behavioural and structural imaging data of living humans, the abilities such as cognitive (...) flexibility, attention, the language processing, episodic and working memory capacity were positively correlated with size-adjusted cerebellar volume. As the cerebellar hemispheres are structured as a large array of uniform neural modules, a larger cerebellum may possess a larger capacity for cognitive information processing. Such a neuroanatomical difference in the cerebellum may have caused important differences in cognitive and social abilities between the two species and might have contributed

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2018 Scientific reports

9. Anatomy Based Networks and Topology Alteration in Seizure-Related Cognitive Outcomes (PubMed)

Anatomy Based Networks and Topology Alteration in Seizure-Related Cognitive Outcomes Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive (...) comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized. Anatomical components including the hippocampus, amygdala, cortex, corpus callosum (CC), cerebellum and white matter (WM) are the fundamental components of seizure- and cognition-related topological networks. Damage to these structures and their substructures results in worsening of epilepsy symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. In this review article, we survey structural

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2018 Frontiers in neuroanatomy

10. Cerebellum Anatomy

Cerebellum Anatomy Cerebellum Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cerebellum Anatomy Cerebellum Anatomy Aka (...) : Cerebellum Anatomy , Cerebellum II. Anatomy: General Communication with Superior peduncle Middle peduncle Inferior peduncle Vascular III. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) IV. Exam See V

2015 FP Notebook

11. The Minute Anatomy of the Spinal Cord and Cerebellum Demonstrated by Golgi's Method (PubMed)

The Minute Anatomy of the Spinal Cord and Cerebellum Demonstrated by Golgi's Method 17231932 2007 02 07 2008 11 20 25 Pt 3 1891 Apr Journal of anatomy and physiology J Anat Physiol The Minute Anatomy of the Spinal Cord and Cerebellum Demonstrated by Golgi's Method. 443-60 Von Kölliker A A Turner W A WA eng Journal Article England J Anat Physiol 7900125 1891 4 1 0 0 1891 4 1 0 1 1891 4 1 0 0 ppublish 17231932 PMC1328180

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1891 Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

12. Sexual selection impacts brain anatomy in frogs and toads (PubMed)

associated with relative brain size. While none of those factors related to the relative size of olfactory nerves, optic tecta, telencephalon, and cerebellum, the olfactory bulbs were relatively larger in monogamous species and those using calls during courtship. Our findings support the mosaic model of brain evolution and suggest that while the investigated aspects of sexual selection do not seem to play a prominent role in the evolution of brain size of anurans, they do impact their brain anatomy. (...) Sexual selection impacts brain anatomy in frogs and toads Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size

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2016 Ecology and evolution

13. Brain Anatomy in Latino Farmworkers Exposed to Pesticides and Nicotine (PubMed)

associations with pesticide and nicotine exposure.Farmworkers had greater gray matter signal in putamen and cerebellum, and lower gray matter signal in frontal and temporal lobes. Urinary cotinine was associated with the observed differences in brain anatomy, but blood cholinesterase activity was not.Nicotine exposure was associated with neuroanatomical differences between Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Future studies are needed to differentiate iron deposition from brain atrophy and to further (...) Brain Anatomy in Latino Farmworkers Exposed to Pesticides and Nicotine Migrant tobacco farmworkers experience regular occupational exposure to pesticides and nicotine. The present study was designed to determine whether there are differences in brain anatomy between Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers.Magnetic resonance brain images were compared between farmworkers and non-farmworkers. In addition, blood cholinesterase activity and urinary cotinine levels were also used to identify

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2016 Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

14. The developing human brain: age‐related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy (PubMed)

The developing human brain: age‐related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort.One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation (...) of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm.Cortical thickness analysis revealed that most cortical regions decrease linearly, while surface area increases linearly with age. Volume relative to total cerebrum followed a quadratic trend with age, with only the left supramarginal gyrus showing sexual dimorphism. Hippocampal relative volume increased linearly, while the thalamus, caudate, and putamen

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2016 Brain and behavior

15. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia (PubMed)

Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study (...) demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

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2016 Frontiers in psychology

16. Intracranial Anatomy

in the supplying vessels with CVA in this region (despite small distribution) may result in significant neurologic deficits Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Anatomy: Cerebellum See See IV. Anatomy: Brain Stem See Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) V. Anatomy: Diencephalon Epithalamus (posterior) Habenula (and habenular commissure) Stria ris Pineal gland Subthalamus See Claustrum Amygdala VI. Anatomy: Images Lewis (...) Intracranial Anatomy Intracranial Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Intracranial Anatomy Intracranial Anatomy

2018 FP Notebook

17. Spinal Cord Anatomy

Spinal Cord Anatomy Spinal Cord Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Spinal Cord Anatomy Spinal Cord Anatomy Aka (...) : Spinal Cord Anatomy , Spinocerebellar Tract , Corticospinal tract , Spinothalamic Tract , Fasciculus Gracilis , Fasciculus Cuneatus , Nucleus Gracilis , Nucleus Cuneatus , Dorsal Propriospinal Tract , Posterior Column , Spinocervicothalamic Tract , Internal Arcuate Tract , Medial Lemniscus II. Components: Spinal Cord Levels ral Total spinal nerves: 31 pairs Spinal cord ends at L2 Spinal nerves L2 to S5 descend as individual "horse hairs" (cauda equina) Nerves exit at their respective l levels

2018 FP Notebook

18. Neurologic Anatomy

: Neurologic Anatomy , Neuroanatomy II. Anatomy: Extracranial and Vascular Anatomy Bones See Peripheral Nerves See See See CNS Vascular Supply See III. Anatomy: Cerebrum Major divisions Anatomical landmarks (divide the cerebral lobes into further identifiable regions) Brain sulci and Brain Fissures IV. Anatomy: Cerebellum See See V. Anatomy: Brain Stem See See s Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) VI. Anatomy: Diencephalon Epithalamus (posterior) Habenula (and habenular commissure) Stria (...) Neurologic Anatomy Neurologic Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Neurologic Anatomy Neurologic Anatomy Aka

2018 FP Notebook

19. Brain Stem Anatomy

Brain Stem Anatomy Brain Stem Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Brain Stem Anatomy Brain Stem Anatomy Aka: Brain (...) Stem Anatomy , Brain Stem , Brainstem , Cranial Nerve Nucleus , Nucleus Solitarius , Nucleus Ambiguous , Somatic Motor Nucleii , Visceral Motor Nucleii , Visceral Sensory Nucleii , Somatic Sensory Nucleii II. Anatomy: Components Most superior aspect of the Brainstem Lies immediately inferior to the Diencephalon Lies deep to the and Immediately superior to the spinal cord Lies deep to the clivus (slanted bony surface) Lies just above the foramen magnum (hole at skull base) With , the is the first

2018 FP Notebook

20. Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements? (PubMed)

Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements? The accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling can be affected by vascular factors other than cerebral blood flow, such as flow velocity and arterial transit time. We aimed to elucidate the effects of common variations (...) in vascular anatomy of the circle of Willis on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal. In addition, we investigated whether possible differences in pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal could be mediated by differences in flow velocities. Two hundred and three elderly participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans. Mean pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal was calculated

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2016 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

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