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Cerebellar Function Test

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1. A simple saccadic reading test to assess ocular motor function in cerebellar ataxia. (PubMed)

A simple saccadic reading test to assess ocular motor function in cerebellar ataxia. Cerebellar ataxia is a neurological disorder due to dysfunction of the cerebellum that affects coordination of fine movement, gait, and balance. Although ataxic patients commonly exhibit abnormal eye movement and have difficulties with saccadic reading, quantification of ocular motor abilities during reading in the clinical setting is rarely done. In this study, we assess visual performance with simple reading (...) tests that can be used in the clinical setting and performed video infrared oculography in 11 patients with hereditary or acquired cerebellar ataxia and 11 age-matched controls. We found that compared with controls, ataxic patients read significantly slower on regularly and irregularly spaced 120 single-digit number reading tasks (read aloud) (p = 0.02 for both) but not on a word reading task (read silently), although there was large variability on the word reading task. Among the 3 reading tasks

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2018 PLoS ONE

2. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats. (PubMed)

A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats. Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test (...) for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate

2017 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

3. Mice lacking EFA6C/Psd2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, exhibit lower Purkinje cell synaptic density but normal cerebellar motor functions. (PubMed)

Mice lacking EFA6C/Psd2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, exhibit lower Purkinje cell synaptic density but normal cerebellar motor functions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase that regulates various neuronal events including formation of the axon, dendrites and dendritic spines, and synaptic plasticity through actin cytoskeleton remodeling and endosomal trafficking. EFA6C, also known as Psd2, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 that is preferentially (...) expressed in the cerebellar cortex of adult mice, particularly in Purkinje cells. However, the roles of EFA6C in cerebellar development and functions remain unknown. In this study, we generated global EFA6C knockout (KO) mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and investigated their cerebellar phenotypes by histological and behavioral analyses. Histological analyses revealed that EFA6C KO mice exhibited normal gross anatomy of the cerebellar cortex, in terms of the thickness and cellularity of each layer

2019 PLoS ONE

4. Cerebellar Function Test

Cerebellar Function Test Cerebellar Function Test Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cerebellar Function Test Cerebellar (...) Function Test Aka: Cerebellar Function Test , Cerebellar Function II. Exam Dysmetria Overshooting target Alternating hand movements Heel-knee-shin Romberg Test (may demonstrate ) Walking on base of foot Tandem walking Overall coordination Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cerebellar Function Test." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip

2018 FP Notebook

5. Degeneration of the Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle After Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: Another Perspective on Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis. (PubMed)

cerebellum is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether changes in the spinocerebellar pathway occur after middle cerebral artery stroke. Methods- Twenty-three patients admitted to our inpatient rehabilitation facility and 23 age-matched healthy controls were retrospectively enrolled. Patients' functional ambulation category was determined and the Medical Research Council muscle scale test of the lower limb muscles was performed at admission and discharge. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values (...) of the corticospinal tract and the inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP), as the final route of the dorsal spinocerebellar pathway, were compared between the groups. The FA laterality indices of the ICP and corticospinal tract were calculated as follows: (FAaffected-FAunaffected)/(FAaffected+FAunaffected). Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the associations between the FA laterality indices and ambulatory function. Results- The FAs of the corticospinal tract

2019 Stroke

6. Cerebellar Structural Abnormalities Associated With Cognitive Function in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis (PubMed)

on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in patients. In addition, smaller left lobule X volume was related to performance delay on the Trail Making Test (TMT) Part B in patients. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that cerebellar structural abnormalities are present at the early stage of schizophrenia. We suggest functional associations of cerebellar structural changes with non-verbal executive dysfunctions in FEP. (...) Cerebellar Structural Abnormalities Associated With Cognitive Function in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis Introduction: The fundamental role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive processing has recently been highlighted. However, inconsistent findings exist in schizophrenia with respect to the exact nature of cerebellar structural abnormalities and their associations with cognitive and clinical features. Materials and Methods: We undertook a detailed investigation of cerebellar lobular

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2018 Frontiers in Psychiatry

7. Anti-Saccades in Cerebellar Ataxias Reveal a Contribution of the Cerebellum in Executive Functions (PubMed)

Anti-Saccades in Cerebellar Ataxias Reveal a Contribution of the Cerebellum in Executive Functions Increasing evidence suggests a cerebellar contribution to modulate cognitive aspects of motor behavior and executive functions. Supporting findings come from studies on patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in which however, given the extent of the disease, the specific role of the cerebellum, could not be clearly isolated. Anti-saccades are considered a sensitive tool to test executive (...) functions. The anti-saccade underlying neural network, consisting of different cortical areas and their downstream connections including the lateral cerebellum, has been largely clarified. To separate the role of the cerebellum with respect to other cortical structures in executive control, we compared the anti-saccade performances in two distinct cohorts of patients with cerebellar disorders (with and without cerebral cortical involvement).Eye movements during the execution of anti-saccades were

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

8. Heavy Chronic Ethanol Exposure From Adolescence to Adulthood Induces Cerebellar Neuronal Loss and Motor Function Damage in Female Rats (PubMed)

Heavy Chronic Ethanol Exposure From Adolescence to Adulthood Induces Cerebellar Neuronal Loss and Motor Function Damage in Female Rats Over the last years, heavy ethanol consumption by teenagers/younger adults has increased considerably among females. However, few studies have addressed the long-term impact on brain structures' morphology and function of chronic exposure to high ethanol doses from adolescence to adulthood in females. In line with this idea, in the current study we investigated (...) whether heavy chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence to adulthood may induce motor impairments and morphological and cellular alterations in the cerebellum of female rats. Adolescent female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) during 55 days by gavage. At 90 days of age, motor function of animals was assessed using open field (OF), pole, beam walking and rotarod tests. Following completion of behavioral tests, morphological

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2018 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

9. tDCS Associated With Locomotor Training on Functional Mobility of Cerebellar Ataxia

) will be applied during treadmill LT. The functional mobility will be the primary outcome and will be evaluated through timed up and go test (TUG). Ataxia' severity, balance, postural stability and fall risky, will be the secondary outcomes and will be evaluated by the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA), balance evaluation system test (miniBest), postural stability index by the Biodex balance system and TUG, respectively. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Ataxia, Cerebellar (...) tDCS Associated With Locomotor Training on Functional Mobility of Cerebellar Ataxia tDCS Associated With Locomotor Training on Functional Mobility of Cerebellar Ataxia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before

2018 Clinical Trials

10. Treatment of cerebellar motor dysfunction and ataxia

inpatient rehabilitation probably improves ataxia and function (1 Class I study); transcranial magnetic stimulation possibly improves cerebellar motor signs at 21 days (1 Class II study). For patients with multiple sclerosis–associated ataxia, the addition of pressure splints possibly has no additional benefit compared with neuromuscular rehabilitation alone (1 Class II study). Data are insufficient to support or refute use of stochastic whole-body vibration therapy (1 Class III study). Glossary AAN (...) is possibly effective for improving SARA total score at 12 weeks (1 Class II study). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Class II study (predating genetic testing) of 254 patients with “spinocerebellar degeneration” (SCD) administered 0.5 and 2 mg of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), intramuscularly, once daily for 2 weeks. A higher percentage of patients with late-onset cerebellar cortical atrophy and olivopontocerebellar atrophy were rated as “markedly

2018 American Academy of Neurology

11. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus promotes persistent functional recovery after stroke (PubMed)

Optogenetic neuronal stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus promotes persistent functional recovery after stroke Stroke induces network-wide changes in the brain, affecting the excitability in both nearby and remotely connected regions. Brain stimulation is a promising neurorestorative technique that has been shown to improve stroke recovery by altering neuronal activity of the target area. However, it is unclear whether the beneficial effect of stimulation is a result of neuronal or non (...) -neuronal activation, as existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically activate/inhibit all cell types (neurons, glia, endothelial cells, oligodendrocytes) in the stimulated area. Furthermore, which brain circuit is efficacious for brain stimulation is unknown. Here we use the optogenetics approach to selectively stimulate neurons in the lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN), a deep cerebellar nucleus that sends major excitatory output to multiple motor and sensory areas in the forebrain. Repeated LCN

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2017 Scientific reports

12. AZATAX: Acetazolamide safety and efficacy in cerebellar syndrome in PMM2 congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG)

AZATAX: Acetazolamide safety and efficacy in cerebellar syndrome in PMM2 congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG) Phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2 congenital disorder of glycosylation [PMM2-CDG]) causes cerebellar syndrome and strokelike episodes (SLEs). SLEs are also described in patients with gain-of-function mutations in the CaV2.1 channel, for which acetazolamide therapy is suggested. Impairment in N-glycosylation of CaV2.1 promotes gain-of-function effects and may participate (...) = 0.006). Acetazolamide improved prothrombin time, factor X, and antithrombin. Clinical severity, epilepsy, and lipodystrophy predicted greater response. The randomized withdrawal phase showed ICARS worsening in the withdrawal group (effect size = 1.46, 95% CI = 2.65-7.52, p = 0.001).AZATAX is the first clinical trial of PMM2-CDG. Acetazolamide is well tolerated and effective for motor cerebellar syndrome. Its ability to prevent SLEs and its long-term effects on kidney function should be addressed

2019 EvidenceUpdates

13. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population (PubMed)

study were subjected to a range of sensitive and validated cerebellar tests that cover functions of all main parts of the cerebellar cortex, including cerebrocerebellum, spinocerebellum, and vestibulocerebellum. In addition, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to screen for cerebellar lesions. As a positive control, the same cerebellar tests were conducted in 13 patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1; age range 19-64; 69% female) all carrying (...) a CACNA1A mutation known to affect cerebellar function. Results MRI revealed cerebellar ischemic lesions in 17/196 (8.5%) migraine patients and 3/79 (4%) controls, which were always located in the posterior lobe except for one control. With regard to the cerebellar tests, there were no differences between migraine patients with aura, migraine patients without aura, and controls for the: (i) Purdue-pegboard test for fine motor skills (assembly scores p = 0.1); (ii) block-design test for visuospatial

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2016 Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache

14. Body Sway Increases After Functional Inactivation of the Cerebellar Vermis by cTBS (PubMed)

Body Sway Increases After Functional Inactivation of the Cerebellar Vermis by cTBS Balance stability correlates with cerebellar vermis volume. Furthermore, the cerebellum is involved in precise timing of motor processes by fine-tuning the sensorimotor integration. We tested the hypothesis that any cerebellar action in stance control and in timing of visuomotor integration for balance is impaired by continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) of the vermis. Ten subjects stood quietly and underwent (...) and increased in both visual conditions after cTBS. CoP oscillation was also larger with EC and increased under both visual conditions after cTBS. The delay at which body oscillation changed after visual shift was longer after EC to EO than EO to EC, but unaffected by cTBS. The time constant of decrease or increase of oscillation was longer in EC to EO shifts, but unaffected by cTBS. Functional inactivation of the cerebellar vermis is associated with increased sway. Despite this, cTBS does not detectably

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2016 Cerebellum (London, England)

15. Altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. (PubMed)

transformation) between each seed signal and the time series from all other voxels within the entire brain. Finally, a second-level random-effect two-sample t-test was performed on the individual z-maps in a voxel-wise manner.Reduced functional connectivity of the right cerebellar crus I with the left middle frontal gyrus and right cerebellar lobule IX was observed in the default network of BAFME. Enhanced functional connectivity of the left cerebellar lobule VIII with the bilateral middle temporal gyri (...) Altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity in benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. The pathogenesis of benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME) remains unknown, although cerebellar pathologic changes and brain hyperexcitability have been reported. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and cerebrum in a Chinese family with BAFME for the first time.Eleven adults with BAFME and 15

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2016 Epilepsia

16. Cognitive impairment in cerebellar lesions: a logit model based on neuropsychological testing (PubMed)

Cognitive impairment in cerebellar lesions: a logit model based on neuropsychological testing Damage to the cerebellum may lead to motor dysfunctions, but also to the neuropsychological deficits that comprise the Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome (CCAS). It can affect executive functions, attention, memory, visuospatial functions, language, and emotions. Our goal was to determine which neuropsychological tests could be effectively used to identify this syndrome during a short (...) examination.Twenty-five patients with an isolated cerebellar lesion and 25 matched healthy controls were examined using an extensive neuropsychological battery.Logistic regression models and sub-models were computed for individual tests, as well as for the full battery. The best results were produced by a model combining patient education level, the number of errors on the California Verbal Learning Test, and time on Prague Stroop Test (Dots).Based on the results, we suggest that a condensed battery

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2017 Cerebellum & ataxias

17. Cerebellar-Prefrontal Network Connectivity and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. (PubMed)

Cerebellar-Prefrontal Network Connectivity and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. The interpretability of results in psychiatric neuroimaging is significantly limited by an overreliance on correlational relationships. Purely correlational studies cannot alone determine whether behavior-imaging relationships are causal to illness, functionally compensatory processes, or purely epiphenomena. Negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia, amotivation, and expressive deficits) are refractory to current (...) medications and are among the foremost causes of disability in schizophrenia. The authors used a two-step approach in identifying and then empirically testing a brain network model of schizophrenia symptoms.In the first cohort (N=44), a data-driven resting-state functional connectivity analysis was used to identify a network with connectivity that corresponds to negative symptom severity. In the second cohort (N=11), this network connectivity was modulated with 5 days of twice-daily transcranial magnetic

2019 American Journal of Psychiatry

18. Biallelic intragenic duplication in ADGRB3 (BAI3) gene associated with intellectual disability, cerebellar atrophy, and behavioral disorder. (PubMed)

Biallelic intragenic duplication in ADGRB3 (BAI3) gene associated with intellectual disability, cerebellar atrophy, and behavioral disorder. In recent years, chromosomal microarray analysis has permitted the discovery of rearrangements underlying several neurodevelopmental disorders and still represents the first diagnostic test for unexplained neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here we report a family of consanguineous parents showing psychiatric disorders and their two sons both affected (...) involving ADGRB3 have recently been associated with psychiatric disorders. These findings further support this association and also suggest that biallelic variants affecting the function of the ADGRB3 gene may also cause cognitive impairments and ataxia.

2019 European Journal of Human Genetics

19. AZATAX: Acetazolamide safety and efficacy in cerebellar syndrome in PMM2-CDG. (PubMed)

AZATAX: Acetazolamide safety and efficacy in cerebellar syndrome in PMM2-CDG. Phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2 congenital disorder of glycosylation [PMM2-CDG]) causes cerebellar syndrome and strokelike episodes (SLEs). SLEs are also described in patients with gain-of-function mutations in the CaV2.1 channel, for which acetazolamide therapy is suggested. Impairment in N-glycosylation of CaV2.1 promotes gain-of-function effects and may participate in cerebellar syndrome in PMM2-CDG. AZATAX (...) was designed to establish whether acetazolamide is safe and improves cerebellar syndrome in PMM2-CDG.A clinical trial included PMM2-CDG patients, with a 6-month first-phase single acetazolamide therapy group, followed by a randomized 5-week withdrawal phase. Safety was assessed. The primary outcome measure was improvement in the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Other measures were the Nijmegen Pediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS), a syllable repetition test (PATA test), and cognitive

2019 Annals of Neurology

20. Monoacylglycerol lipase blockade impairs fine motor coordination and triggers cerebellar neuroinflammation through cyclooxygenase-2. (PubMed)

to the reduced AA precursor levels. We found that acute JZL184 administration, previously described to exert anti-inflammatory effects, and MAGL knockout (KO) mice display cerebellar, but not hippocampal, microglial reactivity, accompanied with increased expression of the mRNA levels of neuroinflammatory markers, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Notably, this neuroinflammatory phenotype correlated with relevant motor coordination impairment in the beam-walking and the footprint tests. Treatment with the COX (...) -2 inhibitor NS398 during 5 days prevented the deficits in cerebellar function and the cerebellar microglia reactivity in MAGL KO, without affecting hippocampal reactivity. Altogether, this study reveals the brain region-specific response to MAGL inhibition, with an important role of COX-2 in the cerebellar deficits associated, which should be taken into account for the use of MAGL inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

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