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Cavernous Sinus

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101. Malignant fungal infection of the cavernous sinus: case report. (PubMed)

Malignant fungal infection of the cavernous sinus: case report. Intracranial spread of fungal infection is a life-threatening condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients. Here the authors present a case of biopsy-proven Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the paranasal sinuses in an immunocompetent patient with documented spread to the orbit, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex despite medical antifungal treatment. As a life-saving treatment, cavernous sinus resection with external (...) carotid artery-middle cerebral artery bypass was performed. The authors discuss the literature regarding the intracranial spread of paranasal sinus fungal infections in immunocompetent patients and management strategies.

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2015 Journal of Neurosurgery

102. Endoscopic endonasal management of non-functioning pituitary adenomas with cavernous sinus invasion: a 10- year experience. (PubMed)

Endoscopic endonasal management of non-functioning pituitary adenomas with cavernous sinus invasion: a 10- year experience. The management of Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma (NFPA) invading the cavernous sinus (CS) is currently a balancing act between the surgical decompression of neural structures, radiotherapy and a wait-and-see policy.We undertook a retrospective review of 56 cases of NFPA with CS invasion treated through an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) between 2000 and 2010

2015 Rhinology

103. Ophthalmic manifestations and outcomes after cavernous sinus thrombosis in children. (PubMed)

Ophthalmic manifestations and outcomes after cavernous sinus thrombosis in children. To review the causes, treatment, and outcomes of cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) in children.The medical records of children (<18 years of age) diagnosed with thrombophlebitis of an intracranial venous sinus were reviewed to identify cases of CST presenting to Children's Hospital Colorado from January 2000 through January 2013. Cases were evaluated for etiology, symptoms, imaging characteristics, treatment (...) , and outcomes.A total of 110 children with a venous thrombus of an intracranial sinus were included. Of these, 9 had a CST. All cases were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. All 9 had sinusitis, 4 had orbital involvement, and 1 resulted from a nasal septal abscess. Eight cases presented with ophthalmoplegia, and 5 presented with decreased vision. Every patient underwent sinus surgery: 4 underwent orbitotomy for abscess drainage, and 1 required bilateral exenteration. Cultures were inconclusive in 2

2015 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

104. Pediatric cavernous sinus thrombosis: A case series and review of the literature. (PubMed)

Pediatric cavernous sinus thrombosis: A case series and review of the literature. To describe clinical characteristics, imaging findings, morbidity, and mortality in a single-center cohort of 12 pediatric cavernous sinus thrombosis cases and to review all cases available in recent English literature.Clinical data and radiographic studies on 12 cases from our institution were analyzed retrospectively. A literature search and review was conducted, with additional cases pooled with the new cohort (...) for an aggregate analysis.Twelve cases of cavernous sinus thrombosis in children from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, were reviewed. All patients survived to discharge; 3 of 12 (25%) experienced neurologic morbidity. Contrast-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced head CT were 100% sensitive for detecting cavernous sinus thrombosis, while noncontrast time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography (TOF MRV) and noncontrast head CT were 0% sensitive. Literature

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2015 Neurology

105. Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis in Children: Imaging Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes. (PubMed)

Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis in Children: Imaging Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes. Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare life-threatening cerebrovascular disease known to cause carotid artery narrowing (CAN) and arterial ischemic stroke. The imaging features of CST and related complications have been reported in adults, but rarely in children.We performed a retrospective review of children with imaging confirmed CST from 2003 to 2014, describing presenting symptoms, imaging findings (...) , and treatment.Ten patients with CST were identified. All had CAN and 6 of 10 developed infarcts. Of 8 patients treated with anticoagulation therapy, 3 developed new infarcts. None required discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy because of bleeding. Visual impairment secondary to infectious neuritis was common. Imaging characteristics include cavernous sinus expansion, filling defects, restricted diffusion, arterial wall enhancement, empyema, superior ophthalmic vein enlargement and thrombosis, orbital

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2015 Stroke

106. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis with infectious arteritis of the internal carotid artery (PubMed)

Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis with infectious arteritis of the internal carotid artery 26621906 2016 09 12 2018 11 13 1757-790X 2015 2015 Nov 30 BMJ case reports BMJ Case Rep Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis with infectious arteritis of the internal carotid artery. 10.1136/bcr-2015-213314 bcr2015213314 Lee Hwa Reung HR Department of Neurology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Kim Hye Weon HW Department of Neurology, Sanggye Paik Hospital (...) Bacterial Infections drug therapy etiology Carotid Artery Diseases drug therapy etiology Carotid Artery, Internal Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis complications Female Humans Magnetic Resonance Angiography Middle Aged Tomography, X-Ray Computed 2015 12 2 6 0 2015 12 2 6 0 2016 9 13 6 0 epublish 26621906 bcr-2015-213314 10.1136/bcr-2015-213314 PMC4680287 Intern Med. 2007;46(6):317-23 17380002 Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;26(1):137-80, vii 18249261 Neurologist. 2012 Sep;18(5):310-2 22931741

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2015 BMJ case reports

107. Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula in a Patient with Facial Bone Fractures (PubMed)

Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula in a Patient with Facial Bone Fractures 26618131 2015 11 30 2018 11 13 2234-6163 42 6 2015 Nov Archives of plastic surgery Arch Plast Surg Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula in a Patient with Facial Bone Fractures. 791-3 10.5999/aps.2015.42.6.791 Yu Sang Soo SS Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Goyang, Korea. Lee Soo Hyang SH Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ilsan Paik

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2015 Archives of plastic surgery

108. Key imaging characteristics for preoperative identification of cavernous sinus hemangioma (PubMed)

Key imaging characteristics for preoperative identification of cavernous sinus hemangioma Cavernous sinus hemangiomas are relatively rare but have characteristic imaging features. We present a case of a large extra-axial middle cranial fossa mass arising from the cavernous sinus in a 51-year-old female, and we describe the unique features and complications of this intracranial tumor. With the proper pre-operative diagnosis, an appropriate plan can be created for these highly vascular lesions

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2015 Radiology Case Reports

109. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas (PubMed)

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas The present retrospective study aimed to analyze the outcome of patients with cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). Between August 2011 and April 2014, 7 patients with CSHs underwent GKS. GKS was performed as the sole treatment option in 5 patients, whilst partial resection had been performed previously in 1 patient and biopsy had been performed in 1 patient. The mean volume

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2015 Oncology letters

110. Intractable Posterior Epistaxis due to a Spontaneous Low-Flow Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature (PubMed)

Intractable Posterior Epistaxis due to a Spontaneous Low-Flow Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature We report a case of a 90-year-old patient with intractable posterior epistaxis presenting as the only symptom of a nontraumatic low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Purpose of this case report is to introduce low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula in the differential diagnosis of intractable posterior epistaxis. We provide a literature review (...) for the sequence of actions for the confrontation of posterior epistaxis. We also emphasize the significance of the radiological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of posterior epistaxis due to pathology of the cavernous sinus. The gold-standard diagnostic procedure of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is digital subtraction angiography (DSA). DSA with coils is also the state-of-the-art therapy. By failure of DSA, neurosurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be used as alternatives

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2015 Case reports in otolaryngology

111. A Ruptured Dermoid Cyst of the Cavernous Sinus Extending into the Posterior Fossa (PubMed)

A Ruptured Dermoid Cyst of the Cavernous Sinus Extending into the Posterior Fossa Supratentorial dermoid cysts are uncommon to develop in the cavernous sinus. We present a ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa. The patient was a 32-year-old female who complained occipital headache, blurred vision, and tinnitus over 4 years. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an enhanced tumor in the right cavernous sinus extending into the right temporal (...) base and the posterior fossa with findings of ruptured cyst. Surgical resection was performed, and pathological findings were confirmed to be a dermoid cyst. We report a second case with ruptured dermoid cyst of the cavernous sinus extending into the posterior fossa.

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2015 Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society

112. Invasion of the cavernous sinus space in pituitary adenomas: endoscopic verification and its correlation with an MRI-based classification. (PubMed)

Invasion of the cavernous sinus space in pituitary adenomas: endoscopic verification and its correlation with an MRI-based classification. OBJECT An important prognostic factor for the surgical outcome and recurrence of a pituitary adenoma is its invasiveness into parasellar tissue, particularly into the space of the cavernous sinus (CS). The aims of this study were to reevaluate the existing parasellar classifications using an endoscopic technique and to evaluate the clinical and radiological

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2015 Journal of Neurosurgery

113. Aggressive transsphenoidal resection of tumors invading the cavernous sinus in patients with acromegaly: predictive factors, strategies, and outcomes. (PubMed)

Aggressive transsphenoidal resection of tumors invading the cavernous sinus in patients with acromegaly: predictive factors, strategies, and outcomes. Cavernous sinus (CS) invasion is the most important preoperative predictor of remission in the surgical treatment of growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggressive technique for removal of tumors invading the CS in patients with acromegaly.The authors retrospectively (...) reviewed the cases of 150 consecutive patients with acromegaly who underwent primary transsphenoidal surgery in 2010 and 2011. The authors reviewed preoperative Knosp grade, intraoperative findings, histology of the medial wall of the CS, and surgical outcome according to the current consensus criteria for acromegaly.Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 55 patients (36.7%): definite CS involvement by the tumor was observed under direct vision in 41 patients (74.5%), while invasion

2014 Journal of Neurosurgery

114. Surgical outcomes using a medial-to-lateral endonasal endoscopic approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. (PubMed)

Surgical outcomes using a medial-to-lateral endonasal endoscopic approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. This study details the extent of resection and complications associated with endonasal endoscopic surgery for pituitary tumors invading the cavernous sinus (CS) using a moderately aggressive approach to maximize extent of resection through the medial CS wall while minimizing the risk of cranial neuropathy and blood loss. Tumor in the medial CS was aggressively pursued

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2014 Journal of Neurosurgery

115. Pearls & Oy-sters: Bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome as presenting manifestation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (PubMed)

Pearls & Oy-sters: Bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome as presenting manifestation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. 24514015 2014 04 01 2014 02 11 1526-632X 82 6 2014 Feb 11 Neurology Neurology Pearls & Oy-sters: bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome as presenting manifestation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. e51-4 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000103 Kumari Bhawana B From the Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Centre, Chandigarh, India. Goyal Manoj K MK Lal Vivek V (...) eng Case Reports Journal Article United States Neurology 0401060 0028-3878 AIM IM Abducens Nerve Diseases etiology Carcinoma, Squamous Cell complications diagnosis Cavernous Sinus Cranial Nerve Diseases etiology Hearing Loss, Conductive Humans Male Middle Aged Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms complications diagnosis Oculomotor Nerve Diseases etiology Syndrome Trochlear Nerve Diseases etiology 2014 2 12 6 0 2014 2 12 6 0 2014 4 2 6 0 ppublish 24514015 82/6/e51 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000103

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2014 Neurology

116. A Case Report of Cavernous Sinus Syndrome in a Patient With Takayasu's Arteritis. (PubMed)

A Case Report of Cavernous Sinus Syndrome in a Patient With Takayasu's Arteritis. Neurologists must entertain a broad differential diagnosis when considering a patient with cavernous sinus syndrome, including neoplasm, trauma, vascular causes, inflammatory processes, and infections. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman initially diagnosed with cavernous sinus syndrome, where subsequent investigations revealed findings of Takayasu's arteritis, a large vessel vasculitis. The patient also (...) tested positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, suggesting the possibility of a vasculitic spectrum disorder although no clinical features of Wegener's granulomatosis were present. Criteria for Takayasu's arteritis and its protean neurologic manifestations are reviewed. This case highlights the spectrum of vasculitic conditions that may be associated with cavernous sinus inflammation. © 2014 American Headache Society.

2014 Headache

117. Endoscopic endonasal anatomical study of the cavernous sinus segment of the ophthalmic nerve. (PubMed)

Endoscopic endonasal anatomical study of the cavernous sinus segment of the ophthalmic nerve. This cadaveric study analyzes the endoscopic endonasal anatomy of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (V1 ), from the middle fossa to its orbital entry via the superior orbital fissure. Anatomical relationships with the surrounding cranial nerves and blood vessels are described, with emphasis on their clinical correlation during surgery in this region. Our objective was to describe (...) is the most superior trigeminal branch and runs upward and obliquely, along the middle portion of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. The V1 nerve joins the oculomotor and trochlear nerves to exit the cavernous sinus and enter the orbit through the SOF. Ten percent of the specimens displayed the trochlear nerve running along as a mate of the V1 nerve. The V1 nerve borders two key triangles in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, and the Parkinson's and anteromedial triangles.In this study, the V1

2014 Laryngoscope

118. Endoscopic palliative decompression of the cavernous sinus in a rare case of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the clivus. (PubMed)

Endoscopic palliative decompression of the cavernous sinus in a rare case of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the clivus. We present a rare case of acute cavernous sinus syndrome due to a renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the clivus. This case highlights the role of palliative endoscopic endonasal decompression of the cavernous sinus to relieve cranial neuropathies, obtain tissue diagnosis, and for cytoreduction in preparation for additional adjuvant therapy.

2014 British Journal of Neurosurgery

119. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in the cavernous sinus of a toddler presenting with oculomotor nerve palsy (PubMed)

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in the cavernous sinus of a toddler presenting with oculomotor nerve palsy Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare, highly malignant, and aggressive tumor of infancy. Although the prognosis of ATRT has been extremely poor, recently, the first prospective study for ATRT demonstrated improvement of prognosis. On the other hands, oculomotor nerve palsy is rare in children and the most frequent etiology is congenital. To our knowledge, only a few ATRT (...) cases presenting with oculomotor nerve palsy have been reported, but ATRT originating from the cavernous sinus (CS) has not yet been reported.An 18-month-old girl with right oculomotor nerve palsy was admitted, and a small mass in the right CS was detected with brain MRI. Although she received steroid pulse therapy and antimicrobial therapy, the mass continued to enlarge. One month after admission, the mass was partially resected and diagnosed as ATRT. Multimodal therapy including anthracycline

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2014 Child's Nervous System

120. Anatomical variations in termination of the uncal vein and its clinical implications in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (PubMed)

Anatomical variations in termination of the uncal vein and its clinical implications in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas The aim of the study was to investigate the variations in the uncal vein (UV) termination and its clinical implication in cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CSDAVFs).Biplane cerebral angiography in 80 patients (160 sides) with normal cerebral venous return (normal group) was reviewed with special interest in the termination of the UV. Frequency (...) and types of uncal venous drainage from CSDAVFs in consecutive 26 patients were also analyzed.In the normal group, the UV was identified in 118 sides (74 %). The UV terminated into cavernous sinus (CS) in 41 sides (34 %), the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) in 58 sides (48 %), the laterocavernous sinus (LCS) in 15 sides (13 %), and the paracavernous sinus (PCS) in 4 sides (3 %). Cerebral venous blood via the UV draining into the CS directly (n=41) or through the SMCV and/or the LCS (n=45

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2014 Neuroradiology

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