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Carcinogens in the Workplace

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141. Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility in workers exposed to nitrotoluenes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility in workers exposed to nitrotoluenes. Nitrotoluenes, such as 2-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (24DNT), and 26DNT, are carcinogenic in animal experiments. Humans are exposed to such chemicals in the workplace and in the environment. It is therefore important to develop methods to biomonitor people exposed to nitrotoluenes to prevent the potential harmful effects. For the present study, workers exposed to high levels of these chemicals were

2006 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

142. Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer: where do we stand in research to identify opportunities for prevention? Full Text available with Trip Pro

, food, and women's workplaces. Epidemiologic studies have included only a small number of chemicals identified as mammary carcinogens or as hormone disruptors, which may have implications for breast cancer; however, evidence is emerging for associations between breast cancer and polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organic solvents. Prospective diet studies have not revealed consistent associations with breast cancer. Improved exposure assessment methods will help advance (...) (assessed prospectively), body size, and physical activity, and animal studies that identify chemicals as potential mammary carcinogens. Databases developed in the review include information on 216 chemicals that increased mammary gland tumors in animal studies and 450 epidemiologic studies (accessible at www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and www.komen.org/environment). Exposure to potential mammary carcinogens is widespread from chemicals found in consumer products, air and drinking water pollution

2007 Cancer

143. Exhaled metallic elements and serum pneumoproteins in asymptomatic smokers and patients with COPD or asthma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-cell protein and SP-D levels were negatively and positively influenced, respectively, by tobacco smoke.Our results show that toxic metals and transition elements are detectable in the EBC of studied subjects. We propose new biomarkers of exposure as a means of assessing the target tissue dose of carcinogenic and pneumotoxic substances from tobacco smoke or polluted workplaces, and the use of the transition elements involved in redox systems of oxidative stress as disease biomarkers associated

2006 Chest

144. Contact and Occupational Dermatitis

on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find the article more useful, or one of our other . In this article In This Article Contact and Occupational Dermatitis In this article Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin reaction in response to an external stimulus, acting either as an allergen or an irritant. Occupational dermatitis is the most common of a number of skin diseases caused by exposure to a physical, chemical or biological agent in the workplace. Occupational skin disease (...) such as , , , . Associated diseases [ ] Other conditions which may result from contact with chemicals include: Contact . , especially with oils, and . Skin infections with bacteria, fungi and viruses. Pigmentary disorders. Mechanical skin disease- damage from acute or repetitive trauma. Skin cancer (mainly or ) may be more common than usually recognised. This can be due to UV radiation due to outside working, ionising radiation such as X-rays, lesions arising in scars following industrial burns or chemical carcinogens

2008 Mentor

145. What are the causes of mesothelioma and what occupations are most at risk?

of mesothelioma is an enigma. They also state that the genetic and biological differences between asbestos related and non-asbestos related tumours is unclear. Another review on the pathogenesis of mesothelioma states that the condition has a complex etiology where environmental carcinogens, ionizing radtiaion, viruses and genetic factors act alone or in concert to cause the malignancy (4). The NCI document (1) states that an increased risk of developing mesothelioma has been found in shipyard workers, people (...) living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos-related diseases. This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers. To reduce the chance of exposing family members to asbestos fibers, asbestos workers are usually required to shower and change their clothing before leaving the workplace." In 2001, McDonald et al tried to identify occupations at increased risk of developing

2003 TRIP Answers

146. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing industry. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cancer incidence and mortality in the Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing industry. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) are used in large quantities in the polyurethane foam manufacturing industry. Both substances are mutagenic and at least TDI is carcinogenic to animals, but the occupational hazard with respect to cancer is not known. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were therefore investigated in a cohort of 4154 workers from nine Swedish plants (...) manufacturing polyurethane foam, employed for at least one year. Each workplace and job task in the nine plants was categorically assessed for each calendar year by an experienced occupational hygienist, for "no exposure", "low or intermittent exposure", or "apparent exposure" to TDI and MDI. The observed deficit for all cause mortality (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.78, (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.93) became smaller (SMR 0.92) excluding the first 10 years since the start of exposure

1993 British Journal of Industrial Medicine

147. Occupation and lung cancer in Shanghai: a case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

factor among women in Shanghai, these findings suggest the importance of certain workplace exposures and offer leads to occupational carcinogens.

1988 British Journal of Industrial Medicine

148. Inter-rater agreement in assessing occupational exposure in a case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inter-rater agreement in assessing occupational exposure in a case-control study. The identification of occupational carcinogens in the workplace is a major concern of epidemiologists. A novel case-control approach has been developed which includes as a key component the assessment of a subject's occupational exposure history by a two stage process. Firstly, the subject is interviewed to obtain a detailed lifetime job history. Then a team of chemists and hygienists, hired and trained to do

1986 British Journal of Industrial Medicine

149. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. The chronic toxic effects of lead include anemia, neuropathy, chronic renal disease and reproductive impairment. Lead is a carcinogen in three animal

1982 Western Journal of Medicine

150. The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service: A Physician's Resource in Toxicology and Occupational Medicine Full Text available with Trip Pro

to identify with greater confidence significant cancer or reproductive hazards among the increasing variety of workplace exposures. Occupational experiences with dibromochloropropane (DBCP), Kepone, bis(chloromethyl) ether, benzidine and vinyl chloride demonstrate the shortcomings of relying on human data. The latency period of cancer, limited sensitivity of epidemiologic studies and severity of effects require us to use animal test data to evaluate the potential cancer and reproductive risks of workplace (...) substances. HESIS gives appropriate weight to experimental data in hazard evaluations of chemicals such as ethylene oxide, ethylene dibromide, polychlorinated biphenyls and the glycol ethers. A similar approach is apparent in the California Department of Health Services' recently released Carcinogen Identification Policy.

1982 Western Journal of Medicine

151. Automated follow-up facilities in Canada for monitoring delayed health effects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Automated follow-up facilities in Canada for monitoring delayed health effects. Increased public awareness of the possible presence of carcinogens and other potentially harmful agents in the workplace and in other areas of the environment has created a demand for studies to determine the extent of the risks associated with exposure to such agents. These studies require large numbers of individuals in various "control" populations to be followed-up over long periods of time. Such large-scale

1980 American Journal of Public Health

152. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Asphalt and risk of cancer in man. Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered (...) it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view

1991 British Journal of Industrial Medicine

153. The impact of clean indoor air exemptions and preemption policies on the prevalence of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen among nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

exposed to workplace secondhand smoke were more likely to have any detectable level of NNAL (P=.005) and higher mean levels of NNAL (P < .001) compared with nonexposed participants. Increased levels of NNAL were also associated with hours of a single workplace exposure (P=.005).Nonsmoking employees left unprotected from workplace secondhand smoke exposure had elevated levels of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in their bodies. All workers--including bar and restaurant workers--should be protected from (...) The impact of clean indoor air exemptions and preemption policies on the prevalence of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen among nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers. We studied the impact of clean indoor air law exemptions and preemption policies on the prevalence of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)--among nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers.secondhand smoke were compared with results from participants who were exposed to it.Participants

2007 American Journal of Public Health

154. Greek employee awareness of carcinogenic exposure. (Abstract)

with potential exposure to carcinogenic substances were aware of such occupational exposures. Age, education, and residence were significantly associated with awareness. Employees having at least a secondary level of education were 3.5 times more aware than those having at most 6 years of educational training.Assessing awareness among workers potentially exposed to occupational risk factors and promoting occupational health education are important steps for increasing health and safety at the workplace. (...) Greek employee awareness of carcinogenic exposure. Occupational risk factors contribute significantly to the development of lung cancer; however, little is known about the extent to which employees are informed of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances.Through a case-control study, we estimated the level of awareness among Greek employees potentially exposed to known carcinogenic substances within various occupational settings.Only 6.6% of men (n = 482) employed in occupations

2004 Preventive Medicine

155. Tobacco smoke in the workplace: an occupational health hazard. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tobacco smoke in the workplace: an occupational health hazard. Tobacco smoke, which contains over 50 known carcinogens and many other toxic agents, is a health hazard for nonsmokers who are regularly exposed to it while at work. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke annoys and irritates many healthy nonsmokers. Serious acute health effects are probably limited to the one fifth of the population with pre-existing health conditions that are aggravated by exposure to tobacco smoke (...) . The consequences of long-term exposure include decreased lung function and lung cancer. Existing air quality standards for workplaces do not directly specify an acceptable level for tobacco smoke. The evidence on the composition of tobacco smoke and on the health hazards of involuntary exposure suggests that there may not be a "safe" level for such exposure.

1984 Canadian Medical Association Journal

156. Known occupational carcinogens and their significance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Known occupational carcinogens and their significance. Although rates of occupational cancer can be excessive in certain industries, less than 5% of all cancers seem attributable to exposure to carcinogens in the workplace. For example, workers in hard-rock mining and the woodworking industries are at increased risk; cigarette smoking has a synergistic effect. There is conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity for fewer than 20 substances, including asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, cadmium (...) , radon, several aromatic hydrocarbons and certain herbicides. Most of the hundreds of organic compounds known to be mutagenic in in-vitro tests have not been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiologic studies. Both laboratory and epidemiologic approaches, however, can identify probable causes of cancer and permit the application of effective preventive measures. In addition, it is still possible for the alert individual clinician to make the initial discovery of an occupational hazard.

1984 Canadian Medical Association Journal

157. Carcinogens in the Workplace: A Scientific, Political and Social Problem Full Text available with Trip Pro

Carcinogens in the Workplace: A Scientific, Political and Social Problem Investigation, assessment, and management of carcinogenic risks are not only scientific but also political responsibilities. In Canada, this becomes cumbersome, since local, provincial and federal policies are involved. The process also involves workers and management. This article outlines Canadian legislative experience, the principles involved, the methods of risk assessment, and the classification of carcinogens (...) in the workplace.

1982 Canadian Family Physician

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