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Carcinogens in the Workplace

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121. Tobacco smoking Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and , and ). Cigarette smoking increases the risk of as well as the severity of the course of the disease. It is also the number one cause of . The smoke from tobacco elicits carcinogenic effects on the tissues of the body that are exposed to the smoke. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of over 5,000 identified chemicals, of which 98 are known to have specific properties. The most important chemicals are those that produce DNA damage since such damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer. Cunningham (...) et al. combined the microgram weight of the compound in the smoke of one cigarette with the known effect per microgram to identify the most compounds in cigarette smoke. The seven most important carcinogens in tobacco smoke are shown in the table, along with DNA alterations they cause. The most cancer causing chemicals in cigarette smoke Compound Micrograms per cigarette Effect on DNA Ref. 122.4 Reacts with deoxyguanosine and forms DNA crosslinks, DNA-protein crosslinks and DNA adducts 60.5 DNA

2012 Wikipedia

122. Laryngeal cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

for laryngeal cancer is smoking. Death from laryngeal cancer is 20 times more likely for heaviest smokers than for nonsmokers. Heavy chronic consumption of , particularly alcoholic spirits, is also significant. When combined, these two factors appear to have a synergistic effect. Some other quoted risk factors are likely, in part, to be related to prolonged alcohol and tobacco consumption. These include low socioeconomic status, male sex, and age greater than 55 years. Further risks stem from workplace (...) exposure to polluted breathing air such as wood dust, paint fumes, and certain chemicals used in the metalworking, petroleum, plastics, and textile industries. and infections by People with a history of head and are known to be at higher risk (about 25%) of developing a second cancer of the head, neck, or lung. This is mainly because in a significant proportion of these patients, the aerodigestive tract and lung have been exposed chronically to the carcinogenic effects of alcohol

2012 Wikipedia

123. Passive smoking Full Text available with Trip Pro

that environment. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke disease, disability, and death. The health risks of second-hand smoke are a matter of . These risks have been a major motivation for in workplaces and indoor public places, including , and night clubs, as well as some open public spaces. Concerns around second-hand smoke have played a central role in the debate over the harms and regulation of tobacco products. Since the early 1970s, the has viewed public concern over second-hand smoke as a serious threat (...) the evidence accumulated on a worldwide basis, the concluded in 2004 that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans." : passive smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer. In the United States passive smoke is estimated to cause more than 7,000 deaths from lung cancer a year among non-smokers. : The concluded in 2005 that passive smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in younger, primarily premenopausal females by 70% and the US has

2012 Wikipedia

124. Smoking ban Full Text available with Trip Pro

that causes the same problems as direct smoking, including , , and such as , , and . Specifically, show that lifelong non-smokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20–30% greater risk of lung cancer than non-smokers who live with non-smokers. Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke in the workplace have an increased lung cancer risk of 16–19%. A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that non-smokers are exposed (...) to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers. contains 69 known carcinogens, particularly and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive decay products, such as . Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher concentrations in than in mainstream smoke. Scientific organisations confirming the effects of second-hand smoke include the U.S. , the U.S. (CDC), the U.S. , the , and the World Health

2012 Wikipedia

125. Asbestos

greater than or equal to 5 µm per cubic meter of workplace air for eight-hour shifts and 40-hour work weeks. Completely banned countries [ ] Australia [ ] Asbestos Products Ltd exporting asbestos The use of crocidolite (blue) asbestos was banned in 1967, while the use of amosite (brown) asbestos continued in the construction industry until the mid-1980s. It was finally banned from building products in 1989, though it remained in gaskets and brake linings until 31 December 2003, and cannot be imported (...) in construction [ ] insulation was invented in 1938 and is now the most commonly used type of . The safety of this material has also been called into question due to similarities in material structure. However, the removed fiberglass from its list of possible human carcinogens in 2001 and a scientific review article from 2011 claimed epidemiology data was inconsistent and concluded that the IARC's decision to downgrade the carcinogenic potential of fiberglass was valid (however, this study was funded

2012 Wikipedia

126. Cadmium poisoning

Cadmium poisoning Cadmium poisoning - Wikipedia Cadmium poisoning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ‹ The below ( ) is being considered for merging. See to help reach a consensus. › The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a of the subject . You may , discuss the issue on the , or , as appropriate. ( January 2018 ) ( ) Cadmium poisoning is a naturally occurring toxic heavy metal with common exposure in industrial workplaces, plant soils, and from smoking. Due to its (...) toxic industrial and environmental pollutant classified as a human carcinogen [Group 1 – according to ; Group 2a – according to (EPA); and 1B carcinogen classified by Acute exposure to cadmium fumes may cause flu-like symptoms including chills, fever, and muscle ache sometimes referred to as "the cadmium blues." Symptoms may resolve after a week if there is no respiratory damage. More severe exposures can cause tracheo-bronchitis, pneumonitis, and pulmonary . Symptoms of inflammation may start hours

2012 Wikipedia

127. Lindane Full Text available with Trip Pro

not been shown to affect the in humans, and it is not considered to be genotoxic. Prenatal exposure to β-HCH, an of lindane and production byproduct, has been associated with altered thyroid hormone levels and could affect brain development. The and have set occupational exposure limits ( and , respectively) for lindane at 0.5 mg/m 3 at a time-weighted average of eight hours for skin exposure. People can be exposed to lindane in the workplace by inhaling it, absorbing it through their skin, swallowing (...) it, and eye contact. At levels of 50 mg/m 3 , lindane is . It is classified as an in the United States as defined in section 302 of the U.S. (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. Cancer risk [ ] Based primarily on evidence from animal studies, most evaluations of lindane have concluded that it may possibly cause cancer. In 2015, the classified lindane as a known human carcinogen, and in 2001 the EPA

2012 Wikipedia

128. Cigarette Full Text available with Trip Pro

health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 , including arsenic, formaldehyde, cyanide, lead, nicotine, carbon monoxide, , and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are . Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not from 2011 (...) is that of plants. Under certain growing conditions, plants on average grow taller and have longer roots than those exposed to cigarette filters in the soil. A connection exists between cigarette filters introduced to soil and the depletion of some soil nutrients over a period time. Another health concern to the environment is not only the toxic carcinogens that are harmful to the wildlife, but also the filters themselves pose an ingestion risk to wildlife that may presume filter litter as food. The last major

2012 Wikipedia

129. Chemotherapy

hazardous drugs. The adaptation of federal regulations came when the U.S. (OSHA) first released its guidelines in 1986 and then updated them in 1996, 1999, and, most recently, 2006. The (NIOSH) has been conducting an assessment in the workplace since then regarding these drugs. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been linked to multiple health effects, including infertility and possible carcinogenic effects. A few cases have been reported by the NIOSH alert report, such as one in which (...) of exposure that is less likely compared to others because of the enforced hygienic standard in the health institutions. However, it is still a potential route, especially in the workplace, outside of a health institute. One can also be exposed to these hazardous drugs through injection by . Research conducted in this area has established that occupational exposure occurs by examining evidence in multiple urine samples from health care workers. Hazards [ ] Hazardous drugs expose health care workers

2012 Wikipedia

130. Mesothelioma Full Text available with Trip Pro

a worker's clothes or coming into contact with asbestos-contaminated work clothing. To reduce the chance of exposing family members to asbestos fibres, asbestos workers are usually required to shower and change their clothing before leaving the workplace. [ ] Asbestos in buildings [ ] Many building materials used in both public and domestic premises prior to the banning of asbestos may contain asbestos. Those performing renovation works or activities may expose themselves to asbestos dust. In the UK, use (...) epidemiological investigation has shown that erionite causes mesothelioma mostly in families with a genetic predisposition. Erionite is found in deposits in the Western United States, where it is used in gravel for , and in Turkey, where it is used to construct homes. In Turkey, the United States, and Mexico, erionite has been associated with mesothelioma and has thus been designated a "known human carcinogen" by the US . Other [ ] In rare cases, mesothelioma has also been associated with irradiation

2012 Wikipedia

131. Occupational safety and health Full Text available with Trip Pro

, risk exposure to and various infectious diseases, especially those that are . Dangerous chemicals can pose a in the workplace. There are many classifications of hazardous chemicals, including neurotoxins, immune agents, dermatologic agents, carcinogens, reproductive toxins, systemic toxins, asthmagens, pneumoconiotic agents, and sensitizers. Authorities such as regulatory agencies set to mitigate the risk of chemical hazards. An international effort is investigating the health effects of mixtures (...) . In many countries, however, such standards are still either weak or nonexistent. Part of on Academic disciplines Occupational safety and health ( OSH ), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety ( OHS ), occupational health , or workplace health and safety ( WHS ), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the , , and of people at . These terms also refer to the goals of this field, so their use in the sense of this article was originally an abbreviation of occupational safety

2012 Wikipedia

132. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part I - Influence from Bystander Effects - A Microdose Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part I - Influence from Bystander Effects - A Microdose Analysis Since the publication of the BEIR VI report in 1999 on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, at low domestic and workplace radon levels, in particular the Bystander Effect (BE) and the Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). We analyzed the microbeam (...) , there is a variation of RBE from about 10 to 35. There is a transition region between the Bystander Damage Region and Direct Damage Region of between one and two microdose alpha particle traversals indicating that perhaps two alpha particle "hits" are necessary to produce the direct damage. Extrapolation of underground miners lung cancer risks to human risks at domestic and workplace levels may not be valid.

2010 Dose-Response

133. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Relation to Bladder Cancer Risk - The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Relation to Bladder Cancer Risk - The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains tobacco carcinogens. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) are important isoenzymes in activation and detoxification, respectively, of tobacco carcinogens. Data on ETS and bladder cancer risk are sparse.We examined the effects of ETS alone and combined with NAT2/CYP1A2 on bladder cancer risk among lifelong-nonsmokers in a case (...) -control study involving 195 patients and 261 controls in Shanghai, China. A comprehensive history of ETS exposure was determined through in-person interviews while CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes by a caffeine-based urinary assay.ETS exposure was related to an overall statistically nonsignificant 38% increased bladder cancer risk. The risk increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked by household members or number of hours per day at workplace where coworkers smoked. Compared with no ETS exposure

2010 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

134. Alcohol based tissue fixation as an alternative for formaldehyde: influence on immunohistochemistry. (Abstract)

Alcohol based tissue fixation as an alternative for formaldehyde: influence on immunohistochemistry. Formaldehyde is commonly used in histopathology to fix tissue. Not only are the carcinogenic properties of this solution a hazard to the people in the workplace, it is also a major burden on the environment, and it crosslinks molecular groups that hinder immunohistochemistry.The influence of two new alcohol based non-crosslinking fixatives on immunohistochemical staining properties was tested (...) successfully be immunohistochemically stained for most antibodies following the usual NBF based protocols. Omission of pepsin pretreatment seems to be important to retain proper morphology of immunostained tissues preserved in alcohol based fixatives. Therefore, when switching to less toxic and non-carcinogenic alcohol-based fixatives like RCL2, no major changes in the daily routine of immunohistochemistry are anticipated.

2010 Journal of Clinical Pathology

135. Do indoor smoke-free laws provide bar workers with adequate protection from secondhand smoke? (Abstract)

Do indoor smoke-free laws provide bar workers with adequate protection from secondhand smoke? To determine if bar workers are adequately protected from secondhand smoke by an Act that prohibits indoor smoking in public workplaces, including bars and restaurants, but allows smoking on unenclosed contiguous patios.A purposive sample of 25 bars with outdoor patios in Toronto, Canada was drawn. Air carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) were measured on patios and inside

2009 Preventive Medicine

136. Improving outcomes in urological cancers

for palliation in metastatic disease. Bladder cancer The most common causes of bladder cancer are carcinogenic chemicals – particularly aromatic amines – in urine. An important source of such carcinogens is cigarette smoke, and there is a significant dose-response relationship between the lifetime number of cigarettes smoked and the risk of bladder cancer. Meta-analysis of data from 43 studies reveals that, compared with non-smokers, current smokers face three times the risk of developing urinary tract (...) rates could decrease, as with lung cancer. Up to 20% of bladder cancers may be caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace. 34 These can cause bladder cancer five to 50 (typically, 10-15) years later. The highest risk is again associated with aromatic amines, which used to be commonplace in dyes, paints and plastics and are currently found in diesel exhaust fumes and other industrial by-products. Occupations associated with increased risk include work in textile, dyestuffs, chemical or plastics

2002 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

137. The costs of radon mitigation in domestic properties

increase as, when the percentage of householders actually mitigating is low, the total number of properties requiring testing in order to obtain 73 mitigations will increase. These increased test costs would be wasted, "as no potential benefit is generated in the form of lower exposure to radon that would follow the mitigation". Authors' conclusions The potential benefits of radon mitigation in residential properties could be far greater than those achievable in workplaces and involve significantly (...) lower costs, as assessed in other studies. "Only when 5% of households carried out programmes of domestic mitigation did costs for domestic properties match those for workplaces." The analysis has demonstrated that radon mitigation can represent a cost-effective method of addressing the factors that affect lung cancer. CRD COMMENTARY - Selection of comparators The mitigation programme in residential properties was implicitly compared to the same programme conducted in workplaces in the same areas

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

139. Cancer Markers Associated With Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene

): National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) ) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Background: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent used in many medical and industrial processes. TCE is a carcinogen (causes cancer) in rats, but its carcinogenicity in humans is unclear. There is some evidence of increased liver and kidney cancers and of an association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in studies of workers exposed to TCE. The carcinogenicity (...) substances at home. Condition or disease Industrial Hygiene Epidemiology Neoplasms Detailed Description: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent used in degreasing, dry cleaning, and numerous other medical and industrial processes. It is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant of drinking water and is present in many EPA Superfund sites. TCE is a rodent carcinogen but its carcinogenicity in humans is unclear. There is some evidence for an elevation in liver and kidney cancers and somewhat more

2007 Clinical Trials

140. Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard Full Text available with Trip Pro

Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard While exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been associated with increased lung cancer risk for more than 50 years, the chemical is not currently regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) on the basis of its carcinogenicity. The agency was petitioned in 1993 and sued in 1997 and 2002 to lower the workplace Cr(VI) exposure limit, resulting in a court order to issue

2006 Environmental Health

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