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Carcinogens in the Workplace

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101. Passive Smoking and Lung Disease (Overview)

, Division of Cancer Prevention . 1987. US DHHS. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. US DHHS Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office on Smoking . 1990. Fathallah N, Maurel-Donnarel E, Baumstarck-Barrau K, Lehucher-Michel MP. Three-year follow-up of attitudes and smoking behaviour among hospital nurses following enactment of France's national smoke-free workplace law. Int J Nurs Stud . 2012 Feb 18. . Fujishiro K, Stukovsky KD, Roux AD (...) , Landsbergis P, Burchfiel C. Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. J Occup Environ Med . 2012 Feb. 54(2):136-45. . . Priest N, Roseby R, Waters E, et al. Family and carer smoking control programmes for reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. [update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (3): CD001746; PMID: 12917911]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2008. 4:CD001746. . Gruer

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

102. Late Effects of Childhood Cancer and Treatment (Diagnosis)

, and spelling. In addition, school absence continues to be a problem even after children finish therapy. [ ] With the exception of children with brain tumors, childhood cancer survivors’ rates of high school graduation and college attendance are similar to those of controls. Occupational attainment and workplace problems Rates of employment and salaries are similar between survivors and controls, with the exception that cancer survivors have a higher likelihood of being denied entry into the military (...) services. In the past, cancer survivors often experienced problems in the workplace with respect to job discrimination, though more recent studies suggest that such problems are occurring less often. Insurance issues Barriers to obtaining health insurance include refusal of new applications, policy cancellations or reductions, higher premiums, waived or excluded preexisting conditions, and extended waiting periods. A study from North Carolina found that childhood cancer survivors were more likely

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

103. Hazmat (Diagnosis)

in decontamination. Other standards (ie, 29 CFR 1910.132 [d], 1988) delineates that employers must assess the workplace for potential hazards and have employees use (PPE) appropriate for that hazard. Under OSHA standards, an emergency response team is defined as an individual or group who responds to a release of a hazardous material, no matter where it occurs. This regulation initially was intended for hazardous waste operators and emergency response personnel at hazardous waste facilities; however, in the case

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

104. Passive Smoking and Lung Disease (Diagnosis)

, Division of Cancer Prevention . 1987. US DHHS. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. US DHHS Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office on Smoking . 1990. Fathallah N, Maurel-Donnarel E, Baumstarck-Barrau K, Lehucher-Michel MP. Three-year follow-up of attitudes and smoking behaviour among hospital nurses following enactment of France's national smoke-free workplace law. Int J Nurs Stud . 2012 Feb 18. . Fujishiro K, Stukovsky KD, Roux AD (...) , Landsbergis P, Burchfiel C. Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. J Occup Environ Med . 2012 Feb. 54(2):136-45. . . Priest N, Roseby R, Waters E, et al. Family and carer smoking control programmes for reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. [update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (3): CD001746; PMID: 12917911]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2008. 4:CD001746. . Gruer

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

105. Passive Smoking and Lung Disease (Follow-up)

and other public places was enacted in Berkeley, California. Following the 1986 Surgeon General's report on the health consequences of involuntary smoking, the number of ordinances rapidly grew to nearly 400 by 1988. Ordinances usually limit ETS in confined public spaces, workplaces, and restaurants. Restrictions in restaurants are usually limited; a proportion of space or seating availability is usually required to be set aside for nonsmokers. Special regulations regarding ventilation usually (...) Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office on Smoking . 1990. Fathallah N, Maurel-Donnarel E, Baumstarck-Barrau K, Lehucher-Michel MP. Three-year follow-up of attitudes and smoking behaviour among hospital nurses following enactment of France's national smoke-free workplace law. Int J Nurs Stud . 2012 Feb 18. . Fujishiro K, Stukovsky KD, Roux AD, Landsbergis P, Burchfiel C. Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: the multi-ethnic

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

106. Toxicity, Phosgene (Follow-up)

such as superimposed infection. No data suggest carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental hazards in association with phosgene exposure. Many patients report ongoing exertional dyspnea for months or even years after phosgene exposure despite normalized chest radiographs. Some patients may develop reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS), which is an irritant-induced reactive airway process. These patients may benefit from follow-up pulmonary function testing 2-3 months after phosgene exposure, possibly (...) to include a methacholine challenge test. Chronic low level exposure to phosgene (< 0.1 ppm) in a cohort of almost 800 workers at a uranium enrichment facility during World War II resulted in no documented increase in all-cause mortality or respiratory causes of mortality in 35 years of follow-up when matched with unexposed control workers at the same facility. Mortality/Morbidity The Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL) for the workplace is 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

107. Hazmat (Overview)

in decontamination. Other standards (ie, 29 CFR 1910.132 [d], 1988) delineates that employers must assess the workplace for potential hazards and have employees use (PPE) appropriate for that hazard. Under OSHA standards, an emergency response team is defined as an individual or group who responds to a release of a hazardous material, no matter where it occurs. This regulation initially was intended for hazardous waste operators and emergency response personnel at hazardous waste facilities; however, in the case

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

108. Toxicity, Phosgene (Diagnosis)

such as superimposed infection. No data suggest carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental hazards in association with phosgene exposure. Many patients report ongoing exertional dyspnea for months or even years after phosgene exposure despite normalized chest radiographs. Some patients may develop reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS), which is an irritant-induced reactive airway process. These patients may benefit from follow-up pulmonary function testing 2-3 months after phosgene exposure, possibly (...) to include a methacholine challenge test. Chronic low level exposure to phosgene (< 0.1 ppm) in a cohort of almost 800 workers at a uranium enrichment facility during World War II resulted in no documented increase in all-cause mortality or respiratory causes of mortality in 35 years of follow-up when matched with unexposed control workers at the same facility. Mortality/Morbidity The Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL) for the workplace is 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

109. Heavy Metals

it is held in someone's hand, or is only moderately harmful and poorly absorbed when swallowed, may be much more toxic and cause severe lung damage when its vapours are inhaled. Severe exposure can cause damage and, in some cases, can be life-threatening, but moderate exposures over time should also be monitored. The body is able to process small amounts of heavy metals, but moderate to large quantities can accumulate in the kidneys, liver, bones and brain. Some metals are considered carcinogenic (...) : Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea Nervous system symptoms such as numbness, tingling of hands and feet, weakness Anaemia Kidney damage Liver damage In the lungs – irritation, Brain dysfunction, memory loss Mees lines (horizontal lines on nails) Changes in behaviour Malformed bones in children, weakened bones In pregnant women – miscarriage, premature labour People who may be exposed to metals in the workplace are usually monitored periodically. Safety measures minimise risk to employees

2012 Lab Tests Online UK

110. Study of Lung Health Among Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

contribution to the recent IARC decision to categorize diesel exhaust as a Group I carcinogen. Despite years of experimental studies, and small and limited workplace biomarker studies, there are still major uncertainties about the mechanism by which diesel exhaust causes lung cancer in humans. To address this gap in knowledge, we have identified a diesel truck engine testing facility in China, where workers are exposed to very high levels of diesel exhaust, which provides what we believe to be the very (...) , researchers will look at employees of a diesel truck engine testing facility in China. Some workers at this facility are exposed to high levels of diesel exhaust. This study will compare tests and monitoring information from a group of highly exposed workers and a similar group of unexposed comparable controls. Objectives: To study the effects of diesel exhaust on lung health. Eligibility: Participants will be drawn from a diesel truck engine testing facility and other workplaces in China. Individuals

2013 Clinical Trials

111. Occupational health risks of pathologists--results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occupational health risks of pathologists--results from a nationwide online questionnaire in Switzerland. Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed (...) to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland.Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour.163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall

2012 BMC Public Health

112. Distinct SNP Combinations Confer Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers Full Text available with Trip Pro

stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0. (...) smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found

2012 PloS one

113. Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence from a population-based case-control study in eight Canadian provinces. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence from a population-based case-control study in eight Canadian provinces. Asbestos is classified as a human carcinogen, and studies have consistently demonstrated that workplace exposure to it increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Few studies have evaluated risks in population-based settings where there is a greater variety in the types of occupations, and exposures.This was a population based case-control study with 1,681 (...) . The joint relationship between smoking and asbestos was consistent with a multiplicative risk model.Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to asbestos has contributed to an increased risk of lung cancer in Canadian workplaces, and suggests that nearly 3% of lung cancers among Canadian men are caused by occupational exposure to asbestos.

2012 BMC Cancer

114. Tobacco

40 million. Tobacco is used because of the effects of its main active ingredient: nicotine . Nicotine is highly addictive when inhaled into the lung. The combustion products of tobacco contain other substances that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology Tobacco is often smoked, primarily in the form of cigarettes. Cigarette smoking is the most harmful form of tobacco use. However, all tobacco products contain carcinogens and other toxins; smokeless tobacco products (...) ; it can develop within 2 wk after starting smoking and occurs in up to about 25% of adolescents who try smoking. Physical dependence (ie, occurrence of withdrawal symptoms with cessation) also develops within 2 wk. People smoke to feed their nicotine dependence but simultaneously inhale thousands of other components, including carcinogens, noxious gases, and chemical additives that are a part of cigarette smoke. These toxic components, rather than nicotine , are responsible for the multiple health

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

115. Roadmap to a Tobacco Epidemic: Transnational Tobacco Companies Invade Indonesia Full Text available with Trip Pro

a substantial market presence in Indonesia.We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap".Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic (...) strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls

2011 Tobacco Control

116. Occupational cancer in developed countries Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occupational cancer in developed countries Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment (...) . Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations.© 2011 Blair et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

2011 Environmental Health

117. Health effects of tobacco

measures to control the consumption of tobacco with usage and sales restrictions as well as printed on packaging. Additionally, that ban smoking in public places such as workplaces, theaters, and bars and restaurants reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and help some people who smoke to quit, without negative economic effects on restaurants or bars. that increase the price are also effective, especially in developing countries. The coughing, throat irritation, and shortness of breath caused by smoking (...) , is a permanent, incurable (often terminal) reduction of pulmonary capacity characterised by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with , and damage to the lungs, including and . The carcinogen acrolein and its derivatives also contribute to the chronic inflammation present in COPD. Cardiovascular disease [ ] Smoking can cause , leading to and . Tobacco stains on primarily the second and third fingers of a heavy smoker Inhalation of tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart

2012 Wikipedia

118. Health advocacy

with to advocate for indigent health care through Visiting Nurse Services (1893), or with the (1918) to advocate for maternal and infant care for poor immigrants. They obtained their professional education in other disciplines and then applied it to health. Health advocacy also has 20th century roots in around health hazards in the environment and in the workplace. The , for example, was founded in 1978 by Lois Gibbs and others concerned about the high rate of cancer and birth defects in the community (...) to untested exposures that could be carcinogenic. Rachel's News is one example of such combined environmental and health advocacy information. In the early 1990s Healthcare Advocates, Inc. determined that lobbyists (advocates) were helping the masses, but there were no organizations helping patients, one patient at a time. They developed a new model of advocacy that allowed patients to access services directly thereby resolving the issues associated with access to care and reimbursement through

2012 Wikipedia

119. Electromagnetic radiation and health Full Text available with Trip Pro

RF energy levels encountered by the general public are well below the level needed to cause significant heating, but certain workplace environments near high power RF sources may exceed safe exposure limits. A measure of the heating effect is the or SAR, which has units of watts per kilogram (W/kg). The and many national governments have established safety limits for exposure to various frequencies of electromagnetic energy based on , mainly based on Guidelines, which guard against thermal damage (...) little heating by induction fields because an electrical current is not actually going through the tissues. Studies have been performed on the use of shortwave radiation for cancer therapy and promoting wound healing, with some success. However, at a sufficiently high energy level, shortwave energy can be harmful to human health, potentially causing damage to biological tissues. The FCC limits for maximum permissible workplace exposure to shortwave radio frequency energy in the range of 3–30 MHz has

2012 Wikipedia

120. Vinyl chloride

ppm), including dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, and , to chronic (above 12,000 ppm), including narcotic effect, s, and . (Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome) may be caused by acute exposure to vinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. Vinyl chloride is a Group 1 human carcinogen posing elevated risks of rare angiosarcoma, brain and lung tumors, and malignant lymphatic tumors. Chronic exposure leads (...) reversible illness. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver." EPA's 2001 updated Toxicological Profile and Summary Health Assessment for VCM in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database lowers EPA's previous risk factor estimate by a factor of 20 and concludes that "because of the consistent evidence for liver cancer in all the studies...and the weaker association for other sites, it is concluded that the liver is the most sensitive site

2012 Wikipedia

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