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cancer include the following: History of or current tobacco use: cigarettes, pipes, and cigars.[ ] Exposure to cancer-causing substances in secondhand smoke.[ , ] Occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic, chromium, beryllium, nickel, and other agents.[ ] Radiation exposure from any of the following: - Radiation therapy to the breast or chest.[ ] - Radon exposure in the home or workplace.[ ] - Medical imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans.[ ] - Atomic bomb radiation.[ ] Living (...) , 1998. [ ] Alberg AJ, Ford JG, Samet JM, et al.: Epidemiology of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 132 (3 Suppl): 29S-55S, 2007. [ ] Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, et al.: Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14 (5): 1283-6, 2005. [ ] Anderson KE, Kliris J, Murphy L, et al.: Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking casino patrons. Cancer
hours, a probable carcinogen. Sleep deprivation costs the U.S. economy as much as $411 billion in lost productivity every year. “How we sleep affects everything we do,” said , a senior behavioral and social scientist at RAND and a national authority on the social science of sleep. “When we don't sleep well, it affects every aspect of our health and our relationships.” Her research has opened new windows onto the importance of sleep, not just as a biological necessity, but as a social one. Poor sleep (...) , she has shown, is both a source and a sign of trouble—a clue to better understanding why people under stress, struggling, caught in bad relationships or impoverished neighborhoods, often have worse health. A better focus on sleep might save marriages, improve mortality rates—even bolster world economies. Troxel worked with a team of researchers from RAND Europe to show just how valuable a little more sleep can be. Their recent study demonstrated that quality sleep can predict workplace
: History of or current tobacco use: cigarettes, pipes, and cigars.[ ] Exposure to cancer-causing substances in secondhand smoke.[ , ] Occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic, chromium, beryllium, nickel, and other agents.[ ] Radiation exposure from any of the following: - Radiation therapy to the breast or chest.[ ] - Radon exposure in the home or workplace.[ ] - Medical imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans.[ ] - Atomic bomb radiation.[ ] Living in an area with air pollution (...) Oncol 24 (28): 4539-44, 2006. [ ] American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2020. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2020. . Last accessed January 17, 2020. Alberg AJ, Ford JG, Samet JM, et al.: Epidemiology of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 132 (3 Suppl): 29S-55S, 2007. [ ] Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, et al.: Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers
Research Unit (OTRU) survey found about 47% of adults in Ontario supported banning smoking on sidewalks and more than half of all adults (59%) agreed that smoking should be banned in parks and on beaches.(2) Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is garnering increased attention for the possible health risks from exposure and for its role in continuing to promote smoking as a socially accepted behaviour. The 2006 Smoke Free Ontario Act (SFOA) currently prohibits smoking within enclosed workplaces and public (...) places in Ontario. Fifty-three municipalities across Ontario have enacted further legislation to restrict smoking outdoors (e.g. Collingwood, Woodstock). The legislative restrictions vary to include settings such as playgrounds, beaches, and municipally-owned property including transit stops. The three hospitals in Peel Region have also developed their own smoke-free grounds policies that are more restrictive than SFOA. There are other workplaces in Peel Region that have implemented outdoor smoke
Estimates of the Number of Workers Exposed to Diesel Engine Exhaust in South Korea from 1993 to 2013 The aim of this study was to estimate the number of workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) by industry and year in the Republic of Korea.The estimates of workers potentially exposed to DEE in the Republic of Korea were calculated by industry on the basis of the carcinogen exposure (CAREX) surveillance system. The data on the labor force employed in DEE exposure industries were obtained (...) from the Census on Establishments conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office from 1993 to 2013. The mean values of prevalence rates adopted by EU15 countries were used as the primary exposure prevalence rates. We also investigated the exposure prevalence rates and exposure characteristics of DEE in 359 workplaces representing 11 industries.The total number of workers exposed to DEE were estimated as 270,014 in 1993 and 417,034 in 2013 (2.2% of the total labor force). As of 2013
But other than mesothelioma? An estimate of the proportion of work-related cancers in Quebec More than 30 exposures in the workplace are proven carcinogens. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the burden of occupational cancer in Quebec so as to increase awareness among stakeholders and to prioritize research activities.Work-attributable fractions-that is, the proportions of cancers attributable to work-as published in Finland and the United Kingdom were applied to Quebec 2002-2006 (...) , and pleura. During the same period, compensation statistics reported annual averages of 94.3 incident cancers and 61.9 cancer deaths, mostly involving mesothelioma (64% of compensated incident cancers) and lung cancer (30% of compensated incident cancers).Increased recognition of workplace cancers by all stakeholders, from workers and employers to treating physicians, will foster appropriate preventive measures for safer workplaces.
Establishing a Policy Framework for the Primary Prevention of Occupational Cancer: A Proposal Based on a Prospective Health Policy Analysis Despite our knowledge of the causes of cancer, millions of workers are involuntarily exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens in the workplace. To address this issue from a policy perspective, we developed a policy framework based on a prospective health policy analysis. Use of the framework was demonstrated for developing policies (...) to prevent cancers associated with diesel engine exhaust (DEE), asbestos, and shift work, three occupational carcinogens with global reach and large cancer impact.An environmental scan of existing prospective health policy analyses was conducted to select and describe our framework parameters. These parameters were augmented by considerations unique to occupational cancer. Policy-related resources, predominantly from Canada, were used to demonstrate how the framework can be applied to cancers associated
Somatic alterations in lung cancer: Do environmental factors matter? Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and smoking tobacco is now definitively established as the dominant risk factor for the malignancy. However, lung cancer can and does occur in never smokers, thus illustrating the existence of other risk factors. Many of these latter are environmental, such as workplace and home carcinogens, air pollution, radon and certain infectious agents. One of the most
Exposure Reconstruction and Risk Analysis for Six Semiconductor Workers With Lymphohematopoietic Cancers To investigate whether workplace exposures to recognized lymphohematopoietic carcinogens were possibly related to cancers in six semiconductor-manufacturing workers.A job-exposure matrix was developed for chemical and physical process agents and anticipated by-products. Potential cumulative occupational exposures of the six cases were reconstructed. The role of workplace exposures in cancer (...) exposures to recognized lymphohematopoietic carcinogens.
treatment. Bilaterality of disease, if applicable. Current plan. Carcinogenic exposures (e.g., alcohol and tobacco use, sun exposure, radiation exposure, asbestos exposure) or other known cancer site-specific risk factors. How the cancer was detected (e.g., self-exam, screening test, presenting symptoms) may also be assessed. Physical examination In some cases, a physical exam is conducted by a qualified medical professional to determine whether the individual has physical findings suggestive (...) significantly reduces the risk of ovarian and breast cancers. This may mask underlying hereditary predisposition to these cancers. Current age (if living). Age at death and cause of death (if deceased). Carcinogenic exposures (e.g., alcohol and tobacco use, sun exposure, radiation exposure, asbestos exposure) or other known cancer site-specific risk factors. Prior germline genetic testing results. Prior tumor testing results (including genomic profiling). Other significant health problems. For relatives
: Good. Occupational exposure to lung carcinogens Based on solid evidence, workplace exposure to asbestos, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel increases lung cancer incidence and mortality. Magnitude of Effect: Increased risk, large magnitude (more than fivefold). Risks follow a dose-response gradient, with high-level exposures associated with large increases in risk. Cigarette smoking also potentiates the effect of many of these lung carcinogens so that the risks are even greater (...) to secondhand smoke results in decreased incidence and mortality from primary lung cancers. Magnitude of Effect: Decreased risk, small magnitude. Study Design: Cohort and case-control studies. Internal Validity: Good. Consistency: Good. External Validity: Good. Reducing or eliminating occupational exposure to lung carcinogens Based on solid evidence, occupational exposures such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, and chromium are causally associated with lung cancer. Reducing or eliminating workplace exposures
, nickel, and other agents.[ ] Radiation exposure from any of the following: Radiation therapy to the breast or chest.[ ] Radon exposure in the home or workplace.[ ] Medical imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans.[ ] Atomic bomb radiation.[ ] Living in an area with air pollution.[ - ] Family history of lung cancer.[ ] Human immunodeficiency virus infection.[ ] Beta carotene supplements in heavy smokers.[ , ] Clinical Features Lung cancer may present with symptoms or be found incidentally (...) , Ford JG, Samet JM, et al.: Epidemiology of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 132 (3 Suppl): 29S-55S, 2007. Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, et al.: Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14 (5): 1283-6, 2005. Anderson KE, Kliris J, Murphy L, et al.: Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking casino patrons. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12
, chromium, beryllium, nickel, and other agents.[ ] Radiation exposure from any of the following: Radiation therapy to the breast or chest.[ ] Radon exposure in the home or workplace.[ ] Medical imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans.[ ] Atomic bomb radiation.[ ] Living in an area with air pollution.[ - ] Family history of lung cancer.[ ] Human immunodeficiency virus infection.[ ] Beta carotene supplements in heavy smokers.[ , ] The single most important risk factor for the development (...) Institute, 2005. Last accessed November 30, 2017. Johnson BE: Second lung cancers in patients after treatment for an initial lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 90 (18): 1335-45, 1998. Alberg AJ, Ford JG, Samet JM, et al.: Epidemiology of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 132 (3 Suppl): 29S-55S, 2007. Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, et al.: Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Cancer Epidemiol
” and have established the suprachiasmatic nucleus as the master circadian clock. Additional experiments have shown that interlocking transcriptional networks autoregulate a large number of genes at distinct circadian phases. Furthermore, gene expression can be shifted out of phase when animals experience a rapid shift in their light-dark cycle.  Obviously this research could have dramatic implications for the workforce. Light exposure at night would be the most common workplacecarcinogen. Would (...) study, in which they reported a significantly increased incidence of neoplasms in shift workers compared to the general population.  After several published cancer incidence studies, Kerenyi explicitly proposed that changes in light exposure could be an important etiologic factor in the rapid growth rate of human cancers in developed countries over the last century.  Shift workers are exposed to artificial light during the traditional night while in the workplace. This common occupational
subjects who were considered to be at high risk of bladder cancer (aged > 50 years, a 10-year or more smoking history or significant workplace exposure in the dye, chemical or petroleum industry. Subjects with a history of urological malignancy or gross haematuria were excluded. All subjects underwent testing with BladderChek ® , however only those subjects with a positive result went on for further testing with cytoscopy (level IV diagnostic evidence). A positive BladderChek ® result was reported (...) Society of Clinical Oncology 2005). The incidence of bladder cancer is higher in people exposed to carcinogens in their occupation or environment and significantly higher in smokers. In 2001 there were 2,954 new cases of bladder cancer in the Australian population, representing a crude rate of 15.2 per 100,000. There was a higher incidence in males (24 per 100,000) compared to females (7 per 100,000), (AIHW 2005a). In the year 2002-03 there were 15,672 hospitalisations for a principal diagnosis (C67
Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: This project will assess the feasibility of a 12-week physical activity program developed specifically for females exposed to a known occupational carcinogen - shiftwork. Physical activity has been shown to decrease cancer risk, but the investigators research has found that female shift workers face unique barriers to participating in physical activity. This project will use a combination of telephone-based behavioural counseling sessions (...) in shift scheduling, timed exposure to bright light during a night shift, and pharmacological therapy for sleep, help to improve sleep and markers of circadian rhythm dysfunction in shift workers. However changes in shift schedules, and exposure to bright light may be difficult to implement in certain workplaces (i.e., specific hospital environments, police patrol cars) and long-term effects of pharmacological therapy are unknown. To date there is very limited research on effective health promotion
Chemical Markers of Occupational Exposure to Teak Wood Dust A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different (...) of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65 mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703 mg m(-3) for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP
Surgical smoke may be a biohazard to surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery. Surgical smoke production is inevitable during surgical procedures. Although many workplaces have adopted smoke-free environments, healthcare workers, especially surgeons, continue to be exposed to surgical smoke.From February 2013 to March 2013, a total of 20 patients underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. A 5-L gas sample was collected 30 min after the electrocautery device (...) was first used and was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cancer risk was calculated for carcinogenic compounds and hazard quotient was calculated for noncarcinogenic compounds using US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines.Twenty patients with a median age of 57.5 years were enrolled in the study. Eighteen volatile organic compounds were detected by Japanese indoor air standards mix analysis. The cancer risks were ethanol, 5.10 × 10(-5) ± 6.35 × 10(-5); 1,2-dichloroethane, 4.75
, 2017 Author: Jonathan S Rutchik, MD, MPH, FACOEM; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Toxic Neuropathy Overview Practice Essentials Toxic neuropathy refers to neuropathy caused by drug ingestion, drug or chemical abuse, or industrial chemical exposure from the workplace or the environment. Distal axonopathy, causing dying-back axonal degeneration, is the most common form. Signs (...) : OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Association; NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health; ACGIH - American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; TWA - time-weighted average; TLV - threshold limit value; PEL - permissible exposure limit; REL - recommended exposure limit; ppm - parts per million; STEL - short-term exposure limit; Ca - level for carcinogenicity; C - ceiling, should never be exceeded; ND - not determined Utilizing neurophysiologic testing