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Candida Vulvovaginitis

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1. Nystatin enhances the immune response against Candida albicans and protects the ultrastructure of the vaginal epithelium in a rat model of vulvovaginal candidiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nystatin enhances the immune response against Candida albicans and protects the ultrastructure of the vaginal epithelium in a rat model of vulvovaginal candidiasis Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infectious disease of the lower genital tract. Nystatin, a polyene fungicidal antibiotic, is used as a topical antifungal agent for VVC treatment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible immunomodulatory effects of nystatin on the vaginal mucosal immune response during (...) Candida albicans infection and examine its role in protection of vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) ultrastructure.Following infection with C. albicans, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in VECs were significantly elevated, while the presence of IgG was markedly decreased as compared to uninfected controls (P <  0.05). No significant differences in IL4 expression were observed. After treatment with nystatin, the level of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IgG was dramatically increased in comparison to the untreated group (P <  0.05

2018 BMC microbiology

2. Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Non-albicans Candida Species Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Non-albicans Candida Species Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an important health problem caused by Candida spp. The aim of this study was molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis, and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans Candida isolates from VVC.Vaginal secretion samples were collected from 550 vaginitis patients at Sayyad Shirazi Medical and Educational Center (...) susceptibility to fluconazole. C. lusitaniae was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to fluconazole and resistant to clotrimazole.Non-albicans Candida spp. are common agents of vulvovaginitis, and C. glabrata is the most common species in the tested patients.

2018 Iranian biomedical journal

3. Pulsatilla decoction inhibits Candida albicans proliferation and adhesion in a mouse model of Vulvovaginal candidiasis via the Dectin-1 signaling pathway. (Abstract)

Pulsatilla decoction inhibits Candida albicans proliferation and adhesion in a mouse model of Vulvovaginal candidiasis via the Dectin-1 signaling pathway. Pulsatilla decoction (PD) is a classical prescription in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and has been reported to have inhibitory effects on Candida albicans proliferation.To investigate the therapeutic effects of PD in the treatment of Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and elucidate the potential mechanism.Female BALB/c mice (N = 90) were (...) the administration of PD.This study suggests that PD exerts inhibitory effects on C. albicans proliferation, adhesion and inflammation and simultaneously downregulates the expression levels of important genes and proteins associated with the Dectin-1 pathway, highlighting the potential application of PD to improve the clinical management of VVC.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

4. Time-Kill Kinetics of Rezafungin (CD101) in Vagina-Simulative Medium for Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans and Non-albicans Candida Species Full Text available with Trip Pro

activity and time-kill kinetics of the novel echinocandin rezafungin (formerly CD101) under such conditions, against Candida species relevant to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).Susceptibility testing of fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei was performed in RPMI at pH 7.0 and in vagina-simulative medium (VSM) at pH 4.2 for topical rezafungin, terconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. Time-kill kinetics were evaluated (...) Time-Kill Kinetics of Rezafungin (CD101) in Vagina-Simulative Medium for Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans and Non-albicans Candida Species While echinocandins demonstrate excellent efficacy against Candida species in disseminated infections and demonstrate potent minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values under standard susceptibility testing conditions, investigation under conditions relevant to the vaginal environment was needed. We assessed the antifungal

2018 Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology

5. NLRP3 inflammasome is a key player in human vulvovaginal disease caused by Candida albicans Full Text available with Trip Pro

NLRP3 inflammasome is a key player in human vulvovaginal disease caused by Candida albicans The expression of host inflammatory and Candida albicans putative virulence factors was studied in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; twenty) or colonized by the fungus but asymptomatic (carriers; fifteen) or non-colonized asymptomatic (ten subjects). Overexpression of genes encoding NLRP3 and caspase-1 inflammasome components sharply differentiated VVC patients from asymptomatic colonized or non

2017 Scientific reports

7. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of vulvovaginal candidiasis

-vaginal OR vaginosis OR vaginitis OR vulvitis OR thrush (NOT oral)] AND [Candida OR candidiasis OR candidosis OR yeast]. The search was limited to English language and human subjects. 1412 citations were identified. 2. 2007 UK National Guidelines on the Management of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. + The search period was extended to March 2018 during the peer review of first draft of the guideline to identify any new relevant evidence. Methods • The broad search terms used above were necessary given (...) to be reserved for azole resistance and certain non-albicans Candida species INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY Objectives This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles for the effective management of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). It covers the management of acute and recurrent VVC. It is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older (see specific guideline for under 16 year olds) presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments

2019 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

8. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Candida africana from vulvovaginal candidiasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Candida africana from vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida africana is distributed worldwide and colonized in human genitalia and cause mainly vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We report the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of C. africana from VVC.MLST analysis of 43 strains of C. africana, which were isolated from vaginal specimens of patients with VVC, was performed. The enzymatic activity of phospholipase, esterase and haemolysis enzyme production (...) africana appear to be with a low level of sequence variation in MLST loci. Candida africana, a lower virulence candida, is susceptible to commonly used antifungal agents. This paper was presented at the conference of 8th Trend in Medical Mycology (6-9 October 2017, Belgrade, Serbia) and was published on conference abstract.

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

9. Overexpression of MDR-1 and CDR-2 genes in fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Overexpression of MDR-1 and CDR-2 genes in fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungus that can colonize women's mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, causing vulvovaginitis in specific circumstances. The major genes contributing to drug resistance in C. albicans are the candida drug resistance (CDR) and multi drug resistance (MDR) genes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CDR-2 (...) and MDR-1 gene expression patterns in C. albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.In this study, 40 isolates of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. These isolates were collected from women with vulvovaginitis who were referred to a clinic in Tehran, Iran, and transferred to a mycology laboratory. Then, RNA was extracted from the isolates using phenol-chloroform and glass beads, and the complementary DNA (cDNA

2016 Current Medical Mycology

10. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis A cluster of genes are involved in the pathogenesis and adhesion of Candida albicans to mucosa and epithelial cells in the vagina, the important of which is agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) genes. As well as vaginitis is a significant health problem among women, the antifungal resistance of Candida species is continually increasing. This cross-sectional study investigates the expression (...) of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and biofilm formation in C. albicans isolate isolated from vaginitis.Fifty-three recognized isolates of C. albicans were collected from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Iran, cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar, and then examined for gene expression. Total messenger RNA (mRNA) extracted from C. albicans isolates and complementary DNA synthesized using reverse transcriptase enzyme. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primer

2016 Advanced biomedical research

11. Vulvovaginitis: Screening for and Management of Trichomoniasis, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis

Vulvovaginitis: Screening for and Management of Trichomoniasis, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis Vulvovaginitis: Screening for and Management of Trichomoniasis, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Volume 37, Issue 3, Pages 266–274 Vulvovaginitis: Screening for and Management of Trichomoniasis, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis (...) , x Kellie Murphy , MD x Kellie Murphy , x Gina Ogilvie , MD x Gina Ogilvie , x Caroline Paquet , RM x Caroline Paquet , x Julie van Schalkwyk , MD x Julie van Schalkwyk DOI: To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or . Click to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Abstract Objective To review the evidence and provide recommendations on screening for and management of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Outcomes Outcomes evaluated include

2015 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

12. Candida africana in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) patients: frequency and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Candida africana in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) patients: frequency and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Up to 75 % of all women develop vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), with symptoms such as vulvar erythema, pruritus and abnormal vaginal discharge. Despite the global distribution of Candida africana, its role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is still unclear and requires further investigation. Here, we report on the frequency of C. africana among clinical (...) isolates from patients with RVVC in Bushehr in southern Iran.Isolated Candida strains were identified by ITS-PCR-RFLP. Hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1) was amplified to differentiate C. africana and the resulting sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analyses with a view to identifying similarities and differences in nucleotides.Ten out of 119 strains originally identified as C. albicans turned out to be C. africana. Pairwise nucleotide alignment of HWP1 DNA sequences showed 100 % similarity between C

2018 Journal of Medical Microbiology

13. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: species distribution of Candida and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. albicans, was 100% susceptible to all drugs tested except fluconazole and flycytosine with a resistance rate of 2% each drug. C. krusei, was 100 and 33.3% resistant to fluconazole and flycytosine, respectively.High prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and observation of high prevalence rate of non-albicans Candida species in the present study substantiate, the importance of conducting continuous epidemiological surveys to measure changes in species distribution from C. albicans to non-albicans (...) Candida species in Ethiopia. Although, fluconazole still appeared to be active against all isolates of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species high resistance rate of C. krusei against the drug may demonstrate a search for alternative antifungal drugs when treating vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by C. krusei.

2018 BMC Women's Health

14. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Can the yeast be beat?

suggests no significant difference between different azoles in Candida albicans acute or recurrent vulvovaginitis. 9,10 • Candida albicans is responsible for 90% of vulvovaginal candidiasis; followed by Candida glabrata, which is azole-resistant. 11 • One small trial (54 participants) demonstrated that treating male partner with antifungals does not reduce relapse rate. 12 • A randomized cross-over trial of 23 women reported 74% versus 14% prefer to treat each episode empirically versus maintenance (...) Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Can the yeast be beat? Tools for Practice is proudly sponsored by the Alberta College of Family Physicians (ACFP). ACFP is a provincial, professional voluntary organization, representing more than 4,500 family physicians, family medicine residents, and medical students in Alberta. Established over sixty years ago, the ACFP strives for excellence in family practice through advocacy, continuing medical education and primary care research. www.acfp.ca January 23

2017 Tools for Practice

15. Psoriasin, a novel anti-Candida albicans adhesin Full Text available with Trip Pro

-regulated during a mucosal infection, an acute episode of recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis, although candidacidal activity has not been demonstrated. We here show that psoriasin binds to β-glucan, a basic component of the C. albicans cell wall, and thereby inhibits adhesion of the pathogen to surfaces and increases IL-8 production by mucosal epithelial cells. In conclusion, we show a novel mechanism of action of psoriasin. By inhibiting C. albicans adhesion and by enhancing cytokine production (...) , psoriasin contributes to the immune response against C. albicans. KEY MESSAGES: The antimicrobial peptide psoriasin is highly up-regulated during a local mucosal infection, Candida albicans vulvovaginitis. Psoriasin binds to β-glucan in the Candida albicans cell wall and thereby inhibits adhesion of the pathogen. Binding of psoriasin to Candida albicans induces an immune response by mucosal epithelial cells.

2018 Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)

16. Streptococcus agalactiae Inhibits Candida albicans Hyphal Development and Diminishes Host Vaginal Mucosal TH17 Response Full Text available with Trip Pro

-Hwp1 signal pathway of C. albicans was involved in this process. In a mouse model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), the fungal burden and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α showed a increase on co-infection with S. agalactiae, while the level of TH17 T cells and IL-17 in the cervicovaginal lavage fluid were significantly decreased. Our results indicate that S. agalactiae inhibits C. albicans hyphal development by downregulating the expression of EFG1-Hwp1 (...) Streptococcus agalactiae Inhibits Candida albicans Hyphal Development and Diminishes Host Vaginal Mucosal TH17 Response Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans often co-colonize the female genital tract, and under certain conditions induce mucosal inflammation. The role of the interaction between the two organisms in candidal vaginitis is not known. In this study, we found that co-infection with S. agalactiae significantly attenuated the hyphal development of C. albicans, and that EFG1

2018 Frontiers in microbiology

17. Antifungal effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Vitex agnus-castus against vaginal isolates of Candida albicans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antifungal effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Vitex agnus-castus against vaginal isolates of Candida albicans Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections in female genital organs, which is caused by Candida species. Candida albicans is the causative agent of more than 80% of infections, and the role of non-Candida strains in the disease etiology is less prominent. The expansion of Azoles resistance among C. albicans strains is considered an important medical problem (...) . According to previous studies, Vitex agnus-castus (vitex) has some antimicrobial effects. We aimed to evaluate the anti-fungal effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of vitex against clinical vaginal isolates of C. albicans in comparison with fluconazole.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed on vitex to identify its possible bioactive components. Forty C. albicans clinical isolates were identified by using germ tube, chlamydospore production, culture on CHROMagar, and polymerase

2018 Current Medical Mycology

18. Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Could It Be Related to Cell-Mediated Immunity Defect in Response to Candida Antigen? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Could It Be Related to Cell-Mediated Immunity Defect in Response to Candida Antigen? Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of morbidity affecting millions of women worldwide. Patients with RVVC are thought to have an underlying immunologic defect. This study has been established to evaluate cell-mediated immunity defect in response to candida antigen in RVVC cases.Our cross-sectional study was performed in 3 groups of RVVC patients (...) (cases), healthy individuals (control I) and known cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) (control II). Patients who met the inclusion criteria of RVVC were selected consecutively and were allocated in the case group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and labeled with CFSE and proliferation rate was measured in exposure to candida antigen via flow cytometry.T lymphocyte proliferation in response to candida was significantly lower in RVVC cases (n=24) and CMC patients (n=7

2017 International journal of fertility & sterility

19. Vaginal Candida spp. genomes from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vaginal Candida spp. genomes from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four C. albicans and one C. glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. An SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates (...) that these isolates are closely related; however, phylogenetic distances between them suggest that there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments. These sequences will facilitate further comparative analyses and ultimately improve our understanding of genetic variation in isolates of Candida spp. that are associated with VVC.© FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2017 Pathogens and disease

20. In vitro activity of the novel echinocandin CD101 at pH 7 and 4 against Candida spp. isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activity of the novel echinocandin CD101 at pH 7 and 4 against Candida spp. isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The novel echinocandin CD101 has stability properties amenable to topical formulation for use in the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC). CD101 has demonstrated potent antifungal activity at pH 7, but assessment of its activity at the physiological pH of the vaginal environment is needed.To evaluate the antifungal (...) activity of CD101 against clinical VVC isolates of Candida spp., including azole-resistant strains, at pH 4.MIC values of CD101 and comparators (fluconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin) were assessed via broth microdilution. MIC assays were conducted at pH 7 and 4 after 24 and 48 h against a 108 VVC isolate panel of Candida spp., including Candida albicans ( n  =   60), Candida glabrata ( n  =   21), Candida parapsilosis ( n  =   14) and Candida tropicalis ( n  =   13

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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