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81. Different infusion durations for preventing platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Different infusion durations for preventing platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin, or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different platinum infusion durations have been studied.To assess the effects of different (...) durations of platinum infusion to prevent hearing loss or tinnitus, or both, in children with cancer. Secondary objectives were to assess possible effects of these infusion durations on: a) anti-tumour efficacy of platinum-based therapy, b) adverse effects other than hearing loss or tinnitus, and c) quality of life.We searched the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 12), MEDLINE (PubMed) (1945 to 4 December 2013) and EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to 4 December

2014 Cochrane

82. Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin and/or oxaliplatin, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is an update of a previously published (...) Cochrane review.The primary objective was to assess the efficacy of any medical intervention to prevent hearing loss in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy (that is including cisplatin, carboplatin and/or oxaliplatin) when compared to placebo, no additional treatment or a different protective medical intervention. Secondary objectives were to determine possible effects of these interventions on anti-tumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life.We searched

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2014 Cochrane

83. Urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of tumour lysis syndrome in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of tumour lysis syndrome in children with cancer. Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a serious complication of malignancies and can result in renal failure or death. Preliminary reports suggest that urate oxidase is effective in reducing serum uric acid, the build-up of which causes TLS. It is uncertain whether high-quality evidence exists to support its routine use in children with malignancies.To assess the effects and safety of urate oxidase (...) for the prevention and treatment of TLS in children with malignancies.This is an update of the original review. We performed a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (in The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2013), Embase (1980 to February 2013), and CINAHL (1982 to February 2013). In addition, we searched the reference lists of all identified relevant papers. We also explored other internet sources (updated search on 26 February 2013

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2014 Cochrane

84. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. (PubMed)

Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory.To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science to February 2014. We scanned (...) trials came from high-income countries. Most of the trials had a high risk of bias, mainly for-profit bias. Most trials included elderly community-dwelling women (aged 47 to 97 years). Vitamin D was administered for a weighted mean of six years. Fourteen trials tested vitamin D₃, one trial tested vitamin D₂, and three trials tested calcitriol supplementation. Cancer occurrence was observed in 1927/25,275 (7.6%) recipients of vitamin D versus 1943/25,348 (7.7%) recipients of control interventions (RR

2014 Cochrane

85. Helicobacter pylori Therapy for the Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer. (PubMed)

Helicobacter pylori Therapy for the Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer. Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear.In (...) this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H. pylori eradication therapy with antibiotics or placebo. Two primary outcomes were the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer detected on endoscopy performed at the 1-year follow-up or later and improvement from baseline in the grade of glandular atrophy in the gastric corpus lesser curvature at the 3-year

2018 NEJM

86. Reanalysis of All-Cause Mortality in the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2016 Evidence Report on Colorectal Cancer Screening. (PubMed)

Reanalysis of All-Cause Mortality in the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2016 Evidence Report on Colorectal Cancer Screening. 28828493 2018 01 09 2018 11 13 1539-3704 167 8 2017 10 17 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. Reanalysis of All-Cause Mortality in the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2016 Evidence Report on Colorectal Cancer Screening. 602-603 10.7326/M17-0859 Swartz Andrew W AW From Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Regional Hospital, Bethel, Alaska, and University of South (...) Journal Article Meta-Analysis Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2017 08 22 United States Ann Intern Med 0372351 0003-4819 AIM IM Advisory Committees Colorectal Neoplasms diagnosis mortality Early Detection of Cancer Humans Mass Screening Meta-Analysis as Topic Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic Risk Sigmoidoscopy 2017 8 23 6 0 2018 1 10 6 0 2017 8 23 6 0 ppublish 28828493 2650649 10.7326/M17-0859 PMC5823607 NIHMS941043 Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002 May;37(5):568-73

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2018 Annals of Internal Medicine

87. Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. (PubMed)

Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. It is unclear whether supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, and data from randomized trials are limited.We conducted a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) at a dose of 2000 IU per day and marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids at a dose of 1 g per day for the prevention of cancer (...) and cardiovascular disease among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were invasive cancer of any type and major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). Secondary end points included site-specific cancers, death from cancer, and additional cardiovascular events. This article reports the results of the comparison of vitamin D with placebo.A total of 25,871 participants, including

2018 NEJM

88. Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. (PubMed)

Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. Higher intake of marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear.We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose (...) of 2000 IU per day) and marine n-3 fatty acids (at a dose of 1 g per day) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and invasive cancer of any type. Secondary end points included individual components of the composite cardiovascular end point, the composite

2018 NEJM

89. Extending the safety evidence for opportunistic salpingectomy in prevention of ovarian cancer: a cohort study from British Columbia, Canada

Extending the safety evidence for opportunistic salpingectomy in prevention of ovarian cancer: a cohort study from British Columbia, Canada Recent evidence has suggested that the fallopian tube may often be the site of origin for the most common and lethal form of ovarian cancer. As a result, many Colleges of Obstetrics and Gynecology, including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecology, are recommending surgical removal of the fallopian tube (bilateral salpingectomy) at the time (...) of other gynecologic surgeries (particularly hysterectomy and tubal sterilization) in women at general population risk for ovarian cancer, collectively referred to as opportunistic salpingectomy.Previous research with the use of hospital data has indicated good perioperative safety of opportunistic salpingectomy, but no data on minor complications have been presented. Herein, we examine whether women who undergo opportunistic salpingectomy are at increased risk of minor complications after surgery.We

2018 EvidenceUpdates

90. Should thoracic paravertebral blocks be used to prevent chronic postsurgical pain after breast cancer surgery? A systematic analysis of evidence in light of IMMPACT recommendations

Should thoracic paravertebral blocks be used to prevent chronic postsurgical pain after breast cancer surgery? A systematic analysis of evidence in light of IMMPACT recommendations The role of thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) in preventing chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after breast cancer surgery (BCS) has gained interest, but existing evidence is conflicting, and its methodological quality is unclear. This meta-analysis evaluates efficacy of PVB, compared with Control group, in preventing (...) CPSP after BCS, in light of the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) recommendations. Electronic databases were searched for randomized trials comparing PVB with Control group for CPSP prevention after BCS. Eligible trials were assessed for adherence to IMMPACT recommendations. The primary outcomes were CPSP at 3 and 6 months, whereas secondary outcomes were PVB-related complications. Data were pooled and analyzed using random-effects modelling. Trial

2018 EvidenceUpdates

91. Screening for Cervical Cancer in Primary Care: A Decision Analysis for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Screening for Cervical Cancer in Primary Care: A Decision Analysis for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence on the relative benefits and harms of primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is needed to inform guidelines.To inform the US Preventive Services Task Force by modeling the benefits and harms of various cervical cancer screening strategies.Microsimulation model of a hypothetical cohort of women initiating screening at age 21 years.Screening with cytology, hrHPV (...) was assumed.Lifetime number of tests, colposcopies, disease detection, false-positive results, cancer cases and deaths, life-years, and efficiency ratios expressing the trade-off of harms (ie, colposcopies, tests) vs benefits (life-years gained, cancer cases averted). Efficient strategies were those that yielded more benefit and less harm than another strategy or a lower harm to benefit ratio than a strategy with less harms.Compared with no screening, all modeled cervical cancer screening strategies were estimated

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2018 JAMA

92. Screening for Cervical Cancer With High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Screening for Cervical Cancer With High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Cervical cancer can be prevented with detection and treatment of precancerous cell changes caused primarily by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (hrHPV), the causative agents in more than 90% of cervical cancers.To systematically review benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening for hrHPV to inform the US Preventive (...) were qualitatively synthesized.Invasive cervical cancer; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN); false-positive, colposcopy, and biopsy rates; psychological harms.Eight RCTs (n = 410 556), 5 cohort studies (n = 402 615), and 1 individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis (n = 176 464) were included. Trials were heterogeneous for screening interval, number of rounds, and protocol. For primary hrHPV screening, evidence was consistent across 4 trials demonstrating increased detection of CIN 3

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2018 JAMA

93. Screening for Cervical Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Screening for Cervical Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. The number of deaths from cervical cancer in the United States has decreased substantially since the implementation of widespread cervical cancer screening and has declined from 2.8 to 2.3 deaths per 100 000 women from 2000 to 2015.To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2012 recommendation on screening for cervical cancer.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for cervical cancer (...) cytology alone, primary hrHPV testing alone, or cotesting can detect high-grade precancerous cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Screening women aged 21 to 65 years substantially reduces cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The harms of screening for cervical cancer in women aged 30 to 65 years are moderate. The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the benefits of screening every 3 years with cytology alone in women aged 21 to 29 years substantially outweigh the harms. The USPSTF concludes

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2018 JAMA

94. Apixaban to Prevent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer. (PubMed)

Apixaban to Prevent Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer. Patients with active cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. The Khorana score (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of venous thromboembolism) has been validated to identify patients with cancer at elevated risk for this complication and may help select those who could benefit from thromboprophylaxis.We (...) conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily) for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer who were at intermediate-to-high risk for venous thromboembolism (Khorana score, ≥2) and were initiating chemotherapy. The primary efficacy outcome was objectively documented venous thromboembolism over a follow-up period of 180 days. The main safety outcome was a major bleeding episode.Of the 574 patients who

2018 NEJM

95. Manual lymph drainage may not have a preventive effect on the development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema in the long term: a randomised trial

Manual lymph drainage may not have a preventive effect on the development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema in the long term: a randomised trial What are the short-term and long-term preventive effects of manual lymph drainage (MLD), when used in addition to information and exercise therapy, on the development of lymphoedema after axillary dissection for breast cancer?Randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors and intention-to-treat analysis.Adults undergoing (...) unilateral dissection for breast cancer were recruited, with 79 allocated to the experimental group and 81 to the control group.The experimental group received guidelines about prevention of lymphoedema, exercise therapy and MLD. The control group received the same guidelines and exercise therapy, but no MLD. The interventions in both groups were delivered for 6 months.The primary outcome was cumulative incidence of arm lymphoedema defined in four ways (≥200ml,≥2cm,≥5%, and≥10% increase), which represent

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2018 EvidenceUpdates

96. Neutropenic sepsis: prevention and management in people with cancer

Neutropenic sepsis: prevention and management in people with cancer Neutropenic sepsis: pre Neutropenic sepsis: prev vention and ention and management in people with cancer management in people with cancer Clinical guideline Published: 19 September 2012 nice.org.uk/guidance/cg151 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent (...) . Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Neutropenic sepsis: prevention and management in people with cancer (CG151) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk

2012 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

97. Understanding why aspirin prevents cancer and why consuming very hot beverages and foods increases esophageal cancer risk. Controlling the division rates of stem cells is an important strategy to prevent cancer (PubMed)

Understanding why aspirin prevents cancer and why consuming very hot beverages and foods increases esophageal cancer risk. Controlling the division rates of stem cells is an important strategy to prevent cancer Cancer is, in essence, a stem cell disease. The main biological cause of cancer is that stem cells acquire DNA alterations during cell division. The more stem cell divisions a tissue accumulates over a lifetime, the higher is the risk of cancer in that tissue. This explains why cancer (...) is diagnosed millions of times more often in some tissues than in others, and why cancer incidence increases so dramatically with age. It may also explain why taking a daily low-dose aspirin for several years reduces the risk of developing and dying from cancer. Since aspirin use reduces PGE2 levels and PGE2 fuels stem cell proliferation, aspirin may prevent cancer by restricting the division rates of stem cells. The stem cell division model of cancer may also explain why regular consumption of very hot

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2015 Oncoscience

98. Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002 (...) -. Search term Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) Patient Version PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Published online: March 22, 2019. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about esophageal cancer prevention. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

99. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002 (...) -. Search term Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) Patient Version PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Published online: March 15, 2019. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about colorectal cancer prevention. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

100. Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version Oral Cavity, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information (...) Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002-. Search term Oral Cavity, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) Patient Version PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Published online: July 20, 2018. Created: August 27, 2008 . This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about oral cavity, oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer prevention. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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