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Cancer Prevention

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81. Skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and prevention practices among medical students: A systematic search and literature review (PubMed)

Skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and prevention practices among medical students: A systematic search and literature review As future physicians, medical students will play an important role in the prevention of skin cancers by becoming directly involved in skin cancer prevention education and counseling patients about the hazards of ultraviolet light.We assessed the skin cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and prevention practices reported in previous studies of medical (...) . Important findings include moderate-to-high levels of skin cancer knowledge and low levels of both sunscreen and ultraviolet light knowledge. The attitudes and knowledge of medical students reflect a low level of concern with regard to the perceived importance of skin cancer compared with other forms of cancer despite a high level of concern for the importance of skin cancer prevention. Furthermore, this review demonstrated that medical students fail to protect themselves routinely from the sun and have

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2018 International journal of women's dermatology

82. Perceptions of cervical cancer prevention on Twitter uncovered by different sampling strategies. (PubMed)

Perceptions of cervical cancer prevention on Twitter uncovered by different sampling strategies. Cervical cancer prevention is possible through use of the HPV vaccine and Pap tests, yet the vaccine remains underutilized.We obtained publicly-available Twitter data from 2014 using three sampling strategies (top-ranked, simple random sample, and topic model) based on key words related to cervical cancer prevention. We conducted a content analysis of 100 tweets from each of the three samples

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2019 PLoS ONE

83. A clinical decision support system learned from data to personalize treatment recommendations towards preventing breast cancer metastasis. (PubMed)

A clinical decision support system learned from data to personalize treatment recommendations towards preventing breast cancer metastasis. A Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) that can amass Electronic Health Record (EHR) and other patient data holds promise to provide accurate classification and guide treatment choices. Our objective is to develop the Decision Support System for Making Personalized Assessments and Recommendations Concerning Breast Cancer Patients (DPAC), which is a CDSS (...) treatments towards preventing 5-year breast cancer metastasis.In a 5-fold cross-validation analysis, we compared the probability of being metastasis free in 5 years for patients who made decisions recommended by DPAC to those who did not. These probabilities are (the probability for those making the decisions appears first): chemotherapy (.938, .872); breast/chest wall radiation (.939, .902); nodal field radiation (.940, .784); antihormone (.941, .906); HER2 inhibitors (.934, .880); neadjuvant therapy

2019 PLoS ONE

84. Lipophilic statins inhibit YAP nuclear localization, co-activator activity and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cells and prevent the initial stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in KrasG12D mice. (PubMed)

Lipophilic statins inhibit YAP nuclear localization, co-activator activity and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cells and prevent the initial stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in KrasG12D mice. We examined the impact of statins on Yes-associated Protein (YAP) localization, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity in human and mouse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Exposure of sparse cultures of PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 cells to cerivastatin or simvastatin induced (...) a striking re-localization of YAP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and inhibited the expression of the YAP/TEAD-regulated genes Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) and Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61). Statins also prevented YAP nuclear import and expression of CTGF and CYR61 stimulated by the mitogenic combination of insulin and neurotensin in dense culture of these PDAC cells. Cerivastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin and fluvastatin also inhibited colony formation by PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2

2019 PLoS ONE

85. Preventing colorectal cancer or early diagnosis: Which is best? A re-analysis of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Evidence Report. (PubMed)

Preventing colorectal cancer or early diagnosis: Which is best? A re-analysis of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Evidence Report. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is the only cancer screening test to lower the risk of death compared to usual care in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We hypothesize that this unique death reduction is more attributable to prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) than to early diagnosis. The systematic review of the 2016 US Preventive Services Task Force (...) incidence (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74-0.84). Within the FS trials death reduction shows a strong linear correlation with CRC incidence reduction (r, 0.95; 95% CI 0.42-0.99). At 15.6-30.0 years of follow-up FOBT does not reduce death (RR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.992-1.010) or CRC incidence (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.89-1.02) but does reduce deaths attributed to CRC (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.91). Clinical trials of screening FS display a dose-response relationship between the magnitude of CRC prevention and the magnitude

2018 Preventive Medicine

86. Development of an exercise intervention for the prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment: the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER). (PubMed)

Development of an exercise intervention for the prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment: the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER). Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. There is some evidence to suggest that early postoperative exercise is safe and may improve shoulder function. We describe the development and delivery of a complex intervention for evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT (...) ), designed to target prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery (The Prevention of Shoulder Problems Trial; PROSPER).A pragmatic, multicentre RCT to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of best practice usual care versus a physiotherapy-led exercise and behavioural support intervention in women at high risk of shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment. PROSPER will recruit 350 women from approximately 15 UK centres, with follow-up at 6 and 12 months

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2018 BMC health services research

87. Evaluation of Simplified Lymphatic Microsurgical Preventing Healing Approach (S-LYMPHA) for the Prevention of Breast Cancer-Related Clinical Lymphedema After Axillary Lymph Node Dissection. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Simplified Lymphatic Microsurgical Preventing Healing Approach (S-LYMPHA) for the Prevention of Breast Cancer-Related Clinical Lymphedema After Axillary Lymph Node Dissection. To assess the efficiency of Simplified Lymphatic Microsurgical Preventing Healing Approach (S-LYMPHA) in preventing lymphedema (LE) in a prospective cohort of patients.LE is a serious complication of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with an incidence rate of 25%. LYMPHA has been proposed as an effective (...) adjunct to ALND for the prevention of LE. This procedure, however, requires microsurgical techniques and significant coordination between services.All patients, undergoing ALND with or without S-LYMPHA between January 2014 and December 2016 were included in the study. During follow-up visits, tape-measuring limb circumference method was used to detect LE. The incidence of LE was compared between ALND with and without S-LYMPHA.A total of 380 patients were included in the analysis. Median follow-up time

2018 Annals of Surgery

88. Randomised controlled trial of exercise to prevent shoulder problems in women undergoing breast cancer treatment: study protocol for the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER). (PubMed)

Randomised controlled trial of exercise to prevent shoulder problems in women undergoing breast cancer treatment: study protocol for the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER). Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. Early postoperative exercises targeting the upper limb may improve shoulder function. This protocol describes a National Institute for Health Research-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the clinical and cost (...) -effectiveness of an early supervised structured exercise programme compared with usual care, for women at high risk of developing shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery.This pragmatic two-armed, multicentre RCT is underway within secondary care in the UK. PRevention Of Shoulder ProblEms tRial (PROSPER) aims to recruit 350 women from approximately 15 UK centres with follow-up at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. Recruitment processes and intervention development were optimised through

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2018 BMJ open

89. Study to Evaluate How Patients Regard the Benefits and Risks of Low-dose Aspirin for the Prevention of Heart and Blood Vessels Disease and for the Prevention of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum

Study to Evaluate How Patients Regard the Benefits and Risks of Low-dose Aspirin for the Prevention of Heart and Blood Vessels Disease and for the Prevention of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Study to Evaluate How Patients Regard the Benefits and Risks of Low-dose Aspirin for the Prevention of Heart and Blood Vessels Disease and for the Prevention of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting (...) registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Study to Evaluate How Patients Regard the Benefits and Risks of Low-dose Aspirin for the Prevention of Heart and Blood Vessels Disease and for the Prevention of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study

2018 Clinical Trials

90. Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: A Decision Analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: A Decision Analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence indicates that aspirin is effective for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) but also increases the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) and cerebral hemorrhages.To assess the net balance of benefits and harms from routine aspirin use across clinically relevant age, sex, and CVD risk groups.Decision (...) years of use.Results are most sensitive to the relative risk for hemorrhagic stroke and CVD mortality but are affected by all relative risk estimates, baseline GI bleeding incidence and case-fatality rates, and disutilities associated with aspirin use.Aspirin effects by age are uncertain. Stroke benefits are conservatively estimated. Gastrointestinal bleeding incidence and case-fatality rates account only for age and sex.Lifetime aspirin use for primary prevention initiated at younger ages (40 to 69

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2016 Annals of Internal Medicine

91. Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Update of the 2009 USPSTF recommendation on aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and the 2007 recommendation on aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC).The USPSTF reviewed 5 additional studies of aspirin for the primary prevention of CVD and several additional analyses of CRC (...) follow-up data. The USPSTF also relied on commissioned systematic reviews of all-cause mortality and total cancer incidence and mortality and a comprehensive review of harms. The USPSTF then used a microsimulation model to systematically estimate the balance of benefits and harms.This recommendation applies to adults aged 40 years or older without known CVD and without increased bleeding risk.The USPSTF recommends initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD and CRC in adults

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2016 Annals of Internal Medicine

92. Randomised controlled trial: The beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer among women at high cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED Trial

Randomised controlled trial: The beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer among women at high cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED Trial The beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer among women at high cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED Trial | Evidence-Based Nursing We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our (...) or password? You are here The beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer among women at high cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED Trial Article Text Women's health Randomised controlled trial The beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer among women at high cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED Trial Niki Mourouti , Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

2016 Evidence-Based Nursing

93. Early breast cancer (preventing recurrence and improving survival): adjuvant bisphosphonates

Early breast cancer (preventing recurrence and improving survival): adjuvant bisphosphonates Early breast cancer (pre Early breast cancer (prev venting recurrence and enting recurrence and impro improving survival): adjuvant bisphosphonates ving survival): adjuvant bisphosphonates Evidence summary Published: 25 July 2017 nice.org.uk/guidance/es15 pathways K Ke ey points y points The content of this evidence summary was up-to-date in July 2017. See summaries of product characteristics (SPCs (...) ), British national formulary (BNF) or the MHRA or NICE websites for up- to-date information. Regulatory status: Regulatory status: Bisphosphonates reduce the rate of bone turnover. Six bisphosphonates are available in the UK (alendronic acid, ibandronic acid, pamidronate, risedronate, clodronate and zoledronic acid), which have various indications. Bisphosphonates may be used in some people with breast cancer, within the terms of their licenses, to prevent and treat osteoporosis or skeletal events

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

94. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. (PubMed)

Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. Pulmonary complications are often observed during the postoperative period of lung resection for patients with lung cancer. Some conditions such as intubation, a long stay in the intensive care unit, the high cost of antibiotics and mortality may be avoided with the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV (...) ) is widely accepted and often used in hospitals, and may reduce the number of pulmonary complications and mortality after this type of surgery. Therefore, a systematic review is required to map and critically assess the benefits and harms of NIPPV for patients undergoing lung resection.To assess the efficacy and safety of NIPPV for preventing complications in patients who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE

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2015 Cochrane

95. Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. (PubMed)

Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (macrophage) colony-stimulating factors (G(M)-CSF) and antibiotics, frequently quinolones (...) , MEDLINE, EMBASE, databases of ongoing trials, and conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology (1980 to December 2015). We planned to include both full-text and abstract publications. Two review authors independently screened search results.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylaxis with G(M)-CSF versus antibiotics for the prevention of infection in cancer patients of all ages receiving chemotherapy. All study

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2015 Cochrane

96. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy. (PubMed)

Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy. Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy (...) the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment.We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National

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2015 Cochrane

97. Applicability of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network/Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Southeast Asia: A Consensus Statement (PubMed)

Applicability of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network/Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Southeast Asia: A Consensus Statement A meeting of regional experts was convened in Manila, Philippines, to develop a resource-stratified chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) management guideline. In patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy in general clinical settings (...) , triple therapy with a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine-3 [5-HT3]) antagonist (preferably palonosetron), dexamethasone, and aprepitant is recommended for acute CINV prevention. In resource-restricted settings, triple therapy is still recommended, although a 5-HT3 antagonist other than palonosetron may be used. In both general and resource-restricted settings, dual therapy with dexamethasone (days 2 to 4) and aprepitant (days 2 to 3) is recommended to prevent delayed CINV. In patients treated

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2016 Journal of global oncology

98. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. preventive services task force

Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. preventive services task force Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2012 DARE.

99. Screening for Prostate Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Screening for Prostate Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. In the United States, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is approximately 13%, and the lifetime risk of dying of prostate cancer is 2.5%. The median age of death from prostate cancer is 80 years. Many men with prostate cancer never experience symptoms and, without screening, would never know they have the disease. African American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer (...) have an increased risk of prostate cancer compared with other men.To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer and subsequent treatment of screen-detected prostate cancer. The USPSTF also commissioned a review of existing decision analysis models and the overdiagnosis rate of PSA-based screening

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2018 JAMA

100. Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US men.To systematically review evidence on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, treatments for localized prostate cancer, and prebiopsy risk calculators to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane (...) Registries and Databases from July 1, 2011, through July 15, 2017, with a surveillance search on February 1, 2018.English-language reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of screening; cohort studies reporting harms; RCTs and cohort studies of active localized cancer treatments vs conservative approaches (eg, active surveillance, watchful waiting); external validations of prebiopsy risk calculators to identify aggressive cancers.One investigator abstracted data; a second checked accuracy. Two

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2018 JAMA

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