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Cancer Prevention

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75641. Biomarker-based methods for determining noncompliance in a prevention trial. (PubMed)

Biomarker-based methods for determining noncompliance in a prevention trial. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) is a 7-year randomized trial of 18000 men designed to test a daily dose of finasteride (5 mg/d) for the primary prevention of prostate cancer. Compliance is assessed every 6 months by determining the percentage of pills consumed since the previous visit. In addition, levels of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are measured at yearly intervals in a random subset of 5 (...) % of participants in the trial as part of a substudy to investigate the potential of this biomarker for monitoring compliance. Motivated by this substudy, we outline three biomarker-based rules for monitoring compliance over time in prevention trials. We make comparisons among the rules using receiver operating characteristic curves. We illustrate the methods using the biomarker DHT in the PCPT substudy with pill counts as a gold standard, and in a simulation study under a hypothetical true gold standard. Our

2002 Controlled clinical trials

75642. Prevention of cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis by the selective neurokinin-1 antagonists, L-758,298 and MK-869. (PubMed)

Prevention of cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis by the selective neurokinin-1 antagonists, L-758,298 and MK-869. Recent studies have suggested that antiemetic therapy with a triple combination of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist MK-869, a serotonin (5-HT(3)) antagonist, and dexamethasone provides enhanced control of cisplatin-induced emesis compared with standard therapy regimens. The authors compared the antiemetic activity of a dual combination of MK-869 and dexamethasone (...) 2-5) and control of the need for rescue medication on Days 2-5.(c) 2002 American Cancer Society.

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2002 Cancer

75643. Comparison of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and sucralfate mouthwashes in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis: a double-blind prospective randomized phase III study. (PubMed)

Comparison of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and sucralfate mouthwashes in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis: a double-blind prospective randomized phase III study. To compare granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwashes with sucralfate mouthwashes in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.Forty patients with radically operated head-and-neck cancer were randomly allocated to use either GM-CSF (n = 21) or sucralfate (n = 19 (...) be moderately more effective than sucralfate mouthwashes in preventing radiation-induced mucositis and mucositis-related pain, and their use may lead to less frequent RT course interruptions from mucositis. The present findings need to be confirmed before adopting GM-CSF mouthwashes in routine clinical use.

2002 International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

75644. Randomized clinical study of the prevention of pulmonary complications after thoracoabdominal resection by two different breathing techniques. (PubMed)

Randomized clinical study of the prevention of pulmonary complications after thoracoabdominal resection by two different breathing techniques. Pulmonary complications are frequently seen after thoracoabdominal resection of the oesophagus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different breathing exercise regimens applied in the immediate postoperative period on the risk of pulmonary insufficiency after thoracoabdominal resection.Seventy patients undergoing thoracoabdominal (...) resection for cancer of the oesophagus and cardia were randomized after operation to breathing exercises by inspiratory resistance-positive expiratory pressure (IR-PEP) (n = 36) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (n = 34). The study groups were well matched for all relevant clinical and demographic data.Respiratory function deteriorated significantly immediately after operation; the lowest values of forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow were measured during the first postoperative

2002 British Journal of Surgery

75645. [Preventive therapy in middle-aged and elderly persons selected from the population-based screening by mass miniature radiography--methodological aspect and adverse reactions]. (PubMed)

[Preventive therapy in middle-aged and elderly persons selected from the population-based screening by mass miniature radiography--methodological aspect and adverse reactions]. The notification rate of tuberculosis in Japan was 31.0 per 100,000 in 2000. The rate was especially high among the elderly population, reaching 85.5 per 100,000 among those over 65 years of age. We conducted a study of preventive therapy in middle-aged and elderly persons selected from the population-based screening (...) ) was diagnosed as active TB by his chest X-ray film at the 6th month medical checkup, although it was not confirmed bacteriologically. One person (62 y.o. female) had the mastectomy for breast cancer 7 months before the entry to this study and relapsed at the 8th month after the entry. One person (73 y.o. female) was diagnosed as lung cancer at the medical checkup on 2.5 years. Besides them, 4 persons were suspected of worsening the abnormal shadows on chest X-ray films; one was from the INH group and three

2002 Kekkaku : [Tuberculosis]

75646. [Clinical study of rhIL-11 for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia]. (PubMed)

[Clinical study of rhIL-11 for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia]. Cancer chemotherapy can induce thrombocytopenia. It is necessory to develop drugs that can prevent and treat thrombocytopenia. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of rhIL-11 in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.A total of 109 cancer patients were involved randomly into AB or BA group and every patient received 2 cycles (...) of chemotherapy. IL-11 was administered subcutaneously(50 micrograms/kg/d), beginning 24 hours after completion of chemotherapy for 14 consecutive days or continuing until platelet count was > 400 x 10(9)/L during cycle A. Patients did not received IL-11 during cycle B. Another 41 cases of cancer patients whose platelet were less than 50 x 10(9)/L after chemotherapy entered into open study group. IL-11 administration was the same as above.Efficacy can be evaluated in 107 cases in controlled study group. Mean

2002 Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer

75647. Ramosetron for the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute emesis: a prospective randomized comparison with granisetron. (PubMed)

Ramosetron for the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute emesis: a prospective randomized comparison with granisetron. Control of nausea and vomiting is very important in determining patient compliance with cisplatin chemotherapy. A multicentre, randomized, single-blind study was conducted to compare the tolerability and efficacy of ramosetron with those of granisetron over 24 h following cisplatin administration to cancer patients. In eight study centres, a total of 194 adult patients were (...) . Ramosetron and granisetron appear to have equivalent efficacy and tolerability profiles, but the effects of ramosetron on the prevention of acute vomiting in patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were longer lasting.

2002 The Journal of international medical research

75648. A prospective double-blind randomized trial of urokinase flushes to prevent bacteremia resulting from luminal colonization of subcutaneous central venous catheters. (PubMed)

A prospective double-blind randomized trial of urokinase flushes to prevent bacteremia resulting from luminal colonization of subcutaneous central venous catheters. This study was undertaken to determine if central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection in children with cancer could be prevented by monthly flushing of the catheter with urokinase.Between August 1994 and July 1998, 103 patients with cancer were randomized at the time of subcutaneous CVC placement to receive monthly flushing (...) in patients receiving heparin alone (P = 0.27). Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from the blood of 3 patients receiving urokinase-heparin and 6 in those receiving heparin alone (P = 0.17).Prophylactic monthly catheter flushes with 5000 IU urokinase did not significantly decrease the number of documented bacteremic events in children with cancer who have CVCs.

2002 Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology

75649. A novel approach to the prevention of postoperative delirium in the elderly after gastrointestinal surgery. (PubMed)

A novel approach to the prevention of postoperative delirium in the elderly after gastrointestinal surgery. Postoperative delirium (POD) is known to be one of the most critical complications of major operative procedures in elderly patients. Since disorders of the sleep-wake cycle have been reported to be one of the key factors in POD, we attempted to clarify the effectiveness of improving sleep-wake cycle disorders with medication after surgery to prevent POD, by conducting a prospective (...) randomized study of 42 elderly patients who underwent resection of either gastric or colon cancer through an open laparotomy.The delirium-free protocol (DFP) group was given an intramuscular injection of diazepam at 20:00 h each night, as well as a continuous intravenous infusion of flunitrazepam and pethidine administered over 8 h, for the first three nights postoperatively. Two patients were excluded because of failure to complete the DFP.The incidence of POD was 7/20 (35.0%) in the non-DFP group and 1

2002 Surgery today

75650. [Preventive bilateral pulmonary irradiation in renal neoplasms]. (PubMed)

[Preventive bilateral pulmonary irradiation in renal neoplasms]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of bilateral lung radiotherapy in the prevention of lung metastases from renal cell carcinoma. The preliminary results are presented. Between 1981-1984, 38 patients with renal cell carcinoma with no evident lung metastases and with normal respiratory function (confirmed by gas analysis, spirometry, diffusion test) were submitted to radical nephrectomy with regional lymphadenectomy (...) from cancer, only 1 of whom with lung metastases. In the second group (no lung Radiotherapy) 14 patients are disease-free whilst 5 patients died with lung metastases.

1986 Journal d'urologie

75651. [Preventive chemotherapy of superficial tumors of the bladder]. (PubMed)

[Preventive chemotherapy of superficial tumors of the bladder]. A retrospective study of 135 patients with superficial transitional cancer of bladder (pTa - pT1) was conducted after follow-up for at least 3 years following treatment for 2 years at the "Instituto de Urología, Nefrología y Andrología (Fundación Puigvert)". Patients had been randomly allocated for treatment with: RTU alone, RTU + instillation of Thiotepa and RTU followed by instillations of Adriamycin. Chemotherapy (...) was administered preventively. Recurrence after 3 years and possible progression towards infiltration during this period were evaluated, and the usefulness of this type of treatment questioned because of the cost/benefit ratio and small intergroup differences found.

1986 Journal d'urologie

75652. [Randomized controlled study of high-dose metoclopramide (2 mg/kg x 4:H) vs moderate-dose metoclopramide (1 mg/kg x 4:M) in the prevention of CDDP-induced emesis]. (PubMed)

[Randomized controlled study of high-dose metoclopramide (2 mg/kg x 4:H) vs moderate-dose metoclopramide (1 mg/kg x 4:M) in the prevention of CDDP-induced emesis]. A comparison of the antiemetic effects of (H) and (M) was carried out by randomized control study in gynecologic cancer patients receiving CDDP (35-110 mg/m2). Metoclopramide was given at a dosage of 2 mg/kg (H) or 1 mg/kg (M), intravenously, 30 minutes before and 2.5 hours, 5.0 hours, and 7.5 hours following chemotherapy. Treatment

1986 Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy

75653. [Prevention of nausea and emesis during cytostatic therapy. Antiemetic efficacy of high-dosage oral metoclopramide without and with prednisone]. (PubMed)

[Prevention of nausea and emesis during cytostatic therapy. Antiemetic efficacy of high-dosage oral metoclopramide without and with prednisone]. In a randomized trial of 58 cancer patients receiving strongly emetogenic cytostatic drugs (cisplatin or comparable cytostatic agents, alone or in combination), the anti-emetic action of oral metoclopramide was tested, alone or combined with prednisone. Patients of group A (33 during 46 treatment cycles) received three times 50 mg metoclopramide (...) in group B; complete absence of nausea in 39% and 32%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments in their preventive action. Three times 50 mg metoclopramide (with or without prednisone) four hours apart during one cytostatic-drug cycle was well tolerated by patients in both groups and can be recommended as a simple, practical prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in the course of strongly emetogenic treatment of cancer.

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1986 Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)

75654. [Immunoglobulins for the prevention of radiation pneumonitis following large-volume irradiation in bronchial carcinoma]. (PubMed)

[Immunoglobulins for the prevention of radiation pneumonitis following large-volume irradiation in bronchial carcinoma]. In a randomized study 20 patients with non small cell lung cancer were treated for cure at a linear accelerator. Before, during and after treatment levels of immunoglobulins were measured. At the end of radiation therapy levels of IgA, IgG and IgM decreased. After therapy they increased slowly. 3 months after irradiation the average immunoglobulin levels showed a reduction

1986 Onkologie

75655. Prevention of urinary tract infection and sepsis following transrectal prostatic biopsy. (PubMed)

Prevention of urinary tract infection and sepsis following transrectal prostatic biopsy. Transrectal biopsy is one of the more popular methods for the diagnosis of prostatic cancer. However, there is disagreement as to whether the use of prophylactic antimicrobials decreases the incidence of fever and urinary tract infections, which may follow this procedure. A prospective randomized double-blind study involving 63 patients was instituted to determine the efficacy of carbenicillin indanyl

1982 The Journal of urology

75656. Improving physician compliance with preventive medicine guidelines. (PubMed)

Health Examination and American Cancer Society guidelines) were appended to each patient's chart. In addition, house officers were presented with a series of weekly seminars dealing with issues in screening, as well as the specific recommendations included in the checklist. House officers in all four clinics were tested for their knowledge and attitudes toward the preventive program before and after the intervention. Counts of immunizations and mammograms performed and the total populations eligible (...) Improving physician compliance with preventive medicine guidelines. Similar general medical outpatient clinics with randomly assigned patients were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a program that was to increase house staff compliance with preventive medicine guidelines. Two clinics were designated experimental and two served as controls. In the experimental clinics, age-specific checklists of all recommended preventive procedures (drawn from the Canadian Task Force report on The Periodic

1982 Medical Care

75657. Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting. (PubMed)

Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting. Levonantradol is a cannabis derivative. Cannabinoid anti-emetics are being assessed in cancer chemotherapy but have been little used in radiotherapy to date. A pilot study and randomised trial compared the anti-emetic effect of a standard drug (Chlorpromazine 26 mg) with Levonantradol at two doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg) in patients receiving palliative single fraction radiotherapy

1982 Clinical radiology

75658. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. (PubMed)

Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. A double-blind trial to evaluate the antiemetic effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in patients treated with cisplatin was performed. Thirty-seven adults with advanced cancer who were treated with cisplatin were randomly assigned to receive either synthetic long-acting ACTH (1 mg IM given 24 hours, 12 hours, and immediately preceding the administration of cisplatin) or a placebo given under (...) be an effective agent in preventing nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin.

1983 Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

75659. Prevention of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia. (PubMed)

Prevention of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia. Twenty-eight children were treated for various cancers with protocols that included dichlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin). Sixteen children were given intravenous magnesium after the administration of cisplatin, and 12 were given intravenous magnesium before and after administration of cisplatin. Serum magnesium concentration levels were monitored before, during, and after the full course of treatment and found to be lower in the first group (...) of patients than in the second group. We recommend that magnesium supplements be given to patients receiving cisplatin during the precisplatin hydration period to prevent hypomagnesemia.

1988 Pediatric hematology and oncology

75660. [Efficacy of a low-residue diet in the prevention of immuno-nutritional changes caused by the preparation of the colon for surgery]. (PubMed)

[Efficacy of a low-residue diet in the prevention of immuno-nutritional changes caused by the preparation of the colon for surgery]. Twenty-four patients about to undergo colorectal resection for cancer were randomly divided into two groups of 12: A and B. All had an uninterrupted colonic preparation for colonoscopy and surgery involving dietary restrictions for 4-8 days (450 calories; 25 g. proteins daily). In the group B an additional intake of 1200 Kcal. and 32 g. protein daily was given

1988 Chirurgia italiana

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