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Cancer Prevention

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75641. The Skin Cancer Prevention Study: design of a clinical trial of beta-carotene among persons at high risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer. (PubMed)

The Skin Cancer Prevention Study: design of a clinical trial of beta-carotene among persons at high risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer. We describe a randomized clinical trial of oral beta-carotene (50 mg/day) for preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is a multicenter study conducted at sites in California, Minnesota, and New Hampshire. This report describes the design of the study, baseline characteristics of the 1805 randomized patients, changes in their plasma beta-carotene and retinol levels (...) after 1 year of treatment, and plans for statistical analyses. Important features of this study are (1) a high proportion of potential subjects were found to be ineligible or chose not to enter the study, (2) the study agent is readily available over the counter and in common foods, and (3) nonmelanoma skin cancer is a relatively minor health concern for most patients. These considerations necessitated intensive efforts to encourage compliance with the study regimen. There are also some unusual

1989 Controlled clinical trials

75642. Cancer screening utilization: is there a role for social work in cancer prevention? (PubMed)

Cancer screening utilization: is there a role for social work in cancer prevention? Colorectal cancer is a life threatening, yet treatable, disease. Although early detection can improve health outcomes and preserve quality of life, many people are not screened. A post-test experimental design was used to test an intervention to increase screening behavior among eighty-one family practice patients, aged 50-70. Subjects were given a brief talk and a packet of educational materials. The physician

1995 Social work in health care

75643. Factors related to enrollment in the breast cancer prevention trial at a comprehensive cancer center during the first year of recruitment. (PubMed)

Factors related to enrollment in the breast cancer prevention trial at a comprehensive cancer center during the first year of recruitment. Using an a priori theoretic model of behavior change, factors predicting enrollment in a randomized chemoprevention trial during the first year of recruitment were assessed prospectively.Eligible participants were asked to complete a 90-item semistructured questionnaire after attendance at an informational meeting. Components of the Health Belief Model (...) (including perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, and health motivation), health status, preventive health behaviors, and social influence were assessed in relation to enrollment.Overall, 331 women attended one of the meetings, and 73% completed a questionnaire; 45% enrolled on the trial and 55% did not. In bivariate analyses, all but one of the perceived barriers were associated negatively with enrollment; however, items assessing perceived

1995 Cancer

75644. [Prevention of second primary cancer with vitamin supplementation in patients treated for head and neck cancers]. (PubMed)

[Prevention of second primary cancer with vitamin supplementation in patients treated for head and neck cancers]. Second primary cancers often occur in head and neck cancer patients successfully treated by radiation therapy. Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that these second primaries might be prevented by antioxidant vitamins, in particular beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. A randomized double-blind clinical trial is being conducted in Canada to determine whether vitamin (...) supplementation with beta-carotene (30 mg/d) and alpha-tocopherol (400 IU/d) reduces the incidence of second primaries in head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation therapy.

1996 Bulletin du cancer. Radiothérapie : journal de la Société française du cancer : organe de la société française de radiothérapie oncologique

75645. [Cancer of the breast: primary prevention of breast cancer by tamoxifen, eligibility criteria, alternatives to English proposals]. (PubMed)

[Cancer of the breast: primary prevention of breast cancer by tamoxifen, eligibility criteria, alternatives to English proposals]. During the spring of 1993, UKCCCR prevention trial group proposed to the french medical community to participate into the international breast cancer prevention trial by tamoxifen set up in Great Britain. In January 1994 this proposal was eventually judged unacceptable in France because of lack of reflexion on primary cancer prevention, medico-legal risks, tamoxifen (...) use risks and the eligibility criteria. A randomized trial could be designed and carried out in France to evaluate the place of tamoxifen in breast cancer prevention in the following settings: post menopausal patient with atypical epithelial hyperplasia or lobular in situ carcinoma.

1995 Bulletin du cancer

75646. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. (PubMed)

Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial was a randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of selenium as selenized yeast (200 microg daily) in preventing the recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer among 1312 residents of the Eastern United States. Original secondary analyses through December 31 (...) ) and was most pronounced in former smokers. Participants with baseline plasma selenium concentrations in the lowest two tertiles (<121.6 ng/ml) experienced reductions in total cancer incidence, whereas those in the highest tertile showed an elevated incidence (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.77-1.86). The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial continues to show a protective effect of selenium on cancer incidence, although not all site-specific cancers exhibited a reduction in incidence. This treatment effect

2002 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

75647. Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. (PubMed)

Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Interest in the chemopreventive effects of the trace element selenium has spanned the past three decades. Of >100 studies that have investigated the effects of selenium in carcinogen-exposed animals, two-thirds have observed a reduction in tumor incidence and/or preneoplastic endpoints (G. F. Combs and S. B. Combs, The Role of Selenium in Nutrition Chapter 10, pp. 413-462. San Diego, CA (...) : Academic Press, 1986, and B. H. Patterson and O. A. Levander, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 6: 63-69, 1997). The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial, a randomized clinical trial reported by Clark et al. (L. C. Clark et al., JAMA, 276: 1957-1963, 1996), showed as a secondary end point, a statistically significant decrease in lung cancer incidence with selenium supplementation. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-1.01; P = 0.05]. These results were based

2002 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

75648. [Clinical study of postoperative infection of gastrointestinal cancer. Randomized study of preventive efficacy of cefmetazole versus cephalothin in postoperative infection of gastric and colorectal cancer]. (PubMed)

[Clinical study of postoperative infection of gastrointestinal cancer. Randomized study of preventive efficacy of cefmetazole versus cephalothin in postoperative infection of gastric and colorectal cancer]. Effectiveness of prophylactic administration of cefmetazole (CMZ) (A) for postoperative infection was compared with that of cephalothin (B) using patients undergoing resection of gastric cancers or colorectal cancers as subjects in cooperation with 19 major hospitals in the Tohoku districts (...) . Using the envelope method, each hospital allocated, at random, patients with each organ removed into groups A and B. Either drug was administrated at 4 g/day (in 2 divided doses) for 7 days. Registered patients with gastric cancers amounted to 114 in group A and 113 in group B; those with colorectal cancers were 63 each in groups A and B. As to background factors, advanced cancers were found more in group A with gastric cancers, and operations took more time on the average in this group; however

1988 The Japanese journal of antibiotics

75649. Lung cancer. 1: prevention of lung cancer. (PubMed)

Lung cancer. 1: prevention of lung cancer. Cancer of the lung causes more deaths from cancer worldwide than at any other site. The environmental, genetic, and dietary risk factors are discussed and progress in chemoprevention is reviewed. A better understanding of the molecular events that occur during carcinogenesis has opened up new areas of research in cancer prevention and a number of biochemical markers of high risk individuals have been identified. It is predicted that greater success

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2002 Thorax

75650. Molecular targets for cancer prevention: a meeting review of the third American Cancer Society-Schilling Research Conference. (PubMed)

Molecular targets for cancer prevention: a meeting review of the third American Cancer Society-Schilling Research Conference. The American Cancer Society-Schilling Research Conference, held at Seascape, California, on October 26-29, 2000, convened over 25 experts in interdisciplinary fields to discuss the prospects for molecular targets of cancer prevention. Promising molecular targets fell into four main classes: (a) genes in which altered expression or activation drives induction of cancer (...) promising era in our battle to reduce the burden of cancer. Knowledge of genes that drive or prevent cancer progression and genes that specify cancer susceptibility should bring molecular-targeted interventions to the individuals who will benefit most.

2002 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

75651. Update on tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer. The Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Study. (PubMed)

Update on tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer. The Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Study. 11056317 2000 12 28 2013 11 21 0959-8049 36 Suppl 4 2000 Sep European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) Eur. J. Cancer Update on tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer. The Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Study. S50-1 Decensi A A Chemoprevention Unit, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141, Milan, Italy. andrea.decensi@ieo.it Bonanni B B Rotmensz N N Robertson C C Guerrieri-Gonzaga A A Mora (...) S S Diani S S Cazzaniga M M Costa A A eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't England Eur J Cancer 9005373 0959-8049 0 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal 094ZI81Y45 Tamoxifen IM Adult Aged Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal therapeutic use Breast Neoplasms prevention & control Female Hormone Replacement Therapy Humans Italy Middle Aged Tamoxifen therapeutic use 2000 11 1 11 0 2001 2 28 10 1 2000 11 1 11 0 ppublish 11056317 S0959804900002240

2000 European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)

75652. Vitamin E in Preventing the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Former and Current Smokers Who Are Receiving Isotretinoin to Prevent Lung Cancer

Vitamin E in Preventing the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Former and Current Smokers Who Are Receiving Isotretinoin to Prevent Lung Cancer Vitamin E in Preventing the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Former and Current Smokers Who Are Receiving Isotretinoin to Prevent Lung Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Vitamin E in Preventing the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Former and Current Smokers Who Are Receiving Isotretinoin to Prevent Lung Cancer The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov

1999 Clinical Trials

75653. Preventing heart disease and cancer. What randomized, primary-prevention studies show. (PubMed)

Preventing heart disease and cancer. What randomized, primary-prevention studies show. Several chemical agents appear to be useful in primary prevention of CAD and cancer. Randomized trials have found that in specific patient subgroups, tamoxifen and raloxifene decreased the occurrence of breast cancer, and lovastatin and aspirin decreased the frequency of CAD events. Secondary analysis of randomized primary-prevention studies has supported the use of vitamin E and selenium in cancer prevention.

1999 Postgraduate medicine

75654. Dietary supplement use in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial: implications for prevention trials. (PubMed)

Dietary supplement use in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial: implications for prevention trials. Nutrients included in commonly used dietary supplements, such as vitamins C and E, may affect cancer risk. To better understand how supplement use may affect the interpretation of cancer prevention trials, we examined dietary supplement use among participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the drug finasteride (Proscar) for the primary (...) prevention of prostate cancer. Of 15,387 men who completed food frequency questionnaires and dietary supplement questionnaires, 44.3% used a multivitamin, 35% used single supplements of vitamin C or E, and 10-15% used antioxidant mixtures or single supplements of vitamins A and D, zinc, or beta-carotene at least three times per week. The strongest correlates of supplement use were higher education and lower body mass index (p < 0.001), and whites and Asians were more likely to use multivitamins

2001 Nutrition and cancer

75655. Oral-disease prevention in children with cancer: testing preventive protocol effectiveness. (PubMed)

Oral-disease prevention in children with cancer: testing preventive protocol effectiveness. Mucositis, gingivitis, herpetic stomatitis and candidiasis are a potential source of systemic infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Their severity and incidence may be reduced with procedures based on the prevention and elimination of sources causing oral infection and irritation.The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of an Oral Disease Preventive Protocol (...) instructions on oral physiotherapy.There were no significant differences between the groups under evaluation (p>0.05). Of the oral complications evaluated, gingivitis registered the highest percentage (60%), followed by mucositis (18%) and candida albicans infection (7%). Most affected were the submandibular and cervical ganglions (59% and 41%, respectively).Prior control of sources causing oral infection and irritation effectively prevents complications during non-surgical cancer therapy.

2001 Medicina oral : órgano oficial de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Oral y de la Academia Iberoamericana de Patología y Medicina Bucal

75656. Preventive health care, 1999 update: 3. Follow-up after breast cancer. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. (PubMed)

Preventive health care, 1999 update: 3. Follow-up after breast cancer. Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. To make recommendations to physicians who provide follow-up care for women who have been treated for early-stage breast cancer.Combination of blood tests, bone scans, liver echography and chest radiography for detection of distant disease; physical examination with or without mammography for detection of contralateral breast cancer; and physical examination with or without (...) cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of mammography after local excision and radiotherapy is unknown. There have been no RCTs examining the role of mammography or physical examination, or both, and their effect on survival in the detection of ipsilateral breast recurrence.The strength of evidence was evaluated using the methods of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. A high value was placed on interventions that changed survival. When evidence was available, high value was also

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1999 Canadian Medical Association Journal

75657. Does physical activity prevent cancer? : Evidence suggests protection against colon cancer and probably breast cancer (PubMed)

Does physical activity prevent cancer? : Evidence suggests protection against colon cancer and probably breast cancer 11110720 2001 02 15 2018 11 13 0959-8138 321 7274 2000 Dec 09 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Does physical activity prevent cancer? Evidence suggests protection against colon cancer and probably breast cancer. 1424-5 Batty D D Thune I I eng Editorial England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Gonadal Steroid Hormones AIM IM Breast Neoplasms prevention & control Colonic Neoplasms (...) prevention & control Exercise Gonadal Steroid Hormones physiology Humans Neoplasm Recurrence, Local prevention & control Neoplasms prevention & control Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent prevention & control 2000 12 9 11 0 2001 3 3 10 1 2000 12 9 11 0 ppublish 11110720 PMC1119154 Cancer Res. 1997 Jan 1;57(1):75-80 8988044 N Engl J Med. 1997 May 1;336(18):1269-75 9113929 Cancer. 1999 May 15;85(10):2273-7 10326708 Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug;28(4):620-5 10480687 Crit Rev Oncog. 1997;8(2-3):219-72 9570295 BMJ. 1994

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2000 BMJ : British Medical Journal

75658. Public education projects in skin cancer. The evolution of skin cancer prevention education for children at a comprehensive cancer center. (PubMed)

Public education projects in skin cancer. The evolution of skin cancer prevention education for children at a comprehensive cancer center. Skin cancer affects more Americans than any other type of cancer. Children are prime targets for prevention education, because sun overexposure in early childhood may affect the development of skin cancer later in life. Preventive behaviors adopted early in life may be less resistant to change than those acquired in adulthood. Thus, there is a need (...) to educate children at an early age about sun overexposure.This article describes the evolution of skin cancer prevention research at the Arizona Cancer Center, a National Cancer Institute--designated comprehensive cancer center. Research focusing on children is high-lighted.From its roots in the Arizona Sun Awareness Project, an informal public skin cancer education program, skin cancer prevention research at the Arizona Cancer Center has produced two developmentally appropriate, age-based curricula

1995 Cancer

75659. The Breast Cancer Prevention Trial: evaluating tamoxifen's efficacy in preventing breast cancer. (PubMed)

The Breast Cancer Prevention Trial: evaluating tamoxifen's efficacy in preventing breast cancer. To review the literature on tamoxifen and breast cancer, focusing on the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT).Computerized searches on MEDLINE and CINAHL.Articles from indexed journals in the English language related to the topics in this review and published after 1983 (except for earlier classic pieces) were evaluated.Data were extracted and information was organized under the following headings (...) : magnitude of the problem of breast cancer, definition of chemoprevention, tamoxifen's mode of action, risks and benefits, use as an adjuvant and in chemoprevention, the BCPT, study protocol, pros and cons, and nursing implications.The BCPT is a study testing tamoxifen's ability to prevent the development of breast cancer in healthy women at increased risk for developing the disease. About 16,000 women who are age 35 years or older are being randomized to receive oral tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or placebo

1997 Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG

75660. [Cooperative study on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer (II). Cooperative study group on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer supp (PubMed)

[Cooperative study on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer (II). Cooperative study group on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer supp A cooperative study on surgical adjuvant immunochemotherapy for prevention of postoperative recurrence of gastric cancer was carried out by Kondo's group from July 1974 to December 1977. A total of 848 patients with gastric cancer underwent

1990 Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy

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