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Cancer Prevention

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181. Topical atorvastatin 1% for prevention of skin toxicity in patients receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Topical atorvastatin 1% for prevention of skin toxicity in patients receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was to investigate the preventive effect of topical administration of atorvastatin (ATV) on the acute radiation-induced skin toxicity in patients with breast cancer.Seventy breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to use topical ATV 1% or placebo gels (...) during radiotherapy twice daily. Radiation-induced dermatitis was classified according to the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) criteria, as well as pain and itching were scored according to VAS (visual analogue scale) for 6 weeks of treatment.Topical administration of ATV gel during radiotherapy reduced significantly radiation-induced breast swelling, itching, and pain in breast cancer patients by factors of 1.8, 1.7, and 1.5, respectively. ATV reduced the redness caused by radiotherapy

2019 European journal of clinical pharmacology

182. Randomized clinical trial of landiolol hydrochloride for the prevention of atrial fibrillation and postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer

Randomized clinical trial of landiolol hydrochloride for the prevention of atrial fibrillation and postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer Atrial fibrillation is common after oesophageal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether landiolol hydrochloride was effective and safe in the prevention of atrial fibrillation after oesophagectomy, and to see whether a reduction in incidence of atrial fibrillation would reduce other postoperative complications.This single (...) in the landiolol group (P = 0·001 and P = 0·002 respectively).Landiolol was effective and safe in preventing atrial fibrillation after oesophagectomy. Registration number: UMIN000010648 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/).© 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2017 EvidenceUpdates

183. Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer

Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer Created and released: June 2015 Purpose This position statement has been endorsed by Cancer Council Australia, and is supported by the Cancer Australia Advisory Council. Cancer Australia position statements address significant clinical issues, emerging issues in cancer control and issues of ongoing interest, using the best available evidence. The purpose of this position (...) statement is to provide evidence-based information on modifiable lifestyle factors and reduction of cancer risk for cancer organisations, health professionals, medical colleges, media and policy makers. This position statement is also intended to support the development of information for consumers and the community. Position Statement - Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer page 1 of 31Table of contents Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer 1 Recommendations

2015 Cancer Australia

184. Aerobic exercise and DNA methylation in postmenopausal women: An ancillary analysis of the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial. (PubMed)

Aerobic exercise and DNA methylation in postmenopausal women: An ancillary analysis of the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial. Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms such as changes in DNA methylation may help to explain these protective effects. We assessed the impact of a one year aerobic exercise intervention on DNA methylation biomarkers believed to play a role in carcinogenesis (...) . The Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial was a two-armed randomized controlled trial in 320 healthy, inactive, postmenopausal women with no history of cancer. In an ancillary analysis, frozen blood samples (n = 256) were reassessed for levels of DNA methylation within LINE-1 and Alu repeats as well as within the promoter regions of APC, BRCA1, RASSF1, and hTERT genes. Differences between the exercise and control arm at 12-months, after adjusting for baseline values, were

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2018 PLoS ONE

185. Fosnetupitant and palonosetron (Akynzeo) - To prevent acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy

Fosnetupitant and palonosetron (Akynzeo) - To prevent acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy Drug Approval Package: Akynzeo (fosnetupitant and palonosetron) Injection U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: Akynzeo (fosnetupitant and palonosetron) Injection Company: Helsinn Healthcare SA Application Number: 210493 Approval Date: 04/19/2018 Persons

2018 FDA - Drug Approval Package

186. Screening for Thyroid Cancer: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Screening for Thyroid Cancer: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. The incidence of detected thyroid cancer cases has been increasing in the United States since 1975. The majority of thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers with excellent prognosis and long-term survival.To systematically review the benefits and harms associated with thyroid cancer screening and treatment of early thyroid cancer in asymptomatic adults to inform the US (...) Preventive Services Task Force.Searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant studies published from January 1966 through January 2016, with active surveillance through December 2016.English-language studies conducted in asymptomatic adult populations.Two reviewers independently appraised the articles and extracted relevant study data from fair- or good-quality studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to pool surgical harms.Thyroid cancer

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2017 JAMA

187. Screening for Thyroid Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Screening for Thyroid Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. The incidence of thyroid cancer detection has increased by 4.5% per year over the last 10 years, faster than for any other cancer, but without a corresponding change in the mortality rate. In 2013, the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the United States was 15.3 cases per 100 000 persons. Most cases of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis; the 5-year survival rate for thyroid cancer overall is 98.1 (...) %.To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for thyroid cancer.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for thyroid cancer in asymptomatic adults, the diagnostic accuracy of screening (including neck palpation and ultrasound), and the benefits and harms of treatment of screen-detected thyroid cancer.The USPSTF found inadequate direct evidence on the benefits of screening but determined that the magnitude of the overall benefits

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2017 JAMA

188. The performance and safety of bilateral salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention in the United States

The performance and safety of bilateral salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention in the United States Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancy and the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Recent evidence has indicated that the most common and lethal form of ovarian cancer originates in the distal fallopian tube, and recommendations for surgical removal of the fallopian tube (bilateral salpingectomy) at the time of other (...) gynecologic cancer who underwent inpatient hysterectomy or tubal sterilization, with and without bilateral salpingectomy, from 2008 through 2013. Weighted estimates of national rates of these procedures were calculated and the number of procedures performed estimated. Safety was assessed by examining rates of blood transfusions, perioperative complications, postprocedural infection, and fever, and adjusted odds ratios were calculated comparing hysterectomy with salpingectomy with hysterectomy alone.We

2017 EvidenceUpdates

189. Twitter Response to the 2018 United States Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines on Prostate Cancer Screening. (PubMed)

Twitter Response to the 2018 United States Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines on Prostate Cancer Screening. Prostate cancer screening reduces advanced disease and prostate cancer death but is controversial due to downstream harms including unnecessary biopsies and overtreatment. In 2012 the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against screening men for prostate cancer, a practice common since the early 1990's. This dramatic policy change was opposed by many

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2019 BJU international

190. Skin cancer prevention: a review of current topical options complementary to sunscreens. (PubMed)

Skin cancer prevention: a review of current topical options complementary to sunscreens. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the increased use of improved sunscreens. In 2014, the Surgeon General estimated that 2.2-5.0 million people were treated annually for NMSC. As the number of newly diagnosed skin cancers continues to rise, there is a need for additional preventative measures beyond sunscreens. Several newer topical products (...) that focus on boosting DNA repair, modulating DNA transcription, decreasing inflammation and selectively targeting precancerous cells may play an important role in future skin cancer prevention.© 2019 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

2019 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

191. Understanding Decision Making about Breast Cancer Prevention in Action: The Intersection of Perceived Risk, Perceived Control, and Social Context: NRG Oncology/NSABP DMP-1. (PubMed)

Understanding Decision Making about Breast Cancer Prevention in Action: The Intersection of Perceived Risk, Perceived Control, and Social Context: NRG Oncology/NSABP DMP-1. Literature on decision making about breast cancer prevention focuses on individual perceptions and attitudes that predict chemoprevention use, rather than the process by which women decide whether to take risk-reducing medications. This secondary analysis aimed to understand how women's perceptions of breast cancer risk

2019 Medical Decision Making

192. Study protocol for an open-label, single-arm, multicentre phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined triplet therapy and olanzapine for prevention of carboplatin-induced nausea and vomiting in gynaecological cancer patients. (PubMed)

Study protocol for an open-label, single-arm, multicentre phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined triplet therapy and olanzapine for prevention of carboplatin-induced nausea and vomiting in gynaecological cancer patients. Carboplatin (CBDCA) administered at a dosage of 4 mg/mL/min or more area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) is considered to be ranked as the highest chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) risk of the moderately emetogenic (...) chemotherapy agents. The complete response (CR) rate for preventing overall CINV, defined as no emetic episodes and no use of rescue medication, for standard triplet antiemetic therapy (5-HT3RA, 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist; NK1RA, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist; DEX, dexamethasone) was approximately 60% in gynaecological cancer patients receiving CBDCA-based therapy. Further improvement in antiemetic treatment is needed to optimise care. This trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety

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2019 BMJ open

193. A randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of trans-tympanic injections of a sodium thiosulfate gel to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in patients with head and neck cancer. (PubMed)

A randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of trans-tympanic injections of a sodium thiosulfate gel to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in patients with head and neck cancer. Cisplatin-induced hearing loss is frequent and severe. Antioxidants such as sodium thiosulfate (STS) can neutralize the effects of cisplatin. The objective of the trial was to test the efficacy of trans-tympanic injections of a STS gel to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.Eligible participants were newly

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2019 Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale

194. "Try to make good hay in the shade, it won't work!" - A qualitative interview study on the perspectives of Bavarian farmers regarding primary prevention of skin cancer. (PubMed)

"Try to make good hay in the shade, it won't work!" - A qualitative interview study on the perspectives of Bavarian farmers regarding primary prevention of skin cancer. Extensive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main risk factor for keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) making outdoor workers including farmers a high-risk population for KC. The use of sun protection is crucial for KC prevention, but is not typically implemented by outdoor professions during daily work.To explore (...) years, 11 in the age group >60 years) participated in the study. Knowledge and awareness of UVR exposure and KC, perceived individual barriers to implementing sun protective measures, individual experiences and farm life-specific circumstances emerged as key areas influencing the perspectives of farmers regarding the primary prevention of KC. Female farmers tended to take a more positive stance on sun protection, whereas male farmers showed a lower overall interest.Knowledge and awareness of KC

2019 British Journal of Dermatology

195. Preventing adverse information effects on health outcomes: A self-affirmation intervention reduced information-induced cognitive decline in gastrointestinal cancer patients. (PubMed)

Preventing adverse information effects on health outcomes: A self-affirmation intervention reduced information-induced cognitive decline in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Nocebo studies show that informing patients about treatment side effects can adversely impact expectancies and symptom reporting.The current study examined how to inform patients fully about treatment side effects without increasing their occurrence. Extending theoretical assumptions about self-affirmation from the social (...) -psychological to the medical domain, we tested whether allowing cancer patients to self-affirm prior to informing them about potential cognitive decline reduced the occurrence of Adverse Information Effects (AIE) on cognitive problem reporting (CPR) and verbal memory performance.Participants were 90 Dutch and Belgian gastrointestinal cancer patients with and without chemotherapy experience. Patients were randomized across three experimental conditions (information about chemotherapy-related cognitive

2019 Social Science & Medicine

196. Human papillomavirus in 2019: An update on cervical cancer prevention and screening guidelines. (PubMed)

Human papillomavirus in 2019: An update on cervical cancer prevention and screening guidelines. The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most cases of cervical cancer. Healthcare providers can help prevent this cancer by recommending HPV vaccination when appropriate, regularly screening women for cervical cancer, and following up on abnormal test results.Copyright © 2019 Cleveland Clinic.

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2019 Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine

197. Author Reply to: The name of the game: Is preventive screening "cancer screening?" (PubMed)

Author Reply to: The name of the game: Is preventive screening "cancer screening?" A clear distinction is justified between any screening intervention and primary prevention. In contrast to the former, the latter aims to reduce or eliminate exposure to any cause of cancer (such as smoking) without any knowledge whether any cell has yet undergone the early genetic changes that may lead to malignant transformation. We have no strong opinion about the semantic issue concerning the best terminology

2019 European journal of clinical investigation

198. The name of the game: Is preventive screening "cancer screening?" (PubMed)

The name of the game: Is preventive screening "cancer screening?" In a well written and important paper, Adami and colleagues compellingly argue that current population-based early cancer detection approaches should be abandoned because such approaches have failed to demonstrate benefits comparable to their harm. This would free enormous resources for more efficient screening approaches, such as preventive screening. Pace Adami and colleagues, "future of population-based cancer screening may (...) lie more in preventive screening rather than early detection of already invasive cancer."(1). Their arguments provide a welcomed counterbalance against the strong and frequently unwarranted belief in early detection of cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2019 European journal of clinical investigation

199. Considering the Supraorganism: Harnessing the Gut Microbiome for Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Treatment. (PubMed)

Considering the Supraorganism: Harnessing the Gut Microbiome for Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Treatment. Although causal relationships between specific microbes and cancer are well recognized, a growing body of evidence suggests that the broader community of gut microbes may influence cancer risk, provide diagnostic insight, shape clinical course, and impact treatment success in the gastrointestinal tract and beyond. In this issue, Murphy et al. reviewed evidence for the role

2019 American Journal of Gastroenterology

200. Prevalence and determinants of sunbed use in thirty European countries: data from the Euromelanoma skin cancer prevention campaign. (PubMed)

Prevalence and determinants of sunbed use in thirty European countries: data from the Euromelanoma skin cancer prevention campaign. Although considered as a first-group carcinogen, indoor tanning is a common practice in Europe. Euromelanoma is a pan-European skin cancer prevention campaign.To compare several European countries in terms of the prevalence and determinants of sunbed use.Participants in the Euromelanoma campaigns filled in questionnaires containing demographics and risk factors

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2019 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

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