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Cancer Prevention

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1. Surgical interventions for the prevention or treatment of lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment. (PubMed)

Surgical interventions for the prevention or treatment of lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer amongst women worldwide, and one distressing complication of breast cancer treatment is breast and upper-limb lymphoedema. There is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of surgical interventions in both the prevention and management of lymphoedema affecting the arm after breast cancer treatment.1. To assess and compare the efficacy of surgical (...) interventions for the prevention of the development of lymphoedema (LE) in the arm after breast cancer treatment.2. To assess and compare the efficacy of surgical interventions for the treatment of established LE in the arm after breast cancer treatment.We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry

2019 Cochrane

2. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. (PubMed)

Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. Pulmonary complications are often seen during the postoperative period following lung resection for patients with lung cancer. Some situations such as intubation, a long stay in the intensive care unit, the high cost of antibiotics and mortality may be avoided with the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV (...) ) is widely used in hospitals, and is thought to reduce the number of pulmonary complications and mortality after this type of surgery. Therefore, a systematic review is needed to critically assess the benefits and harms of NIPPV for patients undergoing lung resection. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2015.To assess the effectiveness and safety of NIPPV for preventing complications in patients following pulmonary resection for lung cancer.We searched the Cochrane Central Register

2019 Cochrane

3. Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. One of the most significant adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is the third update of a previously (...) published Cochrane Review.To assess the efficacy of medical interventions to prevent hearing loss and to determine possible effects of these interventions on antitumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy as compared to placebo, no additional treatment or another protective medical intervention.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed) and Embase (Ovid) to 8 January 2019. We

2019 Cochrane

4. Interim: Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer

Interim: Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer 1 Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer Interim Guidance from the Kaiser Permanente National Integrated Cardiovascular Health (ICVH) Work Group October 5, 2018 Three randomized clinical trials (ARRIVE 1 , ASCEND 2 , and ASPREE 3 ) recently published results on aspirin use in patients without known Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD). The studies looked at benefits including (...) cardiovascular event prevention, and risks including serious bleeding events. Overall the studies suggest that aspirin lacks net benefit (total benefits minus total harms) beyond age 70, and there is low net benefit in younger adults. USPSTF 2016 aspirin recommendations point to highest net benefit for aspirin in adults age 50-59 (lower bleeding risk than older patients) with 10-year ASCVD risk* >10%. The National Kaiser Permanente Aspirin recommendations will be formally updated following a comprehensive

2019 Kaiser Permanente National Guideline Program

5. Selenium for preventing cancer. (PubMed)

Selenium for preventing cancer. This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer.To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2 (...) . Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans.We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants.We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more

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2018 Cochrane

6. Different infusion durations for preventing platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Different infusion durations for preventing platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer. Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin, or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different platinum infusion durations have been studied. This review is the second update (...) of a previously published Cochrane review.To assess the effects of different durations of platinum infusion to prevent hearing loss or tinnitus, or both, in children with cancer. Secondary objectives were to assess possible effects of these infusion durations on: a) anti-tumour efficacy of platinum-based therapy, b) adverse effects other than hearing loss or tinnitus, and c) quality of life.We searched the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 15

2018 Cochrane

7. Risk-reducing mastectomy for the prevention of primary breast cancer. (PubMed)

Risk-reducing mastectomy for the prevention of primary breast cancer. Recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of breast cancer and widely publicized reports of celebrities undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) have increased interest in RRM as a method of preventing breast cancer. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 and previously updated in 2006 and 2010.(i) To determine whether risk-reducing mastectomy reduces death rates from any cause in women who (...) in English.Participants included women at risk for breast cancer in at least one breast. Interventions included all types of mastectomy performed for the purpose of preventing breast cancer.At least two review authors independently abstracted data from each report. We summarized data descriptively; quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible due to heterogeneity of study designs and insufficient reporting. We analyzed data separately for bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) and contralateral risk-reducing

2018 Cochrane

8. WITHDRAWN: Cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases of small cell lung cancer in patients in complete remission. (PubMed)

WITHDRAWN: Cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases of small cell lung cancer in patients in complete remission. Prophylactic cranial irradiation halves the rate of brain metastases in patients with small cell lung cancer. Individual randomized trials conducted on patients in complete remission were unable to clarify whether this treatment improves survival.This study aims to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation prolongs survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (...) irradiation with no prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission.Meta-analysis based on updated individual data. The main endpoint was survival.Seven trials with a total of 987 participants were included. The relative risk of death in the treatment group compared to the control group was 0.84 (95% confidence interval=0.73 to 0.97, P=0.01), corresponding to a 5.4 percent increase in the 3-year survival rate (from 15.3 percent in the control group to 20.7

2018 Cochrane

10. Probiotics for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related diarrhoea in people with cancer. (PubMed)

Probiotics for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related diarrhoea in people with cancer. Treament-related diarrhoea is one of the most common and troublesome adverse effects related to chemotherapy or radiotherapy in people with cancer. Its reported incidence has been as high as 50% to 80%. Severe treatment-related diarrhoea can lead to fluid and electrolyte losses and nutritional deficiencies and could adversely affect quality of life (QoL). It is also associated (...) with increased risk of infection in people with neutropenia due to anticancer therapy and often leads to treatment delays, dose reductions, or treatment discontinuation. Probiotics may be effective in preventing or treating chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced diarrhoea.To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and side effects of probiotics used alone or combined with other agents for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related diarrhoea in people with cancer.We searched the Cochrane

2018 Cochrane

11. Olanzapine for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related nausea and vomiting in adults. (PubMed)

Olanzapine for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related nausea and vomiting in adults. Olanzapine as an antiemetic represents a new use of an antipsychotic drug. People with cancer may experience nausea and vomiting whilst receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or whilst in the palliative phase of illness.To assess the efficacy and safety of olanzapine when used as an antiemetic in the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting related to cancer in adults.We searched CENTRAL (...) , MEDLINE and Embase for published data on 20th September 2017, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished trials. We checked reference lists, and contacted experts in the field and study authors.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of olanzapine versus any comparator with or without adjunct therapies for the prevention or treatment, or both, of nausea or vomiting in people with cancer aged 18 years or older

2018 Cochrane

12. Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. (PubMed)

Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) types is causally linked with the development of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide.To evaluate the harms and protection of prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccines against cervical precancer and HPV16/18 infection in adolescent girls and women.We (...) trials (73,428 participants). Ten trials, with follow-up of 1.3 to 8 years, addressed protection against CIN/AIS. Vaccine safety was evaluated over a period of 6 months to 7 years in 23 studies. Studies were not large enough or of sufficient duration to evaluate cervical cancer outcomes. All but one of the trials was funded by the vaccine manufacturers. We judged most included trials to be at low risk of bias. Studies involved monovalent (N = 1), bivalent (N = 18), and quadrivalent vaccines (N = 7

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2018 Cochrane

13. Opportunistic Salpingectomy for Ovarian Cancer Prevention

Opportunistic Salpingectomy for Ovarian Cancer Prevention Oregon Health Authority : Health Evidence Review Commission : Health Evidence Review Commission : State of Oregon menu Toggle Main Menu Main Navigation close search Search search Submit You are here: Health Evidence Review Commission menu Site Navigation Health Evidence Review Commission Full Width Column 1 Health Evidence: Our Role The Health Evidence Review Commission reviews medical evidence in order to prioritize health spending

2018 Oregon Health Evidence Review Commission

14. Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9) and cervical cancer. A few cases of dysplasia prevented, but an increase in painful reactions

Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9) and cervical cancer. A few cases of dysplasia prevented, but an increase in painful reactions Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9°) and cervical cancer. A few cases of dysplasia prevented, but an increase in painful reactions'', 1 June 2018 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9°) and cervical cancer. A few cases of dysplasia prevented, but an increase in painful (...) reactions Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9°) and cervical cancer. A few cases of dysplasia prevented, but an increase in painful reactions FEATURED REVIEW A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine containing 9 HPV genotypes (Gardasil 9°) has been authorised in the European Union. The 9-valent

2018 Prescrire

15. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer

Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer - Cancer Guidelines Wiki Skip Links Personal tools Search Navigation Cancer Council guidelines Methodology Hosted cancer guidelines Adolescents and Young Adult (AYA) guidelines Prevention Policies Social links Page actions The guideline recommendations were approved by the Chief Executive Officer (...) , and developed for health professionals practising in an Australian health care setting. This publication reflects the views of the authors and not necessarily the views of the Australian Government. Cite this guideline Cancer Council Australia Colorectal Referring to the large bowel, comprising the colon and rectum. Cancer Guidelines Working Party. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, early detection and management of colorectal cancer. Sydney: Cancer Council Australia. [Version URL: , cited

2019 Cancer Council Australia

16. Opportunistic Salpingectomy as a Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Prevention

Opportunistic Salpingectomy as a Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Prevention Opportunistic Salpingectomy as a Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Prevention - ACOG Menu ▼ Opportunistic Salpingectomy as a Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Prevention Page Navigation ▼ Number 774 (Replaces Committee Opinion Number 620, January 2015) Committee on Gynecologic Practice This Committee Opinion was developed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee (...) by representatives of the other organizations are addressed by those organizations. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this published product. Opportunistic Salpingectomy as a Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Prevention ABSTRACT: Opportunistic salpingectomy may offer obstetrician–gynecologists and other health care providers the opportunity to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

17. Targeted programs for skin cancer prevention

Targeted programs for skin cancer prevention Targeted programs for skin cancer prevention - Cancer Institute NSW Cancer Institute NSW Careers, news, media and the Institute's role Recent NSW cancer related data NSW Pop. & Health Services Research Ethics Committee Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable cancers—having a Pap test every two years is currently the best way to prevent it. Find out more about NSW Cervical Screening Program. Search for: > next level > next level Targeted (...) programs for skin cancer prevention Targeted programs for skin cancer prevention Cancer Institute NSW 12 Apr 2019 Source: What is it? Evidence Check – Targeted programs for skin cancer prevention. Authors: Jen Makin, Kelly Shaw, Tania Winzenberg and brokered by the Sax Institute for Cancer Institute NSW. 2018​ This review was conducted to determine which skin cancer prevention programs are effective in encouraging people to protect their skin from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. aims

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

18. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: cytokines and growth factors. (PubMed)

Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: cytokines and growth factors. Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high-risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty with eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and supplemental nutrition. These complications may disrupt cancer therapy, which may reduce survival (...) . There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Cytokines and growth factors may help the regeneration of cells lining of the mouth, thus preventing or reducing oral mucositis and its negative effects.To assess the effects of cytokines and growth factors for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving

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2017 Cochrane

19. Urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of tumour lysis syndrome in children with cancer. (PubMed)

Urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of tumour lysis syndrome in children with cancer. Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a serious complication of malignancies and can result in renal failure or death. Previous reviews did not find clear evidence of benefit of urate oxidase in children with cancer. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review.To assess the effects and safety of urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of TLS in children (...) with malignancies.In March 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. In addition, we searched the reference lists of all identified relevant papers, trials registers and other databases. We also screened conference proceedings and we contacted experts in the field and the manufacturer of rasburicase, Sanofi-aventis.Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) of urate oxidase for the prevention or treatment of TLS in children under 18 years with any malignancy.Two review

2017 Cochrane

20. Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Preventive Medication

Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Preventive Medication Final Update Summary: Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Preventive Medication - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 11/16/2018 6:27:19 PM You are here: Final Summary Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Preventive Medication Release Date: April 2016 Recommendation (...) Summary Population Recommendation Grade Adults aged 50 to 59 years with a ≥10% 10-year CVD risk The USPSTF recommends initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years. Adults aged 60 to 69 years with a ≥10

2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

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