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Calcium Nephrolithiasis

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1. TRPV5 in renal tubular calcium handling and its potential relevance for nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

TRPV5 in renal tubular calcium handling and its potential relevance for nephrolithiasis. Nephrolithiasis or renal stone disease is an increasingly common problem, and its relatively high recurrence rate demands better treatment options. The majority of patients with nephrolithiasis have stones that contain calcium (Ca2+), which develop upon "supersaturation" of the urine with insoluble Ca2+ salts; hence processes that influence the delivery and renal handling of Ca2+ may influence stone (...) formation. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is indeed frequently observed in patients with kidney stones that contain Ca2+. Genetic screens of nephrolithiasis determinants have identified an increasing number of gene candidates, most of which are involved in renal Ca2+ handling. This review provides an outline of the current knowledge regarding genetics of nephrolithiasis and will mainly focus on the epithelial Ca2+ channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), an important player in Ca2

2019 Kidney International

2. Relationship between Urinary Calcium and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Calcium Nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

Relationship between Urinary Calcium and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Calcium Nephrolithiasis. Calcium nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Hypercalciuria has been assumed to be pathogenic for bone loss in kidney stone formers, although this association was shown in small cross-sectional studies. We explored the association of urine calcium with bone mineral density in kidney stone formers.We retrospectively studied bone mineral density (...) in kidney stone formers. Excluded were subjects with hypercalcemia, chronic bowel disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis or endogenous creatinine clearance less than 40 ml per minute. We included 250 males and 182 females subdivided into 145 who were estrogen treated and postmenopausal, and 37 who were nonestrogen treated and postmenopausal. We assessed the association of lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density with 24-hour urine calcium on random and restricted

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2017 Journal of Urology

3. Oral Calcium Supplementation Does Not Increase Risk of Calcium Nephrolithiasis in Postmenopausal Women

Oral Calcium Supplementation Does Not Increase Risk of Calcium Nephrolithiasis in Postmenopausal Women "Oral Calcium Supplementation Does Not Increase Risk of Calcium Nephrol" by Wei Kuang < > > > > > Title Author Date of Graduation Summer 8-8-2015 Degree Type Capstone Project Degree Name Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies First Advisor Mary E. Von, DHEd, PA-C, DFAAPA Second Advisor Annjanette Sommers, PA-C, MS Rights . Abstract Background: The American Association of Clinical (...) Endocrinologists (AACE) current recommendation is 1000-1200 mg calcium daily for postmenopausal and osteoporotic women. Some patients are reluctant to supplement calcium due to the fear of developing a kidney stone (nephrolithiasis). In the United States, every adult will have a 10% to 15% chance to get kidney stones in their lifetime. And the recurrence rate is up to 50% after 10 years. There is no clear theory on how kidney stones are formed. There are lots of factors that play into the role of kidney stone

2015 Pacific University EBM Capstone Project

4. Transcriptional study of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in male rats: Inflammatory changes are mainly associated with crystal deposition. (PubMed)

Transcriptional study of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in male rats: Inflammatory changes are mainly associated with crystal deposition. Hyperoxaluria associated with renal deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals causes renal injury and inflammation leading to number of diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is however, not been possible to separate the renal consequences of hyperoxaluria from that of CaOx crystal deposition. We decided to utilize ethylene

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2017 PLoS ONE

5. Efficacy of standard and low dose hydrochlorothiazide in the recurrence prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis (NOSTONE trial): protocol for a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Efficacy of standard and low dose hydrochlorothiazide in the recurrence prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis (NOSTONE trial): protocol for a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nephrolithiasis is a global healthcare problem with a current lifetime risk of 18.8% in men and 9.4% in women. Given the high cost of medical treatments and surgical interventions as well as the morbidity related to symptomatic stone disease, medical prophylaxis for stone recurrence is an attractive (...) approach. Thiazide diuretics have been the cornerstone of pharmacologic metaphylaxis for more than 40 years. However, evidence for benefits and harms of thiazides in the prevention of calcium containing kidney stones in general remains unclear. In addition, the efficacy of the currently employed low dose thiazide regimens to prevent stone recurrence is not known.The NOSTONE trial is an investigator-initiated 3-year prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy

2018 BMC Nephrology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

6. Integrative Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis Rat Model (PubMed)

Integrative Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis Rat Model The microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles and their biological functions in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigate the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of kidney tissues in calcium oxalate stone rats. 16 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control group and stone-forming group. 24-hour urine samples and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical (...) , inflammatory response, and response to wounding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of these targets highlights their critical role in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, gap junction, and chemokine signaling pathway. Furthermore, the reliability of the microarray-based results was confirmed by using qRT-PCR determination. The miRNA and mRNA expressions in calcium oxalate stone rat kidneys might provide a basis for further research on urolithiasis mechanism.

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2017 BioMed research international

7. Mature Vinegar Prophylaxis Against Recurrent Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis

Mature Vinegar Prophylaxis Against Recurrent Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis Mature Vinegar Prophylaxis Against Recurrent Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Mature Vinegar Prophylaxis Against Recurrent Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03092908 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : March 28, 2017 Last Update Posted : July

2017 Clinical Trials

8. Inhibitory effect of an aqueous extract of Radix Paeoniae Alba on calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in a rat model (PubMed)

Inhibitory effect of an aqueous extract of Radix Paeoniae Alba on calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in a rat model To examine the effect of an aqueous extract of Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) on the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones and the potential mechanism underlying the effect.An in vitro assay was used to determine whether the RPA extract prevents the formation of CaOx or promotes CaOx dissolution. We also investigated the efficacy of the extract in vivo as a preventive and therapeutic (...) agent for experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis in rats. Various biochemical, molecular, and histological parameters were assessed in kidney tissue and urine at the end of the in vivo experiment.Significant dissolution of formed crystals (8.99 ± 1.43) and inhibition of crystal formation (2.55 ± 0.21) were observed in vitro after treatment with 64 mg/mL of the RPA extract compared with a control treatment (55.10 ± 4.98 and 54.57 ± 5.84, respectively) (p < .05). In preventive protocols, the RPA

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2017 Renal failure

9. Metabolomics analysis for hydroxy-L-proline-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PubMed)

Metabolomics analysis for hydroxy-L-proline-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry About 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) with variable amounts of calcium phosphate, and hyperoxaluria is considered as an important factor of CaOx nephrolithiasis. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of CaOx nephrolithiasis remain undefined. In this study, we successfully (...) developed a rat model with hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) -induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Rats were continuously orally administrated with HLP for 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected from the rats treated with or without HLP at four different time points. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was applied to profile the abundances of metabolites. To obtain more comprehensive analysis of metabolic profiling spectrum, combination of RP-LC and HILIC were applied. We identify 42 significant differential metabolites in the urine

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2016 Scientific reports

10. Associations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene CASR rs7652589 SNP with nephrolithiasis and secondary hyperparathyroidism in haemodialysis patients (PubMed)

Associations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene CASR rs7652589 SNP with nephrolithiasis and secondary hyperparathyroidism in haemodialysis patients Nephrolithiasis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), and cardiovascular complications are associated with disturbances in Ca handling and contribute to morbidity/mortality during haemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetics, activators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), provide an effective means of reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in sHPT (...) . Polymorphism in CaSR gene (CASR) influences Ca-related parameters, however it was not shown in HD patients for CASR rs7652589. The minor allele at this polymorphism modifies the binding sites of transcription factors and CaSR expression. We hypothesized that CASR rs7652589 variants may also influence CaSR in end stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to determine the associations of rs7652589 with nephrolithiasis-related ESRD, Ca, P, ALP, PTH, response to treatment with cinacalcet, prevalence of coronary

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2016 Scientific reports

11. Progress in Understanding the Genetics of Calcium-Containing Nephrolithiasis. (PubMed)

Progress in Understanding the Genetics of Calcium-Containing Nephrolithiasis. Renal stone disease is a frequent condition, causing a huge burden on health care systems globally. Calcium-based calculi account for around 75% of renal stone disease and the incidence of these calculi is increasing, suggesting environmental and dietary factors are acting upon a preexisting genetic background. The familial nature and significant heritability of stone disease is known, and recent genetic studies have (...) successfully identified genes that may be involved in renal stone formation. The detection of monogenic causes of renal stone disease has been made more feasible by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies and has also facilitated the discovery of novel monogenic causes of stone disease. However, the majority of calcium stone formers remain of undetermined genotype. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies implicate a series of genes involved in renal tubular handling

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2016 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

12. Calcium Nephrolithiasis

Calcium Nephrolithiasis Calcium Nephrolithiasis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Calcium Nephrolithiasis Calcium (...) Nephrolithiasis Aka: Calcium Nephrolithiasis , Calcium Oxalate Stone , Calcium Phosphate Stone , Calcium Oxalate Calculi , Calcium Phosphate Calculi From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Represents more than 75% of cases Males predominance Most common in hot, dry environments III. Evaluation: General Do not perform evaluation during hospitalization Single Stone episodes with no residual stones Consider 24 hour urine Recurrent (1 stone per 3 years or more), Residual or of stones Conside ( >300 mg/day) ( >750

2018 FP Notebook

13. Risk of nephrolithiasis, hyperoxaluria, and calcium oxalate supersaturation increased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Risk of nephrolithiasis, hyperoxaluria, and calcium oxalate supersaturation increased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Earlier publications have shown renal stone complications after bariatric surgery. Multiple reports have also linked metabolic changes that alter the urinary chemistry profiles, especially hyperoxaluria, after bariatric surgery. However, evidence on change of other urine chemistry studies and type of bariatric surgery and risk (...) formation or urine chemistry profiles. We used random-effects model meta-analysis and calculated the pooled risk of renal stone and difference in 24-hour urine chemistry profiles.Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was significantly higher risk of stone formation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery with pooled relative risk = 1.79 (95% CI: 1.54-2.10). In the analysis of urine chemistry profiles, there was significantly higher calcium oxalate supersaturation, lower

2016 Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery

14. Metabolic diagnosis and medical prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis and its systemic manifestations: a consensus statement (PubMed)

Metabolic diagnosis and medical prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis and its systemic manifestations: a consensus statement Recently published guidelines on the medical management of renal stone disease did not address relevant topics in the field of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, which are important also for clinical research.A steering committee identified 27 questions, which were proposed to a faculty of 44 experts in nephrolithiasis and allied fields. A systematic review (...) of the literature was conducted and 5216 potentially relevant articles were selected; from these, 407 articles were deemed to provide useful scientific information. The Faculty, divided into working groups, analysed the relevant literature. Preliminary statements developed by each group were exhaustively discussed in plenary sessions and approved.Statements were developed to inform clinicians on the identification of secondary forms of calcium nephrolithiasis and systemic complications; on the definition

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2016 Journal of nephrology

15. Mucin-1 Increases Renal TRPV5 Activity In Vitro, and Urinary Level Associates with Calcium Nephrolithiasis in Patients. (PubMed)

Mucin-1 Increases Renal TRPV5 Activity In Vitro, and Urinary Level Associates with Calcium Nephrolithiasis in Patients. Hypercalciuria is a major risk factor for nephrolithiasis. We previously reported that Uromodulin (UMOD) protects against nephrolithiasis by upregulating the renal calcium channel TRPV5. This channel is crucial for calcium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Recently, mutations in the gene encoding Mucin-1 (MUC1) were found to cause autosomal dominant (...) tubulointerstitial kidney disease, the same disease caused by UMOD mutations. Because of the similarities between UMOD and MUC1 regarding associated disease phenotype, protein structure, and function as a cellular barrier, we examined whether urinary MUC1 also enhances TRPV5 channel activity and protects against nephrolithiasis. We established a semiquantitative assay for detecting MUC1 in human urine and found that, compared with controls (n=12), patients (n=12) with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis had

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2016 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

16. Nephrolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis From Topiramate Therapy in Children With Epilepsy (PubMed)

calcium/creatinine ratios, and renal ultrasonography were performed before topiramate and every 6 months thereafter.Four children developed nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis, which resolved on discontinuation of topiramate. In 40 patients, the mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increased over time (P < 0.001). The mean serum bicarbonate in 40 patients decreased over time (P < 0.01). Twenty-three children had urinary calcium/creatinine ratios before topiramate. Nine children with baseline (...) study shows that long-term therapy with topiramate in children is associated with persistent hypercalciuria and metabolic acidosis, which can lead to nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis. All children initiating topiramate therapy should have baseline and follow-up urinary calcium/creatinine studies, serum electrolytes, and periodic renal ultrasonography, if the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio increases to a level above normal for age.

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2018 Kidney international reports

17. Postmenopausal hormone and the risk of nephrolithiasis: A meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Postmenopausal hormone and the risk of nephrolithiasis: A meta-analysis. Menopause is reported to be associated with increased urinary calcium excretion, which may enhance the risk for the development of calcium kidney stones. However, it remains controversial about whether high level of postmenopausal hormone (PMH) is a risk factor for formation of nephrolithiasis. Several observational studies have shown that PMH is protective based on 24-hour urinary parameters. Recent clinical trials (...) provided evidence to conclude that estrogen therapy increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in healthy postmenopausal women. Our study aimed to comprehensively assess clinical evidence on the relationship between postmenopausal hormone level and risk of nephrolithiasis. To conduct systematic review, we pooled total 98 potentially related articles in Cochrane library, Medline, and Embase. Three studies with a total of 71101 study participants that included two clinical trials, 4 stratified and potentially

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2017 EXCLI journal

18. Predictors of nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis and mortality in primary hyperparathyroidism. (PubMed)

) and lower creatinine (P = 0.006) were independently associated with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Higher PTH was independently associated with lower Z-score at the hip (P = 0.009), but otherwise calcium and PTH were not associated with lower Z-score. Mortality in PHPT was associated with older age (P < 0.008), social deprivation (P = 0.028) and adjusted calcium (P = 0.009) but not independently with PTH at diagnosis.Screening for nephrolithiasis has a low yield, particularly in lower risk patients (...) Predictors of nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis and mortality in primary hyperparathyroidism. Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has a prevalence of 0.86% and is associated with increased risk of nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis. PHPT may also be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality.To identify risk factors for nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis and mortality in PHPT.Retrospective cohort study.University teaching hospital.PHPT presenting between 2006 - 2014 (n = 611

2019 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

19. The risk of nephrolithiasis is causally related to inactive matrix Gla protein, a marker of vitamin K status: a Mendelian randomization study in a Flemish population. (PubMed)

randomization analysis using four MGP genotypes as instrumental variables.With adjustments applied for sex, age and 24-h urinary volume and calcium excretion, the odds of having prevalent nephrolithiasis [n = 144 (8.2%)] associated with dp-ucMGP was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.64; P = 0.022]. dp-ucMGP levels were associated (P ≤ 0.001) with MGP variants rs2098435, rs4236 and rs2430692. In the Mendelian analysis, the causal odds ratio was 3.82 (95% CI 1.15-12.7; P = 0.029). The incidence (...) The risk of nephrolithiasis is causally related to inactive matrix Gla protein, a marker of vitamin K status: a Mendelian randomization study in a Flemish population. Vitamin K (VK)-dependent γ-glutamate carboxylation and serine phosphorylation activate matrix Gla protein (MGP) to a potent locally acting inhibitor of calcification. Nephrolithiasis represents a process of unwanted calcification associated with substantial mortality and high recurrence rates. We hypothesized that the risk

2019 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480) in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients (PubMed)

A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480) in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5) gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether (...) genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480) was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than

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2015 Mediators of inflammation

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