How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

213 results for

Cafe-Au-Lait Macule

by
...
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

121. Mental Retardation (Treatment)

), with a butterfly-like distribution, especially after puberty. Café au lait spots or nonpigmented ash leaf–shaped areas are also found. ID, epilepsy, and calcifications in the brain are seen, as are tumors. Epileptic seizures often begin as infantile spasms, which should alert the physician to look for other symptoms of this disorder. If tuberous sclerosis is diagnosed, both parents should be examined carefully because the mutation is inherited in approximately 28% of cases. Because of the dominant inheritance (...) with growth hormone improves somatic and behavioral deficits in these patients. [ , , , ] Disorders with autosomal-dominant inheritance is an example of the disorders in this group, which might be associated with ID. It is caused by a mutation in a gene affecting the formation of the ectodermal layer of the embryo. Because the skin and the CNS develop from this layer, abnormalities are seen in both. The skin lesions include angiofibromas in the form of macules on the cheeks (adenoma sebaceum

2014 eMedicine.com

122. Mongolian Spot (Treatment)

A. Patient with extensive Mongolian spots, nevus flammeus and nevus vascularis mixtus: A novel case of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis. J Dermatol . 2016 Feb. 43 (2):225-6. . Neri I, Lambertini M, Tengattini V, Rivalta B, Patrizi A. Halolike Phenomenon Around a Café au Lait Spot Superimposed on a Mongolian Spot. Pediatr Dermatol . 2017 May. 34 (3):e152-e153. . Temel AB, Bassorgun CI, Nur B, Alpsoy E. Mongolian spots combined with halo-like disappearance surrounding café au lait spots. Indian J Dermatol (...) T, Bonneau D, et al. Extensive Mongolian spots in 4p16.3 deletion (Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome). Clin Dysmorphol . 2014 Jul. 23 (3):109-10. . Sharawat IK, Saini L, Randhawa MS, Ahuja CK. Extensive Mongolian spots and normocephaly: an uncommon presentation of infantile Sandhoff's disease. BMJ Case Rep . 2018 Jul 30. 2018: . Köse O, Huseynov S, Demiriz M. Giant Mongolian macules with bilateral ocular involvement: case report and review. Dermatology . 2012. 224(2):126-9. . Ma H, Liao M, Qiu S, Luo R

2014 eMedicine.com

123. Neurofibromatosis (Treatment)

known as von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, which is the most common subtype and is referred to as peripheral neurofibromatosis, and , which is referred to as central neurofibromatosis. These descriptions are not especially accurate, because type 1 neurofibromatosis often has central features. This article will examine the dermatologic manifestations of type 1 neurofibromatosis. Next: Presentation Neurofibromatosis is often diagnosed because of unusual pigmentary patterns. Café au lait macules (...) —irregularly shaped, evenly pigmented, brown macules—are often present at birth, but they increase in number during the first few years of life. [ ] Neurofibromas form in late adolescence, most commonly in the skin. Patients may report cutaneous discoloration or disfigurement or more serious physical symptoms (eg, pain caused by neurofibromas, pathologic fractures, hypertensive headaches due to pheochromocytoma). Café au lait spots Most individuals with neurofibromatosis have 6 or more café au lait spots

2014 eMedicine.com

124. Dermatologic Manifestations of Hematologic Disease (Treatment)

, and predisposition to malignancy. [ ] Patients have an increased incidence of spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities, due to problems with DNA repair. [ ] By the end of childhood, patients with Fanconi anemia develop hypoplastic bone marrow that affects all 3 lineages. Skin findings consist of several abnormalities of pigmentation. Many patients present with café au lait spots, which, in most individuals, are present at birth. Diffuse hyperpigmentation, which can also be an acquired phenomenon because of iron (...) or lupus anticoagulant, which can be detected based on the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Kaolin clotting time, or dilute Russell Viper venom time. In a large retrospective study from the Mayo Clinic, 41% of patients with lupus anticoagulant had skin lesions as the first sign of antiphospholipid syndrome. [ ] Cutaneous manifestations include livedo reticularis, necrotizing vasculitis, livedo vasculitis, thrombophlebitis, cutaneous ulceration and necrosis, erythematous macules

2014 eMedicine.com

125. Laser Treatment of Benign Pigmented Lesions (Treatment)

such as and . Because the green wavelength of these lasers is also well absorbed by oxyhemoglobin, purpura formation may occur following laser irradiation. The purpura resolves 1-2 weeks after treatment, with resolution or lightening of the clinical lesion 4-8 weeks after treatment. Purpura occasionally leads to . Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser treatment results in excellent clearing of epidermal pigmented lesions (eg, lentigines, ephelides, , café au lait macules). In a study of 492 benign epidermal pigmented (...) lesions. A typical treatment response includes purpura lasting 5-7 days, followed by subsequent sloughing of the treated lesion at 7-14 days. The underlying new skin is pink for 2-3 days but fades to normal skin color with rare textural changes or scarring. In another study, 25 patients with solar lentigines showed excellent laser-induced clearing after 1-2 treatments. Fourteen patients with café au lait macules showed complete clearing after 3-6 treatments. Two patients with nevus spilus and 2

2014 eMedicine.com

126. Piebaldism (Follow-up)

. An interesting case of Piebaldism with cafè-au-lait macules and freckling: the use of targeted next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis. Eur J Dermatol . 2018 Feb 1. 28 (1):119-120. . Njoo MD, Nieuweboer-Krobotova L, Westerhof W. Repigmentation of leucodermic defects in piebaldism by dermabrasion and thin split-thickness skin grafting in combination with minigrafting. Br J Dermatol . 1998 Nov. 139(5):829-33. . Garg T, Khaitan BK, Manchanda Y. Autologous punch grafting for repigmentation (...) -lait macules and intertriginous freckling in piebaldism: Clinical overlap with neurofibromatosis type 1 and Legius syndrome. Am J Med Genet A . 2012 May. 158A(5):1195-9. . Sleiman R, Kurban M, Succaria F, Abbas O. Poliosis circumscripta: Overview and underlying causes. J Am Acad Dermatol . 2013 Jul 12. . Park SY, Kim HJ, Ahn SK. Piebaldism with neurofibromatosis type I: a familial case. Ann Dermatol . 2014 Apr. 26(2):264-6. . . Schepis C, Failla P, Siragusa M, Chiavetta V, Ruggeri G, Calì F

2014 eMedicine.com

128. Neurofibromatosis (Follow-up)

known as von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, which is the most common subtype and is referred to as peripheral neurofibromatosis, and , which is referred to as central neurofibromatosis. These descriptions are not especially accurate, because type 1 neurofibromatosis often has central features. This article will examine the dermatologic manifestations of type 1 neurofibromatosis. Next: Presentation Neurofibromatosis is often diagnosed because of unusual pigmentary patterns. Café au lait macules (...) —irregularly shaped, evenly pigmented, brown macules—are often present at birth, but they increase in number during the first few years of life. [ ] Neurofibromas form in late adolescence, most commonly in the skin. Patients may report cutaneous discoloration or disfigurement or more serious physical symptoms (eg, pain caused by neurofibromas, pathologic fractures, hypertensive headaches due to pheochromocytoma). Café au lait spots Most individuals with neurofibromatosis have 6 or more café au lait spots

2014 eMedicine.com

129. Neurofibromatosis, Type 1 (Follow-up)

. SPRED1 mutations (Legius syndrome): another clinically useful genotype for dissecting the neurofibromatosis type 1 phenotype. J Med Genet . 2009 Jul. 46(7):431-7. . Shah KN. The diagnostic and clinical significance of café-au-lait macules. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2010. 57:1131-53. . Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP, Athyros VG, et al. Pheochromocytoma: an update on genetics and management. Endocr Relat Cancer . 2007 Dec. 14(4):935-56. . Lenders JW, Pacak K, Walther MM, et al. Biochemical diagnosis (...) 1: a review of 43 patients. Pediatr Radiol . 2005 Mar. 35(3):317-22. . Zöller M, Rembeck B, Akesson HO, et al. Life expectancy, mortality and prognostic factors in neurofibromatosis type 1. A twelve-year follow-up of an epidemiological study in Göteborg, Sweden. Acta Derm Venereol . 1995 Mar. 75(2):136-40. . Media Gallery Café-au-lait spots in a 4-year-old boy. Axillary freckles. Inguinal freckles. Multiple neurofibromas in a 28-year-old man. Plexiform neurofibroma of the right thigh. Lisch

2014 eMedicine.com

130. Neurological History and Physical Examination (Follow-up)

dorsal root ganglia. Coffee-brown pigmented (ie, caf é; au lait) spots of varying sizes, usually greater than 1.5 cm in diameter, and axillary freckling are seen in neurofibromatosis. These are observed in addition to or in the absence of the characteristic blubbery subcutaneous tumors that give the condition its name. See the image below. Axillary freckling as seen in neurofibromatosis. Tufts of hair (satyr's tail), dimples, and large moles along the spine may indicate spina bifida occulta (...) . If the examiner can hear the sound after the patient has stopped hearing it, then hearing loss is suspected. The vestibular portion of the nerve enters the brainstem along with the cochlear portion. It transmits information about linear and angular accelerations of the head from the utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals of the membranous labyrinth to the vestibular nucleus. Linear acceleration is monitored by the macules in the utricles and saccules; angular acceleration is monitored by the cristae

2014 eMedicine.com

131. McCune-Albright Syndrome (Follow-up)

. This degree of fibrous dysplasia can result in multiple cranial nerve compression neuropathies, of which blindness and deafness (from involvement of cranial nerves II and VIII) are among the most disabling. Café au lait spot. This is a fairly large, irregular-edged ("coast-of-Maine" variety) lesion. It presents as a brownish, otherwise-asymptomatic macule/patch. The degree of pigmentation is fairly uniform. Fibrous dysplasia of a long bone characterized by focal bony expansion, patchy areas of sclerosis (...) =aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTI3MjMzLXRyZWF0bWVudA== processing > McCune-Albright Syndrome Treatment & Management Updated: Jan 17, 2019 Author: Gabriel I Uwaifo, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections McCune-Albright Syndrome Treatment Approach Considerations McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a multisystemic condition with a host of variable presentations. Diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome require a high index of suspicion in any patient with characteristic café-au-lait spots

2014 eMedicine.com

132. Laser Treatment of Benign Pigmented Lesions (Follow-up)

such as and . Because the green wavelength of these lasers is also well absorbed by oxyhemoglobin, purpura formation may occur following laser irradiation. The purpura resolves 1-2 weeks after treatment, with resolution or lightening of the clinical lesion 4-8 weeks after treatment. Purpura occasionally leads to . Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser treatment results in excellent clearing of epidermal pigmented lesions (eg, lentigines, ephelides, , café au lait macules). In a study of 492 benign epidermal pigmented (...) lesions. A typical treatment response includes purpura lasting 5-7 days, followed by subsequent sloughing of the treated lesion at 7-14 days. The underlying new skin is pink for 2-3 days but fades to normal skin color with rare textural changes or scarring. In another study, 25 patients with solar lentigines showed excellent laser-induced clearing after 1-2 treatments. Fourteen patients with café au lait macules showed complete clearing after 3-6 treatments. Two patients with nevus spilus and 2

2014 eMedicine.com

133. Mental Retardation (Follow-up)

), with a butterfly-like distribution, especially after puberty. Café au lait spots or nonpigmented ash leaf–shaped areas are also found. ID, epilepsy, and calcifications in the brain are seen, as are tumors. Epileptic seizures often begin as infantile spasms, which should alert the physician to look for other symptoms of this disorder. If tuberous sclerosis is diagnosed, both parents should be examined carefully because the mutation is inherited in approximately 28% of cases. Because of the dominant inheritance (...) with growth hormone improves somatic and behavioral deficits in these patients. [ , , , ] Disorders with autosomal-dominant inheritance is an example of the disorders in this group, which might be associated with ID. It is caused by a mutation in a gene affecting the formation of the ectodermal layer of the embryo. Because the skin and the CNS develop from this layer, abnormalities are seen in both. The skin lesions include angiofibromas in the form of macules on the cheeks (adenoma sebaceum

2014 eMedicine.com

134. Mongolian Spot (Follow-up)

A. Patient with extensive Mongolian spots, nevus flammeus and nevus vascularis mixtus: A novel case of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis. J Dermatol . 2016 Feb. 43 (2):225-6. . Neri I, Lambertini M, Tengattini V, Rivalta B, Patrizi A. Halolike Phenomenon Around a Café au Lait Spot Superimposed on a Mongolian Spot. Pediatr Dermatol . 2017 May. 34 (3):e152-e153. . Temel AB, Bassorgun CI, Nur B, Alpsoy E. Mongolian spots combined with halo-like disappearance surrounding café au lait spots. Indian J Dermatol (...) T, Bonneau D, et al. Extensive Mongolian spots in 4p16.3 deletion (Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome). Clin Dysmorphol . 2014 Jul. 23 (3):109-10. . Sharawat IK, Saini L, Randhawa MS, Ahuja CK. Extensive Mongolian spots and normocephaly: an uncommon presentation of infantile Sandhoff's disease. BMJ Case Rep . 2018 Jul 30. 2018: . Köse O, Huseynov S, Demiriz M. Giant Mongolian macules with bilateral ocular involvement: case report and review. Dermatology . 2012. 224(2):126-9. . Ma H, Liao M, Qiu S, Luo R

2014 eMedicine.com

135. Ichthyosis Fetalis (Follow-up)

pain and delay in walking. [ ] Pruritus was reported in 44% of patients, heat and cold intolerance was found in 36%, reduced sweating was found in 28%, and photosensitivity and pigmented macules were found in one patient each. [ ] Poor hair growth and nail deformities were common. Hearing impairment may result from obstruction of the ear canals by skin debris. Developmental delay and normal intellectual development are described. Rajpopat et al reported that most school-aged survivors were (...) of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Wen Lyn Ho, MBBCh, BAO(HON), MRCPI Clinical Fellow in Pediatric Dermatology, British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Canada Wen Lyn Ho, MBBCh, BAO(HON), MRCPI is a member of the following medical societies: , , Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Acknowledgements The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Sheila Au, MD, to the development and writing

2014 eMedicine.com

136. Dermatologic Manifestations of Hematologic Disease (Follow-up)

, and predisposition to malignancy. [ ] Patients have an increased incidence of spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities, due to problems with DNA repair. [ ] By the end of childhood, patients with Fanconi anemia develop hypoplastic bone marrow that affects all 3 lineages. Skin findings consist of several abnormalities of pigmentation. Many patients present with café au lait spots, which, in most individuals, are present at birth. Diffuse hyperpigmentation, which can also be an acquired phenomenon because of iron (...) or lupus anticoagulant, which can be detected based on the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), Kaolin clotting time, or dilute Russell Viper venom time. In a large retrospective study from the Mayo Clinic, 41% of patients with lupus anticoagulant had skin lesions as the first sign of antiphospholipid syndrome. [ ] Cutaneous manifestations include livedo reticularis, necrotizing vasculitis, livedo vasculitis, thrombophlebitis, cutaneous ulceration and necrosis, erythematous macules

2014 eMedicine.com

137. Albright Syndrome (Diagnosis)

puberty caused by this condition is far more common in girls than in boys. In girls, it is the result of estrogen excess from ovarian follicular cysts. [ ] Because the sexual precocity associated with MAS is gonadotropin-independent, it is more accurately described as pseudoprecocious puberty. The café-au-lait spots in MAS are large melanotic macules, sometimes referred to as café-au-lait macules (CALMs). Except for hyperpigmentation of the basal layer, no abnormal pathology is seen. Fewer than 10 (...) in McCune-Albright syndrome. Note the asymmetrical affectation, with near-total obliteration of various neural foramina at the base of the skull. This degree of fibrous dysplasia can result in multiple cranial nerve compression neuropathies, of which blindness and deafness (from involvement of cranial nerves II and VIII) are among the most disabling. Café au lait spot. This is a fairly large, irregular-edged ("coast-of-Maine" variety) lesion. It presents as a brownish, otherwise-asymptomatic macule

2014 eMedicine.com

138. Chromosomal Breakage Syndromes (Overview)

by the chromosomal abnormalities that lead to increased homozygosity of daughter cells. Individuals have a dolichocephalic and microcephalic head shape, hypertrichosis, cheilitis, small narrow facies with telangiectasias, usually café-au-lait–colored macules in a butterfly pattern on the cheeks, although ears, forearms, and dorsal hands also may be involved. These telangiectasias vary in severity and are the result of hypersensitivity to sunlight, caused by a defective DNA helicase. Skin sensitivity to sunlight (...) diagnosed with Fanconi anemia before the appearance of hematologic manifestations (evidence of the difficulty in diagnosing Fanconi anemia). Although the average age of onset of hematologic symptoms is about 8 years, in some people, these symptoms do not appear until postadolescence. The pancytopenia, however, is usually progressive, and anemia is often a cause of death in the young. Hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation of the skin or café-au-lait spots is also a common and useful clinical feature

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

139. McCune-Albright Syndrome (Diagnosis)

puberty caused by this condition is far more common in girls than in boys. In girls, it is the result of estrogen excess from ovarian follicular cysts. [ ] Because the sexual precocity associated with MAS is gonadotropin-independent, it is more accurately described as pseudoprecocious puberty. The café-au-lait spots in MAS are large melanotic macules, sometimes referred to as café-au-lait macules (CALMs). Except for hyperpigmentation of the basal layer, no abnormal pathology is seen. Fewer than 10 (...) in McCune-Albright syndrome. Note the asymmetrical affectation, with near-total obliteration of various neural foramina at the base of the skull. This degree of fibrous dysplasia can result in multiple cranial nerve compression neuropathies, of which blindness and deafness (from involvement of cranial nerves II and VIII) are among the most disabling. Café au lait spot. This is a fairly large, irregular-edged ("coast-of-Maine" variety) lesion. It presents as a brownish, otherwise-asymptomatic macule

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

140. Chromosomal Breakage Syndromes (Follow-up)

by the chromosomal abnormalities that lead to increased homozygosity of daughter cells. Individuals have a dolichocephalic and microcephalic head shape, hypertrichosis, cheilitis, small narrow facies with telangiectasias, usually café-au-lait–colored macules in a butterfly pattern on the cheeks, although ears, forearms, and dorsal hands also may be involved. These telangiectasias vary in severity and are the result of hypersensitivity to sunlight, caused by a defective DNA helicase. Skin sensitivity to sunlight (...) diagnosed with Fanconi anemia before the appearance of hematologic manifestations (evidence of the difficulty in diagnosing Fanconi anemia). Although the average age of onset of hematologic symptoms is about 8 years, in some people, these symptoms do not appear until postadolescence. The pancytopenia, however, is usually progressive, and anemia is often a cause of death in the young. Hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation of the skin or café-au-lait spots is also a common and useful clinical feature

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>