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CSF Latex Agglutination

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1. Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in Ghana: Polymerase chain reaction versus latex agglutination methods. (PubMed)

in a resource-limited setting. CSF samples from 330 suspected meningitis patients within the northern zone of Ghana were analysed for bacterial agents at the zonal Public Health Reference Laboratory in Tamale using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and two latex agglutination test kits; Pastorex and Wellcogen. The overall positivity rate of samples tested for bacterial meningitis was 46.4%. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis within the sub-region, with positivity rate (...) Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in Ghana: Polymerase chain reaction versus latex agglutination methods. Bacterial meningitis is a public health crisis in the northern part of Ghana, where it contributes to very high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of the causative organism will lead to better management and effective treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Pastorex and Wellcogen latex agglutination tests for the detection of bacterial meningitis

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2019 PLoS ONE

2. CSF Latex Agglutination

CSF Latex Agglutination CSF Latex Agglutination Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 CSF Latex Agglutination CSF Latex (...) Agglutination Aka: CSF Latex Agglutination , CSF Antigens II. Indications Rarely used now (See which is preferred) Suspected with negative tests III. Advantages Results available in 20 minutes IV. Efficacy : High : Low overall (does not rule-out ) e Type B: 60-100% Low sensitivity for Low sensitivity in most other V. Preparations: Antigens tested e type B K1 Groups A, B, C, Y agalactiae VI. References Kooiker in Roberts (1998) Procedures in ER, p. 1067-75 Ravel (1995) Lab Medicine, Mosby, p. 294-9 Tunkel

2018 FP Notebook

3. CSF Latex Agglutination

CSF Latex Agglutination CSF Latex Agglutination Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 CSF Latex Agglutination CSF Latex (...) Agglutination Aka: CSF Latex Agglutination , CSF Antigens II. Indications Rarely used now (See which is preferred) Suspected with negative tests III. Advantages Results available in 20 minutes IV. Efficacy : High : Low overall (does not rule-out ) e Type B: 60-100% Low sensitivity for Low sensitivity in most other V. Preparations: Antigens tested e type B K1 Groups A, B, C, Y agalactiae VI. References Kooiker in Roberts (1998) Procedures in ER, p. 1067-75 Ravel (1995) Lab Medicine, Mosby, p. 294-9 Tunkel

2015 FP Notebook

4. Enzyme Immunoassay versus Latex Agglutination Cryptococcal Antigen Assays in Adults with Non-HIV-Related Cryptococcosis (PubMed)

Enzyme Immunoassay versus Latex Agglutination Cryptococcal Antigen Assays in Adults with Non-HIV-Related Cryptococcosis We compared paired enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and latex agglutination (LA) assay results with 185 blood and 164 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 44 and 33 non-HIV cryptococcosis patients, respectively. The LA assay cutoff of 1:256 in the blood and 1:32 in the CSF was most highly predictive of a positive EIA result. The EIA missed 18.4% detected by the LA assay in the blood (...) samples and 7.8% detected by the LA assay in the CSF samples. We note here the improved sensitivity of the LA assay over the EIA in non-HIV patients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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2014 Journal of clinical microbiology

5. Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis (PubMed)

Diagnostic value of latex agglutination test in diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods (Latex agglutination test).100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized (...) according to standard procedures.Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38) cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96) cases and LAT in 17(54.83) cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%. The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66

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2013 Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

6. Latex agglutination in the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection. (PubMed)

Latex agglutination in the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection. A latex agglutination (LA) method for detection of pneumococcal antigens was evaluated and compared with counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). LA was 2 to 10 times more sensitive than CIE for the detection of purified capsular polysaccharides in defined media, but only when a 1+ or 2+ agglutination reaction was interpreted as positive. LA was much less sensitive than CIE with clinical samples. In 50 cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (...) , antigen was detected in the serum almost twice as often with CIE (40%) as with LA (22%). LA was positive in six cases of pneumonia where CIE was negative; however, in three of these cases, antigen was detected only in undiluted sera, which raised some question about the specificity of the result. With 18 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 11 patients with pneumococcal meningitis, the CIE test was positive more frequenlty (14 samples) than was LA (11 samples). Moreover, antigen was detected

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1976 Journal of clinical microbiology

7. Comparison of counter-current immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and radioimmunoassay in detection of soluble capsular polysaccharide antigens of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis of groups A or C. (PubMed)

Comparison of counter-current immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination, and radioimmunoassay in detection of soluble capsular polysaccharide antigens of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis of groups A or C. Three serological methods, radioimmunoassay (RIA), latex agglutination (LX), and counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), for sensitivity in the detection of the capsular polysaccharide antigen of Haemophilus influenzae type b or Neisseria meningitidis groups (...) A and C were compared. RIA was consistently the most sensitive, LX the next, and CIEP the least sensitive. When RIA and LX were used to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with meningitis, they gave very similar results. In only two out of 47 samples, in which RIA detected one of the three antigens, was the amount of the specific polysaccharide too low to be detected by LX. By the serological methods we could detect evidence of specific pathogen in 49 samples, including nine from

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1978 Journal of Clinical Pathology

8. Comparison of Antigen Detection and Nested PCR in CSF Samples of HIV Positive and Negative Patients with Suspected Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital (PubMed)

improving the overall disease outcome.Comparison of diagnostic efficacy of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) in the Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) samples of the cases of meningitis in HIV positive and negative cases.We have compared the diagnostic efficacy of Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) with nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 200 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) samples, including 14 HIV positive also, in the cases of suspected cryptococcal meningitis. Nested PCR (...) Comparison of Antigen Detection and Nested PCR in CSF Samples of HIV Positive and Negative Patients with Suspected Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital The cases of cryptococcal meningitis and other forms of cryptococcosis have increased in recent time and the present scenario of the condition with significant morbidity and mortality is actually posing a serious threat to the community, so an early and prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent serious complications and thus

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2016 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

9. Meningococcal disease

include those where N meningitidis antigen is detected by immunohistochemical staining on formalin-fixed tissue, or in cerebrospinal fluid by latex agglutination. History and exam presence of risk factors rapid onset of illness fever irritability leg pain seizures neck pain headache confusion altered consciousness hypotension pallor or mottled skin rash cold hands and feet neck stiffness photophobia hypotonia high-pitched cry Kernig's sign Brudzinski's sign bulging fontanelle lethargy poor appetite (...) and differential electrolytes, Ca, Mg, glucose coagulation profile (prothrombin time, INR, activated PPT, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain CSF cell count and differential CSF glucose, protein CSF culture antigen detection in CSF chest x-ray CT head Gram stain of non-CSF body fluid culture of non-CSF body fluid immunohistochemical staining of skin lesion biopsy echocardiography joint x-ray polymerase chain reaction Treatment algorithm INITIAL ACUTE Contributors

2018 BMJ Best Practice

10. Leptospirosis

contact (direct or indirect) with urine of infected animals residence in or travel to an endemic area residence in or travel to an area with recent flooding involvement in water sports Diagnostic investigations FBC and differential urinalysis darkfield examination blood culture CSF culture ECG microscopic agglutination test (MAT) ELISA PCR CXR LFTs conjugated bilirubin metabolic profile serum pancreatic enzymes CSF analysis urine culture renal biopsy lung biopsy staining methods latex agglutination

2018 BMJ Best Practice

11. Meningococcal disease

include those where N meningitidis antigen is detected by immunohistochemical staining on formalin-fixed tissue, or in cerebrospinal fluid by latex agglutination. History and exam presence of risk factors rapid onset of illness fever irritability leg pain seizures neck pain headache confusion altered consciousness hypotension pallor or mottled skin rash cold hands and feet neck stiffness photophobia hypotonia high-pitched cry Kernig's sign Brudzinski's sign bulging fontanelle lethargy poor appetite (...) and differential electrolytes, Ca, Mg, glucose coagulation profile (prothrombin time, INR, activated PPT, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain CSF cell count and differential CSF glucose, protein CSF culture antigen detection in CSF chest x-ray CT head Gram stain of non-CSF body fluid culture of non-CSF body fluid immunohistochemical staining of skin lesion biopsy echocardiography joint x-ray polymerase chain reaction Treatment algorithm INITIAL ACUTE Contributors

2018 BMJ Best Practice

13. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

members during the external review process.45 Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children ANNEX 2. SUMMARY OF THE PERFORMANCE OF DIAGNOSTIC ASSAYS Cerebrospinal fluid Latex agglutination Sixteen studies (1–16) compared the performance of CSF latex agglutination to CSF culture and microscopy. The pooled sensitivity of latex agglutination versus culture and microscopy in these 16 studies was 98.2% (95% CI: 97.6–98.7 (...) %), and the specificity was 96.8% (95% CI: 96.1– 97.5%). Enzyme immunoassay CSF enzyme immunoassay versus CSF culture had a pooled sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 95.0– 100.0%) and specificity of 98.3% (95% CI: 95.1–99.6%) (15) ; CSF enzyme immunoassay versus CSF latex agglutination had a pooled sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 89.7–100.0%) and specificity of 98.8% (95% CI: 96.6–99.8%) (17–19). Lateral-flow assay Five studies (20–24) have evaluated CSF lateral-flow assay performance versus CSF culture as well as latex

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

14. Investigation and management of eosinophilia

of transcription factors (McNagny & Graf 2002) and is driven by various cytokines, principally interleukin (IL)-5, IL-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) produced by activated T lymphocytes, stromal cells and mast cells, triggering differentiation and activation (Ackerman & Bochner 2007). Such cytokines are also the 9 main drivers in reactive eosinophilia in contrast to clonal eosinophilia where tyrosine kinase gene fusions are common, typically involving the genes coding

2016 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

15. Tropical Travel Trouble 009 Humongous HIV Extravaganza

opening pressure >20 cm on a lumbar puncture. Can be diagnoses with an India ink stain, culture, serology (serum CrAg) with Latex agglutination and ELISA test or lateral flow assay or a CSF cryptococcal antigen (CrAg). Treat with amphotericin (dosing can vary depending on formulation) and flucytosine 100mg/kg/day (usually 2 weeks) then fluconazole 400mg/day for 8 weeks then fluconazole 200mg/day until immune reconstitution. Patient may also need therapeutic LPs (in fact probably the only patients (...) = Amoxicillin 500mg TDS PO for 7/7. Moderate = IV benzylpenicillin 2MU Q4hly +/- macrolide. Severe = IV benzylpenicillin + genatmicin 5mg/kg IV OD + macrolide. TB – ART should start ASAP, ART my reduce mortality by 64-95% Q22. You do a lumbar puncture on an HIV patient and get a predominance of lymphocytes, what are your differentials? Answer and interpretation Nervous system disorders among patients receiving ARTs >25% Differential for lymphocytic CSF: Viral meningitis/encephalitis TBM Listeria Fungal

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

17. Evaluation of Different Methods for Diagnosis of ME

of the sediment. Agar plates and broth will be incubated for 1 to 5 days at 35-37°C (with ~5% CO2, or in a candle-jar, for Thayer-Martin and chocolate agar) . In addition to GS and culture method , India ink test and culture and latex agglutination test (LAT). LAT assay will be performed on CSF samples using Latex-antigen detection system kit.. Diagnostic Test: CSF examination The CSF samples will be stored at -80°C until testing . CSF specimens will be prepared for GS and culture examinations (...) to GS and culture method , India ink test and culture and latex agglutination test (LAT). LAT assay will be performed on CSF samples using Latex-antigen detection system kit. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Evaluation of CSF and blood samples in diagnosis of meningitis in children's. [ Time Frame: One year ] The CSF samples will be stored at -80°C until testing . CSF specimens will be prepared for GS and culture examinations by centrifugation at 3,000 rpm for 10 minutes at room

2018 Clinical Trials

18. Early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis-Burkina Faso, 2014-2015. (PubMed)

Early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis-Burkina Faso, 2014-2015. We evaluate early impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pneumococcal meningitis in Burkina Faso.Nationwide surveillance gathered demographic/clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for meningitis cases. Pneumococcal cases were confirmed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or latex agglutination, and strains serotyped using PCR. We

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2017 Journal of Infection

19. Nationwide Trends in Bacterial Meningitis before the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-Burkina Faso, 2011-2013. (PubMed)

) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013.Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Sp infections are confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), or latex agglutination, and CSF serotyped using real-time and conventional PCR. We calculated incidence rates in cases per 100,000 persons, adjusting for age and proportion of cases with CSF

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2016 PLoS ONE

20. CPG for the Management of Invasive Meningococcal Disease

+ negative gram stain of CSF. - 24 - It has been 5 years since the publication of this Clinical Practice Guideline and it is subject to updating. 24 CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES IN THE SNS Clinical reassessment as strategy to improve diagnosis D In the presence of clinical signs or other symptoms suggestive of IMD, treatment should not be delayed waiting for a second clinical evaluation. v Children with nonspeci? c symptoms at initial presentation, in whom IMD cannot be excluded at the discretion (...) with suf? cient technical capacity. C A lumbar puncture should be performed in patients with clinical features of meningitis without sepsis (purple), if there are no contraindications. D The CSF should be referred to a microbiological laboratory. The following techniques should be performed: – Microscopy – Cultivation of bacteria – Meningococcal PCR in technically able laboratories D None of the following techniques is de? nitive when IMD is to be con? rmed or ruled out: skin scraping, skin biopsy

2013 GuiaSalud

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