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CNS Infection

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121. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life

Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life ABamford,*ATurkova,*HLyall, CFoster, NKlein, DBastiaans, DBurger, SBernardi, KButler, EChiappini, 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 P Clayden, 9 M Della Negra, 10 V Giacomet, 11 C (...) Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children’s Hospital Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 24 Imperial College, London, UK and 25 Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK The 2015 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines provide practical recommendations on the management of HIV-1 infection in children in Europe and are an update to those published in 2009. Aims of treatment have progressed signi?cantly over the last decade, moving far beyond limitation

2018 The Children's HIV Association

122. Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women

Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women 1 Purpose Over the past few decades, our ability to diagnose, treat, and manage recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) long-term has evolved due to additional insights into the pathophysiology of rUTI, a new appreciation for the adverse effects of repetitive antimicrobial therapy (“collateral damage”), 1 rising rates of bacterial antimicrobial resistance, and better reporting of the natural history and clinical outcomes of acute (...) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the operative or procedural setting. In this document, the term UTI will refer to acute bacterial cystitis unless otherwise specified. This document seeks to establish guidance for the evaluation and management of patients with rUTIs to prevent inappropriate use of antibiotics, decrease the risk of antibiotic resistance, reduce adverse effects of antibiotic use, provide guidance on antibiotic and non-antibiotic strategies for prevention, and improve clinical outcomes

2019 American Urological Association

123. Surveillance, Diagnosis and Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Ireland

Surveillance, Diagnosis and Management of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Ireland Surveillance, Diagnosis and Management of Clostridium difficile Infection in Ireland National Clinical Guideline No. 3 June 2014National Clinical Effectiveness Committee (NCEC) The National Clinical Effectiveness Committee (NCEC) was established as part of the Patient Safety First Initiative in September 2010. The NCECs mission is to provide a framework for national endorsement of clinical guidelines and audit (...) subcommittee of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). (Appendix 1) Using this National Clinical Guideline This guideline is intended to be relevant to all healthcare staff involved in the care of patients/ residents that may be at risk of or have Clostridium difficile infection (referred to as C. difficile infection or CDI through this document) in acute hospitals, long-term care facilities, other institutions and in primary care nationally. Patients

2019 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

124. Vaccine-preventable Infections and Immunization in Multiple Sclerosis

the circulation into the CNS. These immune cells (B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, and natural killer cells) are thought to be directed against myelin antigens. There is increasing evidence to suggest a role for migrating B cells in MS pathogenesis, with contributions to T-cell activation and direct tissue injury. 2, 3 Some evidence suggests that infections may trigger MS relapses, increase MS radiologic and immunologic activity, and accelerate disease progression. 4, 5 Likewise, select reports link (...) Vaccine-preventable Infections and Immunization in Multiple Sclerosis 1 Practice guideline update: Vaccine-preventable infections and immunization in multiple sclerosis Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology Mauricio F. Farez, MD, MPH, 1 Jorge Correale, MD, 1,2 Melissa J. Armstrong, MD, MSc, 3 Alexander Rae-Grant, MD, 4 David Gloss, MD, 5 Diane Donley, MD, 6 Yolanda Holler-Managan, MD, 7 Norman J. Kachuck, MD, 8

2019 American Academy of Neurology

125. Bictegravir / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide / fumarate (Biktarvy) - HIV Infections

Bictegravir / emtricitabine / tenofovir alafenamide / fumarate (Biktarvy) - HIV Infections 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 26 April 2018 EMA/293559/2018 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP (...) substance: Bictegravir / Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Alafenamide International Non-proprietary Name/Common Name: Bictegravir / Emtricitabine / Tenofovir Alafenamide Pharmaco-therapeutic group (ATC Code): Direct acting antivirals, antivirals for treatment of HIV infections, combinations (J05AR) Therapeutic indication(s): Biktarvy is indicated for the treatment of adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1) without present or past evidence of viral resistance to the integrase inhibitor class

2018 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

126. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Overview)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Overview) CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzM4OS1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Updated: Nov 27, 2017 Author: Felicia J Gliksman, DO, MPH; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Overview Overview is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and may present as a space-occupying lesion, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. In addition, cryptococcosis is the most common fungal disease in -infected persons, and it is the AIDS

2014 eMedicine.com

127. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Overview)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Overview) CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzI5OC1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Updated: Jul 11, 2017 Author: Gulshan Uppal, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Overview Overview Toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of focal central nervous system (CNS) disease in AIDS. CNS toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients is usually a complication of the late phase of the disease. Typically, lesions are found in the brain and their effects dominate

2014 eMedicine.com

128. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Treatment)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Treatment) CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzI5OC1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Updated: Jul 11, 2017 Author: Gulshan Uppal, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Overview Overview Toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of focal central nervous system (CNS) disease in AIDS. CNS toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients is usually a complication of the late phase of the disease. Typically, lesions are found in the brain and their effects dominate

2014 eMedicine.com

129. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Treatment)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Treatment) CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzM4OS1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Updated: Nov 27, 2017 Author: Felicia J Gliksman, DO, MPH; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Overview Overview is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and may present as a space-occupying lesion, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. In addition, cryptococcosis is the most common fungal disease in -infected persons, and it is the AIDS

2014 eMedicine.com

130. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Follow-up)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Follow-up) CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzM4OS1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Updated: Nov 27, 2017 Author: Felicia J Gliksman, DO, MPH; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Overview Overview is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and may present as a space-occupying lesion, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. In addition, cryptococcosis is the most common fungal disease in -infected persons, and it is the AIDS

2014 eMedicine.com

131. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Follow-up)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Follow-up) CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzI5OC1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Updated: Jul 11, 2017 Author: Gulshan Uppal, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Overview Overview Toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of focal central nervous system (CNS) disease in AIDS. CNS toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients is usually a complication of the late phase of the disease. Typically, lesions are found in the brain and their effects dominate

2014 eMedicine.com

132. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Diagnosis)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Toxoplasmosis (Diagnosis) CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzI5OC1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Updated: Jul 11, 2017 Author: Gulshan Uppal, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV Overview Overview Toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of focal central nervous system (CNS) disease in AIDS. CNS toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients is usually a complication of the late phase of the disease. Typically, lesions are found in the brain and their effects dominate

2014 eMedicine.com

133. HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Diagnosis)

HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections: CNS Cryptococcosis (Diagnosis) CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NzM4OS1vdmVydmlldw (...) == processing > CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Updated: Nov 27, 2017 Author: Felicia J Gliksman, DO, MPH; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections CNS Cryptococcosis in HIV Overview Overview is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and may present as a space-occupying lesion, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis. In addition, cryptococcosis is the most common fungal disease in -infected persons, and it is the AIDS

2014 eMedicine.com

134. Appearance of CNS histoplasmosis on 18F-FDG PET/CT with MRI correlation (PubMed)

Appearance of CNS histoplasmosis on 18F-FDG PET/CT with MRI correlation Disseminated histoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection encountered in immunocompromised patients such as those with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) can occur in 5-20% of cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, and CNS histoplasmosis can be very difficult to diagnose via conventional imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. The role (...) of 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT scan in the diagnosis of CNS histoplasmosis has not been established. A 66-year-old female presented with dizziness and unsteady gait and was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CNS histoplasmosis. In this report, we present the MRI and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT image findings.

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2016 BJR | case reports

135. HIV Vpr controls CNS metabolism (PubMed)

HIV Vpr controls CNS metabolism 27421087 2018 07 31 2018 12 02 1551-4005 15 18 2016 09 16 Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) Cell Cycle HIV Vpr controls CNS metabolism. 2389-90 10.1080/15384101.2016.1211448 Boyd Stacey S a Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University , Manassas , VA , USA. Akpamagbo Yao Y a Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University , Manassas , VA , USA. Kashanchi Fatah F a Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University , Manassas , VA , USA (...) . eng News Comment 2016 07 15 United States Cell Cycle 101137841 1551-4005 0 vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus 0 vpr protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1 0 vpr protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 2 IM Cell Cycle. 2016 Sep;15(17):2288-98 27245560 HIV Infections HIV-1 Humans vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus HAD HAND HIV-1 Vpr 2016 7 16 6 0 2016 7 16 6 0 2018 8 1 6 0 ppublish 27421087 PMC5026812 10.1080/15384101.2016.1211448 J Neurochem. 2009 Apr;109(2):551-61 19222703

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2016 Cell Cycle

136. Cognitive Impairment and Persistent CNS Injury in Treated HIV (PubMed)

Cognitive Impairment and Persistent CNS Injury in Treated HIV The implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has changed HIV infection into a chronic illness, conveying extensive benefits, including greater longevity and advantages for the central nervous system (CNS). However, studies increasingly confirm that the CNS gains are incomplete, with reports of persistent immune activation affecting the CNS despite suppression of plasma HIV RNA. The rate of cognitive impairment (...) is unchanged, although severity is generally milder than in the pre-cART era. In this review, we discuss cognitive outcomes from recently published clinical HIV studies, review observations on HIV biomarkers for cognitive change, and emphasize longitudinal imaging findings. Additionally, we summarize recent studies on CNS viral invasion, CD8 encephalitis, and how CNS involvement during the earliest stages of infection may set the stage for later cognitive manifestations.

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2016 Current HIV/AIDS reports

137. Dual function of Ccr5 during Langat virus encephalitis - Reduction of neutrophil-mediated CNS inflammation and increase in T cell-mediated viral clearance (PubMed)

Dual function of Ccr5 during Langat virus encephalitis - Reduction of neutrophil-mediated CNS inflammation and increase in T cell-mediated viral clearance Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a vector-transmitted flavivirus that causes potentially fatal neurologic infection. There are thousands of cases reported annually, and despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the incidence of TBEV is increasing worldwide. Importantly, up to 30% of affected individuals develop long-term (...) neurologic sequelae. We investigated the role of chemokine receptor Ccr5 in a mouse model of TBEV infection using the naturally attenuated tick-borne flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV). Ccr5-deficient mice presented with an increase in viral replication within the CNS and decreased survival during LGTV encephalitis compared with wild-type controls. This enhanced susceptibility was due to the temporal lag in lymphocyte migration into the CNS. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells, but not Ccr5-deficient T

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2016 Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

138. HIV persistence in the CNS: the final frontier for a cure? (PubMed)

HIV persistence in the CNS: the final frontier for a cure? 27781108 2019 01 12 2055-6640 2 4 2016 Oct 05 Journal of virus eradication J Virus Erad HIV persistence in the CNS: the final frontier for a cure? 242 Lewin Sharon R SR Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Mellors John W JW Department of Medicine

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2016 Journal of virus eradication

139. Loss of cerebellar neurons in the progression of lentiviral disease: effects of CNS-permeant antiretroviral therapy (PubMed)

Loss of cerebellar neurons in the progression of lentiviral disease: effects of CNS-permeant antiretroviral therapy The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases.We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration (...) , in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND. Four cohorts of animals were studied: non-infected controls, SIV-infected asymptomatic animals, and SIV-infected AIDS-diseased animals with and without brain-permeant antiretroviral treatment. The antiretroviral utilized was 6-chloro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine (6-Cl-ddG), a CNS-permeable nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Quantitation of granule cells and Purkinje cells, of an established biomarker

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2016 Journal of neuroinflammation

140. Identification and Quantification of HIV CNS Latency Biomarkers

infection also leads to long-term immune activation which is associated with higher incidence of serious non-AIDS events including cardiovascular disease and cancers. Thus HIV+ patients must remain on HAART indefinitely or replication-competent latent HIV reservoirs must be eradicated. The central nervous system (CNS) is a sanctuary site for latent HIV. For example, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) develop and persist in about 40% of HIV+ persons despite long-term HAART and viral (...) with viral load suppression (<50 copies / ml) in both plasma and CSF for at least 6 months Able to provide informed consent Exclusion Criteria: Non-HIV related neurological disorder or active CNS opportunistic infection as assessed by full blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, glucose, liver function tests, venereal disease reaction level (VDRL), MRI brain scan and CSF analyses for cell count, protein, glucose, culture, VDRL and cryptococcal antigen Psychiatric disorders on the psychotic axis, current

2016 Clinical Trials

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