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CNS Infection

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101. Mycophenolate mofetil in paediatric autoimmune or immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system: clinical experience and recommendations. (Abstract)

Mycophenolate mofetil in paediatric autoimmune or immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system: clinical experience and recommendations. To gather data on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in paediatric autoimmune/immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) conditions, focusing on safety and factors that may affect MMF efficacy.Retrospective, multicentre study based on four paediatric neurology centres.Forty-four children were included (30 females, 14 males): 19 had proven/suspected (...) autoimmune encephalitis, 14 had inflammatory demyelinating CNS diseases, and 11 had other autoimmune/immune-mediated CNS conditions. Before MMF, all received first-line immune therapies, and 17 had second-line rituximab and/or cyclophosphamide. MMF was started at a median of 9.5 months from disease onset (range 1-127mo) (median age 9y 4mo, range 1y 5mo-16y 5mo), and was used for median 18 months (range 0.3-73mo). On MMF, 31 patients were relapse-free, whereas eight relapsed (excluding patients

2018 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

102. Exercise Therapy in Combination With Central Nervous System-targeted Treatment for Osteoarthritis

Exercise Therapy in Combination With Central Nervous System-targeted Treatment for Osteoarthritis Exercise Therapy in Combination With Central Nervous System-targeted Treatment for Osteoarthritis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove (...) one or more studies before adding more. Exercise Therapy in Combination With Central Nervous System-targeted Treatment for Osteoarthritis The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03681613 Recruitment Status

2018 Clinical Trials

103. Long-term Outcome of AIDS-related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Treated With High Dose Methotrexate and Combined Antiretroviral Therapy

below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sample Study Population All patients treated for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma in Fondation Rothschild (Paris, France) between january1996 and december 2014 Criteria Inclusion Criteria: HIV infection AIDS-related primary central nervous system (...) Long-term Outcome of AIDS-related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Treated With High Dose Methotrexate and Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Long-term Outcome of AIDS-related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Treated With High Dose Methotrexate and Combined Antiretroviral Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save

2018 Clinical Trials

104. Fatal central nervous system lymphocytic vasculitis after treatment for Burkitt lymphoma in a patient with a SH2D1A mutation. (Abstract)

Fatal central nervous system lymphocytic vasculitis after treatment for Burkitt lymphoma in a patient with a SH2D1A mutation. Very rarely, patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 present central nervous system vasculitis. We report a patient carrying a SH2D1A mutation that, after treatment for lymphoma developed fatal central nervous system vasculitis. He lacked signs of ongoing Epstein-Barr virus infection. We propose that impaired T cell homeostasis caused by SAP deficiency

2018 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

105. Evidence of Chikungunya Virus Disease in Pakistan Since 2015 With Patients Demonstrating Involvement of the Central Nervous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence of Chikungunya Virus Disease in Pakistan Since 2015 With Patients Demonstrating Involvement of the Central Nervous System Several arboviruses are endemic to and co-circulate in Pakistan. In recent years, Pakistan has observed a rise in arboviral infections. A cross-sectional study for arboviral diseases, which included screening for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), was initiated in 2015 to determine which pathogens were causing disease in patients presenting to health care services. Exposure (...) to CHIKV was verified via detection of viral nucleic acids or virus-specific IgM with virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. Out of 997 enrolled patients presenting with clinical features suggestive of arboviral disease, 102 patients were positive for CHIKV IgM antibodies and 60 patients were positive for CHIKV nucleic acids or neutralizing antibodies. The data presented here show that CHIKV has been circulating in Pakistan since April of 2015. CHIKV infections were detected in study subjects up

2018 Frontiers in public health

106. A Rare Presentation of Invasive Tuberculosis of the Central Nervous System in an Immunocompetent Patient in a Nonendemic Country Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Rare Presentation of Invasive Tuberculosis of the Central Nervous System in an Immunocompetent Patient in a Nonendemic Country We herein report a rare case of a 25-year-old immunocompetent male patient with disseminated tuberculosis of central nervous system (CNS), first presenting as multiple cerebral lesions with no meningeal involvement. Subsequent diagnostic workup disclosed extensive peritoneal involvement. A broad differential diagnosis was considered, including neoplastic (...) and infectious diseases. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive PCR result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the biopsied mesenteric tissue. The patient was started on tuberculostatic regimen with favorable outcome. No acquired or hereditary immunodeficiency was documented. Disseminated tuberculosis in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. Genetic susceptibility factors have been reported in individuals with extensive forms of the disease and a high index of suspicion is required, as observed

2018 Case reports in neurological medicine

107. Cerebral vasculitis and lateral rectus palsy – two rare central nervous system complications of dengue fever: two case reports and review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebral vasculitis and lateral rectus palsy – two rare central nervous system complications of dengue fever: two case reports and review of the literature Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations (...) reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy. The first patient was a 53-year-old previously healthy Singhalese woman who developed acute-onset slurring of speech and ataxia with altered sensorium 1 day after recovery from a critical

2018 Journal of medical case reports

108. An Unusual Case of CMV/EBV Ventriculoencephalitis with Evolution to Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma in HIV-Positive Patient Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Unusual Case of CMV/EBV Ventriculoencephalitis with Evolution to Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma in HIV-Positive Patient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known cause of different types of malignancies particularly Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphomas, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas including primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A higher tendency of malignant transformation associated with EBV has been noticed in immunocompromised patients (...) , such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. The rapid and effective immune reconstitution is crucial to prevent PCNSL in HIV-positive patients. We present a clinical case of a young patient diagnosed with HIV infection and medicated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) with poor immunological recovery. After two weeks, he developed ventriculoencephalitis, observed in the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and EBV, both with high serum viral load, rapidly

2018 Case reports in infectious diseases

109. The Gut-Microglia Connection: Implications for Central Nervous System Diseases Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Gut-Microglia Connection: Implications for Central Nervous System Diseases The importance of the gut microbiome in central nervous system (CNS) diseases has long been recognized; however, research into this connection is limited, in part, owing to a lack of convincing mechanisms because the brain is a distant target of the gut. Previous studies on the brain revealed that most of the CNS diseases affected by the gut microbiome are closely associated with microglial dysfunction. Microglia (...) , the major CNS-resident macrophages, are crucial for the immune response of the CNS against infection and injury, as well as for brain development and function. However, the current understanding of the mechanisms controlling the maturation and function of microglia is obscure, especially regarding the extrinsic factors affecting microglial function during the developmental process. The gut microflora has been shown to significantly influence microglia from before birth until adulthood

2018 Frontiers in immunology

110. Delayed central nervous system manifestation of Chikungunya virus with magnetic resonance T2 weighted imaging high signal changes—a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Delayed central nervous system manifestation of Chikungunya virus with magnetic resonance T2 weighted imaging high signal changes—a case report CHIKV is a relatively new virus and we are still learning about the illness. Very little is known about CNS its involvement and even less about its delayed or long-term manifestations if any. It therefore behoves us to consider delayed CNS involvement when assessing patients with CHIKV infections that may not have had an acute neurological (...) manifestation at the time of diagnosis coupled with new onset neurological manifestations and MRI abnormalities. It seems likely that patients with CHIKV may experience delayed CNS manifestation of the viral infection. This report highlights the importance of a travel history when assessing patients with a neurological complaint. The pathway to best manage such cases is with repeated imaging to assess if the signal changes either progress, resolve or more importantly if there is any MRI correlation should

2018 Journal of surgical case reports

111. Genes and their single nucleotide polymorphism involved in innate immune response in central nervous system in bacterial meningitis: review of literature data Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genes and their single nucleotide polymorphism involved in innate immune response in central nervous system in bacterial meningitis: review of literature data There are many studies analysing the effect of SNPs in genes coding proteins which are involved in innate immune response on susceptibility to invasive bacterial disease. Many of them gave inconclusive results. Regarding the complexity of immune response and cooperation between particular elements, number of SNPs may have a cumulative (...) of innate immune response in the eradication of bacteria, and initiation of the inflammatory response in CNS need further studies.Large multicentre studies assessing multiple SNPs in patients with microbiologically proven pneumococcal or meningococcal meningitis are needed to find real genetic risk factors for developing bacterial meningitis. This is necessary to design more effective treatment and prevention strategies for severe infections.

2018 Inflammation Research

112. In situ immune response and mechanisms of cell damage in central nervous system of fatal cases microcephaly by Zika virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

In situ immune response and mechanisms of cell damage in central nervous system of fatal cases microcephaly by Zika virus Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika (...) microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis

2018 Scientific reports

113. Germ Line IgM Is Sufficient, but Not Required, for Antibody-Mediated Alphavirus Clearance from the Central Nervous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Germ Line IgM Is Sufficient, but Not Required, for Antibody-Mediated Alphavirus Clearance from the Central Nervous System Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons in the brain and spinal cord in mice provides a model system for investigating recovery from encephalomyelitis and antibody-mediated clearance of virus from the central nervous system (CNS). To determine the roles of IgM and IgG in recovery, we compared the responses of immunoglobulin-deficient activation-induced adenosine deaminase (...) higher levels of viral RNA in the CNS late after infection. The numbers of infected cells and the amount of cell death in brain were comparable. We conclude that antibody is required and that either germ line IgM or IgG is sufficient for clearance of virus from the CNS.IMPORTANCE Mosquito-borne alphaviruses that infect neurons can cause fatal encephalomyelitis. Recovery requires a mechanism for the immune system to clear virus from infected neurons without harming the infected cells. Antiviral

2018 Journal of virology

114. Probing the compartmentalization of HIV-1 in the central nervous system through its neutralization properties. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Probing the compartmentalization of HIV-1 in the central nervous system through its neutralization properties. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 has been observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients at different clinical stages. Considering the low permeability of the blood-brain barrier, we wondered if a reduced selective pressure by neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in the central nervous system (CNS) could favor the evolution of NAb-sensitive viruses in this compartment. Single genome (...) amplification (SGA) was used to sequence full-length HIV-1 envelope variants (453 sequences) from paired CSF and blood plasma samples in 9 subjects infected by HIV variants of various clades and suffering from diverse neurologic disorders. Dynamics of viral evolution were evaluated with a bayesian coalescent approach for individuals with longitudinal samples. Pseudotyped viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins variants representative of the quasi-species present in each compartment were generated

2017 PLoS ONE

115. The Novel Fungal Cyp51 Inhibitor VT-1598 is Efficacious in Experimental Models of Central Nervous System Coccidioidomycosis Caused by <i>Coccidioides posadasii</i> and <i>Coccidioides immitis</i>. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Novel Fungal Cyp51 Inhibitor VT-1598 is Efficacious in Experimental Models of Central Nervous System Coccidioidomycosis Caused by Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. Coccidioidal meningitis can cause significant morbidity, and lifelong antifungal therapy is often required. VT-1598 is a fungus-specific Cyp51 inhibitor that has potent in vitro activity against Coccidioides species. We evaluated the in vivo efficacy of VT-1598 in murine models of central nervous (...) system coccidioidomycosis caused by C. posadasii and C. immitis Infection was introduced via intracranial inoculation, and therapy began 48 h postinoculation. Oral treatments consisted of vehicle control, VT-1598, and positive controls of fluconazole in the C. immitis study and VT-1161 in the C. posadasii study. Treatment continued for 7 and 14 days in the fungal-burden and survival studies, respectively. Fungal burden was assessed in brain tissue collected 24 to 48 h posttreatment in the fungal

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

116. Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies in the Cerebrospinal Fluid: Evidence of Early Treatment Impact on Central Nervous System Reservoir? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies in the Cerebrospinal Fluid: Evidence of Early Treatment Impact on Central Nervous System Reservoir? Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) likely persists in the central nervous system (CNS) in treated individuals. We examined anti-HIV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as markers of persistence.Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were measured in paired CSF and serum before and after (...) (P > .0001) and blood antibodies by 7-fold (P = .0003). Two individuals receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis and then ART early after infection failed to develop antibodies in CSF or blood, whereas CSF antibodies were markedly reduced in the Berlin patient.To the extent that differential CSF and blood antibodies indicate HIV persistence, these data suggest a relative delay in establishment of the CNS compared with the systemic HIV reservoir that provides an opportunity for early treatment to have

2018 Journal of Infectious Diseases

117. Sunitinib in Sarcomas of the Central Nervous System

levels and quality of sleep. These participants will wear a small, portable watch-sized accelerometer device on the wrist for 6 cycles. About 1 month after their last study drug dose, participants will have a final study visit. They will have a physical exam, blood tests, and scans. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Gliosarcoma Central Nervous System Sarcoma Drug: Sunitinib Device: wGT3x-BT Phase 2 Detailed Description: Background: Gliosarcoma and primary CNS sarcomas are malignant (...) Sunitinib in Sarcomas of the Central Nervous System Sunitinib in Sarcomas of the Central Nervous System - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Sunitinib in Sarcomas of the Central Nervous System

2018 Clinical Trials

118. Study of Voraxaze in Patients With Central Nervous System Lymphoma

Study of Voraxaze in Patients With Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study of Voraxaze in Patients With Central Nervous System Lymphoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Study of Voraxaze (...) in Patients With Central Nervous System Lymphoma The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03684980 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : September 26, 2018 Last Update Posted : November 16, 2018 See Sponsor

2018 Clinical Trials

119. Sex differences in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. (Abstract)

Sex differences in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances (...) in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neuronal autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), sex is one of the top risk factors, with women being more often affected than men. Immunological mechanisms driving the sex bias in autoimmune CNS diseases are complex and include hormonal as well

2018 Seminars in immunopathology

120. Ibrutinib With Rituximab and Lenalidomide for Patients With Recurrent/Refractory Primary or Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL/SCNSL)

Ibrutinib With Rituximab and Lenalidomide for Patients With Recurrent/Refractory Primary or Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL/SCNSL) Ibrutinib With Rituximab and Lenalidomide for Patients With Recurrent/Refractory Primary or Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL/SCNSL) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies (...) Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Ibrutinib With Rituximab and Lenalidomide for Patients With Recurrent/Refractory Primary or Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL/SCNSL) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies

2018 Clinical Trials

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