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CNS Infection

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101. Systematic literature review to summarise current evidence for the application of mass-spectrometry to identify biomarkers for central nervous system (CNS)infections

Systematic literature review to summarise current evidence for the application of mass-spectrometry to identify biomarkers for central nervous system (CNS)infections Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g

2018 PROSPERO

102. Using Telmisartan With ART During Acute HIV Infection to Reduce the CNS Reservoirs of HIV and Lymph Node Fibrosis

Using Telmisartan With ART During Acute HIV Infection to Reduce the CNS Reservoirs of HIV and Lymph Node Fibrosis Using Telmisartan With ART During Acute HIV Infection to Reduce the CNS Reservoirs of HIV and Lymph Node Fibrosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Using Telmisartan With ART During Acute HIV Infection to Reduce the CNS Reservoirs of HIV and Lymph Node Fibrosis The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02750059 Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting First Posted

2015 Clinical Trials

103. Meropenem Penetration Across BBB in Patients With CNS Infection and Optimization of Meropenem Treatment

Meropenem Penetration Across BBB in Patients With CNS Infection and Optimization of Meropenem Treatment Meropenem Penetration Across BBB in Patients With CNS Infection and Optimization of Meropenem Treatment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100 (...) ). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Meropenem Penetration Across BBB in Patients With CNS Infection and Optimization of Meropenem Treatment The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02506686 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : July 23, 2015 Last Update Posted : July

2015 Clinical Trials

104. HIV-1 CNS in vitro infectivity models based on clinical CSF samples. (Full text)

HIV-1 CNS in vitro infectivity models based on clinical CSF samples. The concentration of antiretrovirals in CSF is often utilized as a surrogate for CNS drug exposure. This measurement does not consider pharmacodynamic or combinative effects of ART. We have developed a novel endpoint measurement to assess antiretroviral activity of CSF from subjects on ART.CSF samples were obtained from patients receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/200 mg once daily) with either rilpivirine (25 mg once daily (...) ) or lopinavir/ritonavir/maraviroc (400/100/150 mg twice daily) and HIV-uninfected controls. Antiviral activity of ART-containing CSF was assessed in cell cultures using PBMCs and neuro-derived glial (U87) and astrocyte (373) cell lines. Infectivity model half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IMIC50) values were calculated and expressed as -log2IMIC50. Results were correlated with CSF antiretroviral concentrations.Compared with controls, CSF from both ART studies demonstrated in vitro antiretroviral

2015 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy PubMed

105. Plasma Concentration of the Neurofilament Light Protein (NFL) is a Biomarker of CNS Injury in HIV Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study (Full text)

Plasma Concentration of the Neurofilament Light Protein (NFL) is a Biomarker of CNS Injury in HIV Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) is a sensitive marker of neuronal injury in a variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including the CNS dysfunction injury that is common in untreated HIV infection. However, an important limitation is the requirement for lumbar puncture. For this reason, a sensitive and reliable blood biomarker (...) of CNS injury would represent a welcome advance in both clinical and research settings.To explore whether plasma concentrations of NFL might be used to detect CNS injury in HIV infection, an ultrasensitive Single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured NFL in paired CSF and plasma samples from 121 HIV-infected subjects divided into groups according to stage of their systemic disease, presence of overt HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and after

2015 EBioMedicine PubMed

106. Group A Streptococcus intranasal infection promotes CNS infiltration by streptococcal-specific Th17 cells (Full text)

Group A Streptococcus intranasal infection promotes CNS infiltration by streptococcal-specific Th17 cells Group A streptococcal (GAS) infection induces the production of Abs that cross-react with host neuronal proteins, and these anti-GAS mimetic Abs are associated with autoimmune diseases of the CNS. However, the mechanisms that allow these Abs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and induce neuropathology remain unresolved. We have previously shown that GAS infection in mouse models induces (...) in which no viable bacteria were detected in CNS tissue. CD4+ T cells were predominantly located in the olfactory bulb (OB) and in other brain regions that receive direct input from the OB. Together, these findings provide insight into the immunopathology of neuropsychiatric complications that are associated with GAS infections and suggest that crosstalk between the CNS and cellular immunity may be a general mechanism by which infectious agents exacerbate symptoms associated with other CNS autoimmune

2015 The Journal of clinical investigation PubMed

107. Cerebral Blastomycosis: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Solitary CNS Blastomycosis Mass-Like Infection (Full text)

Cerebral Blastomycosis: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Solitary CNS Blastomycosis Mass-Like Infection Blastomycosis is a fungal infection rarely seen in clinical practice. Endemic to the Midwestern United States as well as the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, Blastomyces dermatitidis characteristically involves the skin and lungs. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, although a rare complication of this disease, can be fatal. The current literature on CNS blastomycosis (...) primarily centers on the spectrum of traditional imaging features of T1- and T2-weighted imaging with which this entity can present. However, here we present the direct histopathologic correlation of the imaging findings of solitary mass like CNS blastomycosis, with an emphasis on the association of diffusion restriction within the lesion with a granulomatous immune response.

2015 Journal of clinical imaging science PubMed

108. Bedside Burr Hole for Intracranial Pressure Monitoring Performed by Pediatric Intensivists in Children With CNS Infections in a Resource-Limited Setting: 10-Year Experience at a Single Center. (PubMed)

Bedside Burr Hole for Intracranial Pressure Monitoring Performed by Pediatric Intensivists in Children With CNS Infections in a Resource-Limited Setting: 10-Year Experience at a Single Center. Intracranial pressure monitoring can help in early identification of raised intracranial pressure and in setting more informed goals for treatment. We describe our 10-year experience of bedside burr holes performed by pediatric intensivists to establish intracranial pressure monitoring in children (...) with CNS infections in a resource-limited setting and the technical difficulties and complications encountered.Descriptive study of prospectively recorded data.PICU of a tertiary care academic institute.Consecutive comatose patients with raised intracranial pressure who underwent intracranial pressure monitoring from 2004 to 2013.An intraparenchymal (1.2 mm) or an intraventricular transducer (3.4 mm) (Codman) was placed by a pediatric intensivist through a micro burr hole using a standard protocol

2015 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

109. Respiratory infection with a bacterial pathogen attenuates CNS autoimmunity through IL-10 induction. (Full text)

Respiratory infection with a bacterial pathogen attenuates CNS autoimmunity through IL-10 induction. Infection with viral or bacterial pathogens has been linked with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), while infection with helminth parasites has been associated protection against MS and other autoimmune diseases. Here we have used a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), to examine the effect of infection with the respiratory pathogen Bordetella pertussis (...) infection on development of CNS inflammation. The data demonstrate that infection of mice with B. pertussis significantly attenuates the clinical course of EAE induced by active immunization or cell transfer. This was reflected in a significant reduction in VLA-4 and LFA-1 expression on T cells and infiltration of IL-17(+), IFN-γ(+) and IFN-γ(+)IL-17(+) CD4 T cells into the CNS. Infection with B. pertussis induced IL-10 production from dendritic cells in vitro and enhanced the frequency of IL-10

2015 Brain, behavior, and immunity PubMed

110. CNS infections in 2014: guns, germs, and will (Full text)

CNS infections in 2014: guns, germs, and will 25496889 2015 03 10 2018 11 13 1474-4465 14 1 2015 Jan The Lancet. Neurology Lancet Neurol CNS infections in 2014: Guns, germs, and will. 20-2 10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70293-5 S1474-4422(14)70293-5 Thakur Kiran T KT Division of Neuroinfectious Disease and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. McArthur Justin C JC Division of Neuroinfectious Disease and Neuroimmunology (...) Nervous System Infections diagnosis drug therapy Humans 2014 12 16 6 0 2014 12 17 6 0 2015 3 11 6 0 ppublish 25496889 S1474-4422(14)70293-5 10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70293-5 PMC4419332 NIHMS683986 N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2487-98 24963568 N Engl J Med. 2014 Aug 7;371(6):519-29 25099576 JAMA Neurol. 2014 May;71(5):596-602 24664166 Lancet. 2014 Jan 4;383(9911):40-7 24035220 N Engl J Med. 2014 Aug 7;371(6):530-9 25099577

2015 The Lancet. Neurology PubMed

111. Latent TB infection (LTBI): testing and treatment

Latent TB infection (LTBI): testing and treatment Latent TB infection testing and treatment programme Technical guidance and specification Latent TB infection testing and treatment programme: technical guidance and specification 2 About Public Health England Public Health England exists to protect and improve the nation’s health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities. We do this through world-leading science, knowledge and intelligence, advocacy, partnerships and the delivery (...) PHE publications PHE supports the UN gateway number: GW-404 Sustainable Development Goals Latent TB infection testing and treatment programme: technical guidance and specification 3 Contents About Public Health England 2 1. Background 4 1.1 Programme monitoring 4 1.2 Eligibility 4 1.3 Testing 5 1.4 Treatment 5 2. Aim of document 6 3. Data flow process 7 3.1 Testing data 7 3.2 Community/secondary care/treatment data collection 8 3.3 LTBI data excel template 8 3.4 Laboratory data 8 4. Data extract

2019 Public Health England

112. Vascular Graft Infections, Mycotic Aneurysms, and Endovascular Infections: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (Full text)

streptococci or enterococci have a less virulent course than those with infection caused by S aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci. Infection associated with repair of an aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection usually occurs within 3 months postoperatively and is most often the result of intraoperative contamination with staphylococci or gram-negative microorganisms, including P aeruginosa . Septic emboli can occur in the central nervous system (CNS) or peripherally. Anastomotic rupture can result (...) Vascular Graft Infections, Mycotic Aneurysms, and Endovascular Infections: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Vascular Graft Infections, Mycotic Aneurysms, and Endovascular Infections: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association | Circulation Search Hello Guest! Login to your account Email Password Keep me logged in Search March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 February 2019 February 2019 February 2019 February 2019 January 2019 January

2016 American Heart Association PubMed

113. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cerebral Perfusion Pressure-Targeted Therapy Versus Intracranial Pressure-Targeted Therapy for Raised Intracranial Pressure due to Acute CNS Infections in Children. (PubMed)

Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cerebral Perfusion Pressure-Targeted Therapy Versus Intracranial Pressure-Targeted Therapy for Raised Intracranial Pressure due to Acute CNS Infections in Children. In children with acute CNS infection, management of raised intracranial pressure improves mortality and neuromorbidity. We compared cerebral perfusion pressure-targeted approach with the conventional intracranial pressure-targeted approach to treat raised intracranial pressure (...) in these children.Prospective open-label randomized controlled trial.PICU in a tertiary care academic institute.Hundred ten children (1-12 yr) with acute CNS infections having raised intracranial pressure and a modified Glasgow Coma Scale score less than or equal to 8 were enrolled.Patients were randomized to receive either cerebral perfusion pressure-targeted therapy (n = 55) (maintaining cerebral perfusion pressure ≥ 60 mm Hg, using normal saline bolus and vasoactive therapy-dopamine, and if needed noradrenaline

2014 Critical care medicine

115. Astrocytic TGFβ signaling limits inflammation and reduces neuronal damage during CNS Toxoplasma infection (Full text)

Astrocytic TGFβ signaling limits inflammation and reduces neuronal damage during CNS Toxoplasma infection The balance between controlling infection and limiting inflammation is particularly precarious in the brain because of its unique vulnerability to the toxic effects of inflammation. Astrocytes have been implicated as key regulators of neuroinflammation in CNS infections, including infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that naturally establishes a chronic CNS infection (...) in mice and humans. In CNS toxoplasmosis, astrocytes are critical to controlling parasite growth. They secrete proinflammatory cytokines and physically encircle parasites. However, the molecular mechanisms used by astrocytes to limit neuroinflammation during toxoplasmic encephalitis have not yet been identified. TGF-β signaling in astrocytes is of particular interest because TGF-β is universally upregulated during CNS infection and serves master regulatory and primarily anti-inflammatory functions. We

2014 Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) PubMed

116. Peripheral Neuropathy in Primary HIV Infection Associates with Systemic and CNS Immune Activation (Full text)

Peripheral Neuropathy in Primary HIV Infection Associates with Systemic and CNS Immune Activation Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of chronic HIV infection. We prospectively studied individuals with primary HIV infection (<1 year after transmission) to assess the presence of and laboratory associations with PN in this early stage.Standardized examination and analysis of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was performed in participants with laboratory-confirmed primary HIV (...) infection. PN was defined as ≥1 of the following unilateral or bilateral signs: decreased distal limb position, vibration, or temperature sense or hyporeflexia; symptomatic PN (SPN) was defined as the presence of these signs with symptoms. Analysis used nonparametric statistics.Overall, 20 (35%) of 58 antiretroviral-naive male subjects without diabetes evaluated at a median of 107 days post HIV transmission met criteria for PN. Thirteen (65%) of 20 PN subjects met criteria for SPN; 6 (30%) of 20 had

2014 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) PubMed

117. Exosomes and their role in CNS viral infections (Full text)

Exosomes and their role in CNS viral infections Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles that carry biological macromolecules from the site of production to target sites either in the microenvironment or at distant sites away from the origin. Exosomal content of cells varies with the cell type that produces them as well as environmental factors that alter the normal state of the cell such as viral infection. Human DNA and RNA viruses alter the composition of host proteins as well (...) as incorporate their own viral proteins and other cargo into the secreted exosomes. While numerous viruses can infect various cell types of the CNS and elicit damaging neuropathologies, few have been studied for their exosomal composition, content, and function on recipient cells. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand how DNA and RNA viral infections in CNS control exosomal release. Some of the more recent studies including HIV-1, HTLV-1, and EBV-infected B cells indicate that exosomes from

2014 Journal of neurovirology PubMed

118. Milk quality and milk transformation parameters from infected mammary glands depends on the infecting bacteria species. (Full text)

gland of the cow's milk. Calculation of the predicted 40% dry matter curd weight (PCW) on the cow level, including the healthy and inflamed glands or the healthy glands alone, showed that for 10 of 13 PIEc cows, the presence of the affected gland's milk in the whole cow milk resulted in a lower PCW value. Likewise, 7 of 20 cows infected by S. dysgalactiae had negative delta values. Unlike the latter bacteria, PCW from milk of glands infected with CNS increased, although in a lower magnitude than (...) Milk quality and milk transformation parameters from infected mammary glands depends on the infecting bacteria species. The current study measured the influence of milk of subclinically infected glands by different bacteria species on the cow's milk. The effects of bacterial infection or inflammation on gland milk yield were related to the bacteria species that caused the infection. The volume of milk of the inflamed gland from the cow's milk yield was significantly lower (P<0.001

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed

119. Herpes B virus infection

or tissues. Immediate thorough cleansing of the exposed area combined with antiviral prophylaxis may prevent infection. Untreated infection often leads to CNS disease and death, with a mortality rate of approximately 80%. Early and aggressive antiviral treatment may prevent death. Definition Herpes B virus infection in humans is caused by the zoonotic Macacine herpesvirus 1 (MHV-1), previously known as Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1). It is mainly found in macaque monkeys and they appear to be its (...) Herpes B virus infection Herpes B virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Herpes B virus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: April 2018 Summary Human infection is rare, but often fatal; therefore, prompt management of likely exposure is critical to preventing disease progression. Should be suspected when illness follows exposure to macaque monkeys or their body fluids

2018 BMJ Best Practice

120. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: AUA/CUA/SUFU

Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline (2019) - American Urological Association advertisement Toggle navigation About Us About the AUA Membership AUA Governance Industry Relations Education AUAUniversity Education Products & Resources Normal Histology and Important Histo-anatomic Structures Urinary Bladder Prostate Kidney Renovascular Diseases Andrenal Gland Testis Paratesticular (...) Practice Resources Coding and Reimbursement Practice Managers' Network (PMN) Patient Safety and Quality of Care Accreditations and Reporting Patient Education Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline (2019) Published 2019 [pdf] [pdf] Panel Members Jennifer Anger, MD, MPH; Una Lee, MD; A. Lenore Ackerman, MD, PhD; Roger Chou, MD; Bilal Chughtai, MD; J. Quentin Clemens, MD; Duane Hickling, MD, MSCI; Anil Kapoor, MD; Kimberly S. Kenton, MD, MS; Melissa R. Kaufman

2019 Canadian Urological Association

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