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CNS Infection

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81. Influenza virus infection exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease by promoting type I T cells infiltration into central nervous system. (Abstract)

central nervous system in mice with prior influenza virus infection. Influenza virus infection created a notable inflammatory environment in lung and mediastinal lymph node after influenza virus inoculation, suggesting the lung may constitute an inflammatory niche in which auto-aggressive T cells gain the capacity to enter CNS. Indeed, the early stage of EAE disease was accompanied by increased CCR5+CD4+, CXCR3+CD4+ T cell and MOG35-55 specific CD4+ T cells localized in the lung in influenza virus (...) Influenza virus infection exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease by promoting type I T cells infiltration into central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis starts with increased migration of auto-reactive lymphocytes across the blood-brain barrier, resulting in persistent neurodegeneration. Clinical and epidemiological studies indicated upper respiratory viral infections are associated with clinical exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. However, so far there is no any direct

2017 Journal of Autoimmunity

82. Diagnostic Practices for Suspected Community-Acquired Central Nervous System Infection in the Post-Conjugate Vaccine Era. (Abstract)

Diagnostic Practices for Suspected Community-Acquired Central Nervous System Infection in the Post-Conjugate Vaccine Era. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population.This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected (...) pneumoniae in an unvaccinated 9-year-old child. Viral CNS infection was 7.5 times more frequent than bacterial infection. Enterovirus was the only virus isolated. Five cases positive for NMDAR ab were identified since 2010.Bacterial studies were performed more frequently than viral and other studies. Cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture was nearly 5 times more likely to yield a contaminant than a pathogen. The frequency of viral infection was likely underestimated as only 20% were tested, mainly

2017 Pediatric Emergency Care

83. Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Following Ivermectin Mass Administration: A Descriptive Study Based on the Democratic Republic of Congo Pharmacovigilance System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Following Ivermectin Mass Administration: A Descriptive Study Based on the Democratic Republic of Congo Pharmacovigilance System The mainstay of onchocerciasis control currently is mass administration of ivermectin; however, this may be associated with serious adverse events, including deaths, when administered in areas where onchocerciasis and loiasis are co-endemic.The objective of the current study was to describe the central and peripheral (...) and focused on central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Relevant demographic, clinical, and parasitological data, including age, sex, area of residence, adverse events, and parasite density were extracted. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using Stata 12.A total of 52 ICSRs related to ivermectin intake were available in VigiBase, with 51 (98.1%) from the Province of Equateur. All patients had central and peripheral nervous system disorders; 25 (48.1%) had altered mental status. Of these, 23

2017 Drugs - real world outcomes

84. CRACKCast E109 – CNS Infections

[ ]: Immunocompromised state (eg, HIV infection, immunosuppressive therapy, solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) History of central nervous system (CNS) disease (mass lesion, stroke, or focal infection) New onset seizure (within one week of presentation) Papilledema Abnormal level of consciousness Focal neurologic deficit Patients with these clinical risk factors should have a CT scan to identify a possible mass lesion and other causes of increased intracranial pressure. However, it has been (...) granulomatosis ● Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis ● Rheumatoid arthritis ● Kawasaki’s disease ● Sarcoidosis ● Leptomeningeal cancer ● Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder ● Behçet’s disease ● Vogt-Koyanagi syndrome Parasites ● Toxoplasma gondii ● Neurocysticercosis ● Trichinosis ● Naegleria ● Hartmannella ● Bartonella henselae Neoplastic Disorders ● Leukemia ● Carcinomatous meningitis secondary to primary or secondary tumors of ● the brain Rickettsiae ● Rocky Mountain spotted fever

2017 CandiEM

85. Central nervous system vasculitis: advances in diagnosis. (Abstract)

Central nervous system vasculitis: advances in diagnosis. The main purpose of this review is to present advances in diagnostics of central nervous system vasculitis (CNS-V).Progress in molecular technologies and neuroimaging have added formidably to our knowledge of CNS-V. Next-generation sequencing has the promise to enhance our ability to diagnose, interrogate, and track infectious diseases, making this test attractive and capable of avoiding brain biopsy in cases where CNS infections (...) are suspected. Further the continuum of neuroimaging progress has advanced our ability to diagnose CNS-V. Our capability to visualize the vessel wall have added a great value in differentiating inflammatory from noninflammatory vasculopathies. New genetic variations are being exposed with exome and genome sequences which will aid future diagnosis.We have witnessed tremendous advances in CNS-V mainly by our ability to rule out mimics. Progress in molecular technologies, neuroimaging and genetic studies

2020 Current Opinion in Rheumatology

86. Acute Encephalitis in an Adult with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Secondary Involvement of the Central Nervous System: Infectious or Non-Infectious Etiology? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Encephalitis in an Adult with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Secondary Involvement of the Central Nervous System: Infectious or Non-Infectious Etiology? Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting case (...) of a 61-year-old male with a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL). He presented with acute encephalitis: altered mental status, fever, leukocytosis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiple unchanged brain lesions on computed tomography scan of the head, and EEG showed mild to moderate diffuse slowing with low-moderate polymorphic delta and theta activity. With such a wide range of symptoms, the differential diagnosis included

2017 Journal of clinical medicine

87. Efficacy and safety of daptomycin for the treatment for bacterial central nervous system infections: a systematic review

Efficacy and safety of daptomycin for the treatment for bacterial central nervous system infections: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence

2018 PROSPERO

88. Early Systemic Central Nervous System Prophylaxis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

(Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Early Systemic Central Nervous System Prophylaxis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Estimated Study Start Date : July 1, 2019 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2022 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2025 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: resources: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: CNS prophylaxis protocol Patients (...) Early Systemic Central Nervous System Prophylaxis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Early Systemic Central Nervous System Prophylaxis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before

2018 Clinical Trials

89. Infectious immunity in the central nervous system and brain function Full Text available with Trip Pro

Infectious immunity in the central nervous system and brain function Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed (...) to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival. In this Review we explore inflammatory processes underlying neurological impairments caused by CNS infection and discuss their potential links to established mechanisms of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

2017 Nature immunology

90. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in infectious and noninfectious central nervous system disease: A retrospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in infectious and noninfectious central nervous system disease: A retrospective cohort study. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most important tool for assessing central nervous system (CNS) disease. An elevated CSF leukocyte count rarely provides the final diagnosis, but is almost always an indicator of inflammation within the CNS.The present study investigated the variety of diseases associated with CSF pleocytosis.CSF analyses were identified through (...) , besides unknown causes. Infections were the most common cause of CSF pleocytosis (61.4%) followed by miscellaneous causes (12.7%), vascular (9.7%), neurodegenerative (7%), neoplastic (5%), and inflammatory conditions (4.2%). Only infections presented with leukocyte counts >10,000 × 10/L. Infections represented 82.6% of all cases with a leukocyte count >100 × 10/L whereas 56.3% of cases with at leukocyte counts <100 × 10/L were dominated by disease not related to infection.The present study may serve

2017 Medicine

92. Both Cerebral and Hematopoietic Deficiencies in CCR2 Result in Uncontrolled Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System in Mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Both Cerebral and Hematopoietic Deficiencies in CCR2 Result in Uncontrolled Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System in Mice. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several (...) (42.8%; P = 0.16). Both peripheral and CNS deficiencies in CCR2 resulted in increased infectious viral titers and wider dissemination of HSV antigens in the brain as well as an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. Furthermore, CCR2 deficiency in the hematopoietic system altered monocytes egress from the BM and their recruitment to the CNS, which may contribute to the failure in HSV-1 containment. Collectively, these data suggest

2016 PLoS ONE

93. Diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma via cerebrospinal fluid cytology: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma via cerebrospinal fluid cytology: a case report. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is the most prevalent brain, spinal cord, eyes, and leptomeningeal lymphoma. It is often misdiagnosed due to an unspecific presentation or unavailable biopsy and results in a poor prognosis. Although the craniocerebral imaging examination of PCNSL has some characteristics, it is limited, and atypical cases are especially difficult to identify (...) with intracranial tumours and other diseases. The biopsy, as the gold standard for PCNSL diagnosis, is not eligible for all patients suspected of having PCNSL.This report documents a woman who presented with a three-month history of numbness and weakness in the right leg. She was treated with drugs at a local hospital for one month. She developed demyelination lesions and her symptoms were aggravated. The patient was admitted to the Department of Nerve Infection and Immunology at Tiantan Hospital. Head magnetic

2019 BMC Neurology

94. A Higher Mediterranean Diet Score, Including Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Central Nervous System Demyelination in a Case-Control Study of Australian Adults. (Abstract)

A Higher Mediterranean Diet Score, Including Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Central Nervous System Demyelination in a Case-Control Study of Australian Adults. The evidence associating diet and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is inconclusive.The aim of this study was to investigate associations between a Mediterranean diet and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), a common precursor to MS.We used data from the 2003-2006 (...) . Conditional logistic regression (254 cases, 451 controls) was used to test associations between aMED and aMED-Red scores and categories and risk of FCD, adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, smoking, education, total energy intake, and dietary underreporting.There was no statistically significant association between aMED and risk of FCD [per 1-SD increase in aMED score: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.89; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.06; P = 0.181

2019 Journal of Nutrition

95. Central nervous system emergencies in haematological malignancies. (Abstract)

Central nervous system emergencies in haematological malignancies. Neurological emergencies are frequently catastrophic events in the course of haematological malignancies (HM) that, if not promptly recognized and treated, may lead to lethal outcomes or chronic sequelae. They may occur at any time during the disease course, but are more frequently observed following relapse. Practice guidelines are lacking in the management of most central nervous system (CNS) complications in HM. Herein we (...) review the pathophysiology, presentation and treatment of elevated intracranial pressure, spinal cord compression, status epilepticus, neurovascular complications, CNS infection, leucostasis and hyperviscosity. Further, we discuss the expanding spectrum of neurological complications of old and novel treatments in HM.© 2019 British Society for Haematology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2019 British journal of haematology

96. Amphotericin B Penetrates into the Central Nervous System Through Focal Disruption of the Blood Brain Barrier in Experimental Hematogenous <i>Candida</i> Meningoencephalitis. (Abstract)

Amphotericin B Penetrates into the Central Nervous System Through Focal Disruption of the Blood Brain Barrier in Experimental Hematogenous Candida Meningoencephalitis. Hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis (HCME) is a life-threatening complication of neonates and immunocompromised children. Amphotericin B (AmB) shows poor permeability and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, but is effective in treatment of HCME. In order to better understand the mechanism of CNS penetration (...) of AmB, we hypothesized that AmB may achieve focally higher concentrations in infected CNS lesions. An in vitro BBB model was serially infected with C. albicans. Liposomal AmB (LAMB) or deoxycholate AmB (DAMB) at 5 μg/ml were then provided, vascular and CNS compartments were sampled 4h later. For in vivo correlation, rabbits with experimental HCME received a single dose of DAMB 1 mg/kg or LAMB 5 mg/kg, and were euthanized after 1, 3, 6 and 24h. Evans blue solution (2%) 2 ml/kg administered IV one

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

97. Molecular tumor analysis and liquid biopsy: a feasibility investigation analyzing circulating tumor DNA in patients with central nervous system lymphomas. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular tumor analysis and liquid biopsy: a feasibility investigation analyzing circulating tumor DNA in patients with central nervous system lymphomas. Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSL) is a devastating disease. Currently, a confirmatory biopsy is required prior to treatment.Our investigation aims to prove the feasibility of a minimally-invasive diagnostic approach for the molecular characterization of CNSL.Tissue biopsies from 6 patients with suspected CNSL were analyzed using (...) without complications, whereas biopsy caused 3 hemorrhages.Our investigation provides evidence that analysis of cfDNA in central nervous system tumors is feasible using the described protocol. Molecular characterization of CNSL could be achieved by analysis of CSF-derived cfDNA. Knowledge of a tumor's specific mutation pattern may allow initiation of targeted therapies, treatment surveillance and could lead to minimally-invasive diagnostics in the future.

2019 BMC Cancer

98. Role of chemotherapy additional to high-dose methotrexate for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). (Abstract)

Role of chemotherapy additional to high-dose methotrexate for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a variant of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that accounts for about 2% to 5% of all primary intracranial tumours with immunocompetent patients. It appears at a median age of 62 years. A standard of care for PCNSL patients has not been defined yet, but high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is considered to be a beneficial chemotherapy (...) in PCNSL treatment. Currently, HD-MTX is combined with numerous other chemotherapy drugs to improve outcomes of HD-MTX monotherapy. However, the impact of additional chemotherapy remains unclear, as there is evidence of a higher risk of adverse events (AEs) such as infective complications.We performed a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of additional chemotherapy to HD-MTX in the treatment of immunocompetent PCNSL patients.We searched

2012 Cochrane

99. CNS infections in HIV. (Abstract)

CNS infections in HIV. Central nervous system (CNS) infections associated with HIV remain significant contributors to morbidity and mortality, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH) in resource-limited settings worldwide. In this review, we discuss several recent important scientific discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and management around two of the major causes of CNS opportunistic infections-tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis including immune (...) reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) associated with cryptococcal meningitis. We also discuss the CNS as a possible viral reservoir, highlighting Cerebrospinal fluid viral escape.CNS infections in HIV-positive people in sub-Saharan Africa contribute to 15-25% of AIDS-related deaths. Morbidity and mortality in those is associated with delays in HIV diagnosis, lack of availability for antimicrobial treatment, and risk of CNS IRIS. The CNS may serve as a reservoir for replication, though it is unclear whether

2020 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

100. Central nervous system involvement in rheumatoid arthritis patients and the potential implications of using biological agents. (Abstract)

Central nervous system involvement in rheumatoid arthritis patients and the potential implications of using biological agents. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is quite unusual in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although cerebral vasculitis, rheumatoid nodules and meningitis have all been reported, and patients with RA may also have CNS comorbidities such as stroke and neuro-degenerative and demyelinating syndromes. It has been found that biological drugs, especially anti (...) undergoing biological treatment (anti-TNF or non-anti-TNF drugs), the Medline database was searched using the key words 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'central nervous system', 'anti-TNF', 'abatacept', 'tocilizumab', 'rituximab' and 'anakinra'. Abstracts not in English were excluded. We selected 76 articles published between 1989 and 2017, which were divided into four groups on the basis of whether CNS involvement was RA-related or not and according to the type of biological agent used (TNF inhibitors or other

2018 Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology

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