How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

34,034 results for

CNS Infection

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

21. Risk of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected persons with syphilis lacking signs or symptoms of central nervous system infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Risk of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected persons with syphilis lacking signs or symptoms of central nervous system infection. People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of asymptomatic neurosyphilis; thus, it has been common practice to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in all PLWH presenting with syphilis regardless of stage, signs or symptoms. However, this practice varies widely among clinicians. Our objective was to elucidate the number of LPs required to diagnose a single case (...) count (P = 0.0007), high rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre (P = 0.019) and lack of HIV virological suppression (P = 0.003). The majority of our subjects (78%) with neurosyphilis presented with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. We estimate, if standard practice is to perform LP in all patients, that the number needed to test (NNTT) = 38.This large number of potentially unnecessary LPs, along with heterogeneity of presentation, and the never-nil risk of asymptomatic neurosyphilis should

2018 HIV medicine

22. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the central nervous system of naturally infected dogs: Parasite load, viability, co-infections and histological alterations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the central nervous system of naturally infected dogs: Parasite load, viability, co-infections and histological alterations. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and little is known about the occurrence and pathogenesis of this parasite in the CNS. The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence, viability and load of L. infantum in the CNS, and to identify the neurological histological alterations associated (...) . Amastigote forms were associated with granulomatous non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in a dog without evidence of co-infections. The highest frequency of L. infantum DNA was observed in the brain (98%), followed by the spinal cord (96%), spleen (95%), and CSF (50%). The highest L. infantum load in CNS was found in the spinal cord. These results demonstrate that L. infantum can cross the blood-brain barrier, spread through CSF, and cause active infection in the entire CNS of dogs. Additionally, L

2017 PLoS ONE

23. Utility of Clinical and Laboratory Decision Rules in Identifying Bacterial Meningitis Among Children With suspicion of Central Nervous System Infections in a Malaria-Endemic Area, Mbarara Uganda. (Abstract)

Utility of Clinical and Laboratory Decision Rules in Identifying Bacterial Meningitis Among Children With suspicion of Central Nervous System Infections in a Malaria-Endemic Area, Mbarara Uganda. Several decision rules combining clinical and biological parameters have been proposed to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis, but have not been evaluated in Africa. In children hospitalized with suspected central nervous system infections in Uganda, we found that the Bacterial Meningitis

2018 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

24. Prospective study evaluating post-operative central nervous system infections following cranial surgery. (Abstract)

Prospective study evaluating post-operative central nervous system infections following cranial surgery. To evaluate the efficacy of our methods for decreasing the incidence of post-operative central nervous system infections (PCNSI) and to assess the type of microbiology and risk factors associated with PCNSI.This prospective study was performed at First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, which is a major medical centre in eastern China. The study included adult (...) infection rates in our department.A total of 1,616 cranial surgery procedures were assessed in the present study; 1,236 craniotomy/craniectomy operations and 380 cranial burr-hole surgery operations. Of these procedures, 29 were complicated by PCNSI (27 cases with meningitis/ventriculitis and two with intracranial abscess/empyema). The overall incidence of PCNSI was 1.8%, while the incidence of craniotomy/craniectomy operations was 2.0% (25 cases) and that of burr-hole surgery operations was 1.1% (four

2018 British Journal of Neurosurgery

25. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in children with central nervous system disorders in Mansoura, Egypt: a case-control study. (Abstract)

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in children with central nervous system disorders in Mansoura, Egypt: a case-control study. Toxoplasma gondii is a global infection with a crucial role in the development of neurological diseases. Data concerning the association between T. gondii and neurological illnesses in Egyptian children is scarce.A case-control study was conducted on 60 patients divided into children suffering from central nervous system manifestations without apparent (...) -syndromic children, followed by Down syndrome, compared with controls (p≤0.001). Statistically significant (p=0.05) associations were found between Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity and hydrocephalus and between Toxoplasma IgM and a history of contact with farm animals, soil and cats in children with Down syndrome.The association between Toxoplasma infection and neurological disorders in children should be kept in mind by paediatricians and assessment of T. gondii antibodies in early childhood is needed

2018 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

26. Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997–2010 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997–2010 Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam.Data and specimens from (...) prospective observational clinical studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were used. Species and serotypes were determined using type-specific RT-PCR and viral protein 1 or 4 (VP1, VP4) sequencing.Samples from patients with CNS infection (51 children - 10 CSF and 41 respiratory/rectal swabs) and 28 adults (28 CSF) and respiratory infection (124 children - 124 respiratory swabs) were analysed. Twenty-six different serotypes of the four Enterovirus species (A-D) were identified, including EV-A71 and EV-D68

2018 Virology journal

27. Rat Lungworm Infection Associated with Central Nervous System Disease — Eight U.S. States, January 2011–January 2017 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rat Lungworm Infection Associated with Central Nervous System Disease — Eight U.S. States, January 2011–January 2017 Angiostrongyliasis is caused by infection and migration to the brain of larvae of the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, or rat lungworm. Adult A. cantonensis reside in the lungs of the definitive wild rodent host, where they produce larvae passed in feces, which are then ingested by snails and slugs (gastropods). Human infection typically occurs when gastropods (...) containing mature larvae are inadvertently ingested by humans. Although human infection often is asymptomatic or involves transient mild symptoms, larval migration to the brain can lead to eosinophilic meningitis, focal neurologic deficits, coma, and death. The majority of cases of human angiostrongyliasis occur in Asia and the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii, but autochthonous and imported cases have been reported in the continental United States (1,2), underscoring the importance of provider

2018 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

28. Device-associated Central Nervous System Infection Caused by Candida parapsilosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Device-associated Central Nervous System Infection Caused by Candida parapsilosis Meningitis is a common and life-threatening infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in infants with long-term and disabling sequelae like hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is treated by diverting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) either to another body cavity (via CSF shunt) or externally (via CSF drain) which are prone to infection. Though rare, Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) is a known pathogen in device (...) -associated CNS infections and has been reported in both, infants and adults. A six-month-old male infant was brought to the hospital with disproportionate head enlargement of three months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of gross asymmetrical hydrocephalus. An external ventricular drain (EVD) was placed, and vancomycin and meropenem were started. Four weeks later, he developed a fever with a blocked EVD. Repeat MRI revealed gross asymmetric dilatation of left lateral ventricle

2018 Cureus

29. Dual TLR2/9 Recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Is Required for Recruitment and Activation of Monocytes and NK Cells and Restriction of Viral Dissemination to the Central Nervous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dual TLR2/9 Recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Is Required for Recruitment and Activation of Monocytes and NK Cells and Restriction of Viral Dissemination to the Central Nervous System The importance of TLR2 and TLR9 in the recognition of infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and HSV-caused diseases has been described, but some discrepancies remain concerning the benefits of these responses. Moreover, the impact of TLR2/9 on innate and adaptive immune responses within relevant (...) mucosal tissues has not been elucidated using natural mucosal infection model of HSV. Here, we demonstrate that dual TLR2/9 recognition is essential to provide resistance against mucosal infection with HSV via an intravaginal route. Dual TLR2/9 ablation resulted in the highly enhanced mortality with exacerbated symptoms of encephalitis compared with TLR2 or TLR9 deficiency alone, coinciding with highly increased viral load in central nervous system tissues. TLR2 appeared to play a minor role

2018 Frontiers in immunology

30. Cerebrospinal Fluid Presepsin As a Marker of Nosocomial Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Prospective Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebrospinal Fluid Presepsin As a Marker of Nosocomial Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Prospective Observational Study Nosocomial CNS infection (NI-CNS) is a common and serious complication in neurocritical care patients. Timely, accurate diagnosis of NI-CNS is crucial, yet current infection markers lack specificity and/or sensitivity. Presepsin (PSP) is a novel biomarker of macrophage activation. Its utility in NI-CNS has not been explored. We first determined the normal range (...) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PSP in a control group without brain injury before collecting data on CSF PSP levels in neurocritical care patients. Samples were analyzed in four groups defined by systemic and neurological infection status.CSF PSP levels in 15 control patients without neurological injury were 50-100 pg/ml. Ninety-seven CSF samples were collected from 21 neurocritical care patients. In patients without NI-CNS or systemic infection, CSF PSP was 340.4 ± 201.1 pg/ml. Isolated NI-CNS was associated

2018 Frontiers in neurology

31. Mast Cells Are Activated by Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro but Dispensable for the Host Defense Against Pneumococcal Central Nervous System Infection In Vivo Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mast Cells Are Activated by Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro but Dispensable for the Host Defense Against Pneumococcal Central Nervous System Infection In Vivo Mast cells reside on and near the cerebral vasculature, the predominant site of pneumococcal entry into the central nervous system (CNS). Although mast cells have been reported to be crucial in protecting from systemic bacterial infections, their role in bacterial infections of the CNS remained elusive. Here, we assessed the role (...) of mast cells in pneumococcal infection in vitro and in vivo. In introductory experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), we found that (i) BMMC degranulate and release selected cytokines upon exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae, (ii) the response of BMMC varies between different pneumococcal serotypes and (iii) is dependent on pneumolysin. Intriguingly though, apart from a slight enhancement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, neither two different mast cell-deficient Kit

2018 Frontiers in immunology

32. Streptococcus pyogenes and invasive central nervous system infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Streptococcus pyogenes and invasive central nervous system infection Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic bacteria, also known as group A streptococci, that causes a range of infections. The most common presentation is acute pharyngitis; however, it is also implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, and less commonly bacteremia, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, otitis media and sinusitis. Group A streptococci infections of the central nervous system are exceedingly rare (...) in the antibiotic era. The mechanism of infection is typically contiguous spread from existing infection or via direct inoculation. We present a case of an 81-year-old female with a past medical history of dementia, transient ischemic attacks, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, descending thoracic aortic aneurysm status post-stent placement in 2008, hepatitis C and hyperlipidemia who initially presented after being found unresponsive at home. Her initial symptoms were primarily of altered mentation

2018 SAGE Open Medical Case Reports

33. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection of Central Nervous System, Guiana Shield. We report a case of eosinophilic meningitis complicated by transverse myelitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in a 10-year-old boy from Brazil who had traveled to Suriname. We confirmed diagnosis by serology and real-time PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid. The medical community should be aware of angiostrongyliasis in the Guiana Shield.

2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

34. Accuracy of Herpes Simplex Virus Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of the Blood for Central Nervous System Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Infants. (Abstract)

Accuracy of Herpes Simplex Virus Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of the Blood for Central Nervous System Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Infants. There were 1038 infants with herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction testing performed of blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens. There were 21 (2.0%) with a positive cerebrospinal fluid PCR, of whom 16 also had a positive blood PCR (sensitivity 76%; 95% CI, 53%-92%). Blood PCR cannot exclude herpes simplex virus central nervous system

2018 Journal of Pediatrics

35. Complex Febrile Seizures, Lumbar Puncture, and Central Nervous System Infections: a National Perspective. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Complex Febrile Seizures, Lumbar Puncture, and Central Nervous System Infections: a National Perspective. The objective was to determine the national lumbar puncture (LP) practice patterns relative to the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infections among children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with complex febrile seizures (CFS).This was a retrospective study of ED visits for CFS from 2007 to 2014 in patients aged 0 to 5 years using a national sample. Primary outcomes (...) include the frequency of LP, incidence of CNS infections, and ED disposition.Of 28,810 ED visits for CFS (44.4% female; mean age = 1.39 years), LP was performed in 7,445 (25.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.5%-28.2%). There was no significant difference in the proportion due to hospital teaching status or geographical region. The proportion decreased from 31.4% to 17.8% over the study period (Rao-Scott statistic = 5.85, p < 0.001). CNS infection was diagnosed in 80 (0.3%) encounters (95% CI = 41

2018 Academic Emergency Medicine

36. Association between reported aetiology of central nervous system infections and the speciality of study investigators-a bias compartmental syndrome? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association between reported aetiology of central nervous system infections and the speciality of study investigators-a bias compartmental syndrome? Conventional descriptions of central nervous system (CNS) infections are variably categorized into clinical syndromes for patient investigation, management and research. Aetiologies of the most commonly recognized syndromes, encephalitis and meningitis, tend to be attributed predominantly to viruses and bacteria, respectively.A systematic review (...) was performed of aetiological studies of CNS syndromes and data extracted on reported author specialities.The analysis identified an association between the author's speciality and the CNS syndrome studied, with a tendency for virologists to study encephalitis and microbiologists to study meningitis.We suggest there is bias in study design. Stronger multidisciplinary collaboration in CNS infection research is needed.

2018 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

37. Impact of Cerebrospinal Fluid Multiplex Assay on Diagnosis and Outcomes of Central Nervous System Infections in Children: A Before and After Cohort Study. (Abstract)

Impact of Cerebrospinal Fluid Multiplex Assay on Diagnosis and Outcomes of Central Nervous System Infections in Children: A Before and After Cohort Study. This study evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid multiplex assay in the diagnosis of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) infection, and assessed for the effect on clinical management.A 15-month prospective cohort of pediatric patients with confirmed CNS infection was compared with a 15-month retrospective cohort from the Top End (...) region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The study characterized all the CNS infections over the 30-month period and compared the time to organism identification and antibiotic management before and after the introduction of the multiplex assay.Thirty-six cases of pediatric CNS infection were diagnosed before the introduction of the multiplex assay, and 29 afterwards. Multiplex assay was performed on 26/29 (90%) of the cerebrospinal fluid isolates from children with confirmed CNS infections

2018 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

38. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in central nervous system infections. (Abstract)

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in central nervous system infections. The barriers surrounding the central nervous system (CNS) together with the emergence of multiresistant pathogens pose a therapeutic challenge for the effective treatment of CNS infections.In addition to vancomycin, colistin and aminoglycosides, classically used for intrathecal injection, drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid after intrathecal injection of daptomycin and tigecyclin were recently (...) studied.The entry of antiinfectives into the CNS compartments is determined by the physicochemical properties of the drug and by conditions in the host. The most important drug properties are lipophilicity at a neutral pH, molecular mass and drug binding to serum proteins. In clinical practice, active transport is of importance only for some drugs. In recent years, intrathecal injection of antiinfectives in addition to systemic therapy has regained attention as a means to achieve high cerebrospinal fluid

2018 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

39. Zika Virus Fatally Infects Wild Type Neonatal Mice and Replicates in Central Nervous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

in a viral dose-dependent manner. The size and weight of the brain were significantly reduced, and the ZIKV-infected mice showed neuronal symptoms such as hind-limb paralysis, tremor, and poor balance during walking. Pathologic and immunofluorescent experiments revealed that ZIKV infected different areas of the central nervous system (CNS) including gray matter, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord, but not olfactory bulb. Interestingly, ZIKV replicated in multiple organs and resulted (...) Zika Virus Fatally Infects Wild Type Neonatal Mice and Replicates in Central Nervous System Zika virus (ZIKV) has been defined as a teratogenic pathogen behind the increased number of cases of microcephaly in French Polynesia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, and other South American countries. Experimental studies using animal models have achieved tremendous insight into understanding the viral pathogenesis, transmission, teratogenic mechanisms, and virus-host interactions. However, the animals used

2018 Viruses

40. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most (...) of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide

2018 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>