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CNS Infection

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181. CSF extracellular vesicles and neurofilament light protein as biomarkers of CNS injury in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

CSF extracellular vesicles and neurofilament light protein as biomarkers of CNS injury in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Here, we characterize CSF extracellular vesicles and their association with central nervous system (CNS) injury related biomarkers [neurofilament light (NFL), S100B, neopterin] and NCI in HIV-positive individuals (...) , suggesting potential applications as novel biomarkers of CNS injury.

2018 AIDS

182. CNS infection and immune privilege. (Abstract)

immune privilege in the CNS, where they are largely protected from the peripheral immune system. Thus, some pathogens can persist as latent infections and later be reactivated. We review the consequences of immune privilege in the context of CNS infections and ask whether immune privilege may provide protection for certain pathogens and promote their latency. (...) CNS infection and immune privilege. Classically, the CNS is described as displaying immune privilege, as it shows attenuated responses to challenge by alloantigen. However, the CNS does show local inflammation in response to infection. Although pathogen access to the brain parenchyma and retina is generally restricted by physiological and immunological barriers, certain pathogens may breach these barriers. In the CNS, such pathogens may either cause devastating inflammation or benefit from

2018 Nature reviews. Neuroscience

183. miR-1303 regulates BBB permeability and promotes CNS lesions following CA16 infections by directly targeting MMP9 Full Text available with Trip Pro

miR-1303 regulates BBB permeability and promotes CNS lesions following CA16 infections by directly targeting MMP9 Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. CA16 infection can also progress to central nervous system (CNS) complications; however, the underlying mechanism by which CA16 penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then causes CNS damage remains unclear (...) , we used dual-luciferase, qRT-PCR, and western blot assays to provide evidence of MMP9 targeting by miR-1303. Further experiments revealed that CA16 infection promoted the degradation of junctional complexes (Claudin4, Claudin5, VE-Cadherin, and ZO-1), likely by downregulating miR-1303 and upregulating MMP9. Finally, EGFP-CA16 infection could enter the CNS by facilitating the degradation of junctional complexes, eventually causing neuroinflammation and injury to the CNS, which was confirmed using

2018 Emerging Microbes & Infections

184. Generation of three-dimensional human neuronal cultures: application to modeling CNS viral infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

Generation of three-dimensional human neuronal cultures: application to modeling CNS viral infections A variety of neurological disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and infection by neurotropic viruses can cause structural and functional changes in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in long-term neurological sequelae. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders is important for developing efficacious interventions. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (...) (hiPSCs) offer an extraordinary window for modeling pathogen-CNS interactions, and other cellular interactions, in three-dimensional (3D) neuronal cultures that can recapitulate several aspects of in vivo brain tissue.Herein, we describe a prototype of scaffold-free hiPSC-based adherent 3D (A-3D) human neuronal cultures in 96-well plates. To test their suitability for drug screening, A-3D neuronal cultures were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) with or without acyclovir.The half

2018 Stem cell research & therapy

185. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections of the CNS. (Abstract)

Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections of the CNS. Fungal infections of the CNS are challenging to treat and their optimal management requires knowledge of their epidemiology, host characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic options. Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species predominate among fungal infections of the CNS. Most of these fungi are ubiquitous, but some have restricted geographical distribution. Fungal infections of the CNS usually originate from primary (...) sites outside the CNS (eg, fungal pneumonia) or occur after inoculation (eg, invasive procedures). Most patients with these infections have immunodeficiencies, but immunocompetent individuals can also be infected through heavy exposure. The infecting fungi can be grouped into moulds, yeasts, and dimorphic fungi. Substantial progress has been made with new diagnostic approaches and the introduction of novel antifungal drugs, but fungal infections of the CNS are frequently lethal because of diagnostic

2018 Lancet Neurology

186. CNS Infections Effect on the Inner Ear

: The present proposal aims to improve the outcome from central nervous system infections (CNS) by improving the understanding of when and why patients develop hearing loss and other neurological sequelae. The investigators will elucidate the temporal development and restitution of a sensorineural hearing loss and will clarify if any therapeutic window exists, where sequelae can be limited. Also the investigators will investigate if communication between cochlea and cerebrospinal fluid is a window (...) information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Infection Communicable Diseases Inflammation Hearing Loss Deafness Hearing Loss, Sensorineural Central Nervous System Infections Otitis Labyrinthitis Pathologic Processes Hearing Disorders Ear Diseases Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases Sensation Disorders Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms Central Nervous System

2018 Clinical Trials

187. Association between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and CNS Infection Risk: A Retrospective Cohort Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and CNS Infection Risk: A Retrospective Cohort Study This study investigated the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection following the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Taiwan by using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified and enrolled 16,241 patients with CNS infection who used PPIs (PPI users). The patients were individually propensity score matched (1 (...) :1) according to age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), H2 blocker, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid, and immunosuppressant use with 16,241 controls (PPI nonusers). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for CNS infection in the PPI users and nonusers. After adjustment for other confounding factors, the incidence of CNS infection in the PPI users was 2.23-fold higher than that in the PPI

2018 Journal of clinical medicine

188. CNS infections in Greenland: A nationwide register-based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

CNS infections in Greenland: A nationwide register-based cohort study. Indigenous Arctic people suffer from high rates of infectious diseases. However, the burden of central nervous system (CNS) infections is poorly documented. This study aimed to estimate incidence rates and mortality of CNS infections among Inuits and non-Inuits in Greenland and in Denmark.We conducted a nationwide cohort study using the populations of Greenland and Denmark 1990-2012. Information on CNS infection (...) hospitalizations and pathogens was retrieved from national registries and laboratories. Incidence rates were estimated as cases per 100,000 person-years. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using log-linear Poisson-regression. Mortality was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Log Rank test.The incidence rate of CNS infections was twice as high in Greenland (35.6 per 100,000 person years) as in Denmark (17.7 per 100,000 person years), but equally high among Inuits in Greenland and Denmark (38.2 and 35.4

2017 PLoS ONE

189. Cytochrome 2B6 polymorphism and efavirenz-induced central nervous system symptoms : a substudy of the ANRS ALIZE trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cytochrome 2B6 polymorphism and efavirenz-induced central nervous system symptoms : a substudy of the ANRS ALIZE trial. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 gene have been associated with high interindividual variation in efavirenz pharmacokinetics. However, clinical data on the relationship of CYP2B6 polymorphisms with the occurrence of efavirenz-induced central nervous system (CNS) symptoms are limited.We analysed four polymorphisms in the CYP2B6 (516 G>T), CYP3A5 (...) (6986 A>G) and ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1 (ABCB1) (2677 G>T/A and 3435 C>T) genes in HIV-infected adults virologically suppressed on a protease inhibitor-based regimen who switched to a regimen containing emtricitabine, didanosine and efavirenz in the setting of the ANRS ALIZE trial. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression analysis were used to investigate their association with efavirenz plasma levels and CNS events up to 48 months after switching.In total, 191 patients

2017 HIV medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

190. Microglia at center stage: a comprehensive review about the versatile and unique residential macrophages of the central nervous system Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microglia at center stage: a comprehensive review about the versatile and unique residential macrophages of the central nervous system Microglia cells are the unique residential macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). They have a special origin, as they derive from the embryonic yolk sac and enter the developing CNS at a very early stage. They play an important role during CNS development and adult homeostasis. They have a major contribution to adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation (...) . Thus, they participate in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and contribute to aging. They play an important role in sustaining and breaking the blood-brain barrier. As innate immune cells, they contribute substantially to the immune response against infectious agents affecting the CNS. They play also a major role in the growth of tumours of the CNS. Microglia are consequently the key cell population linking the nervous and the immune system. This review covers all different aspects

2017 Oncotarget

191. Central nervous system transcriptome of Biomphalaria alexandrina, an intermediate host for schistosomiasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Central nervous system transcriptome of Biomphalaria alexandrina, an intermediate host for schistosomiasis Globally, more than 200 million people live at risk of the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis (or snail fever). Larval schistosomes require the presence of specific snail species that act as intermediate hosts, supporting their multiplication and transformation into forms that can infect humans. This project was designed to generate a transcriptome from the central nervous system (...) (CNS) of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt.A transcriptome was generated from five pooled central nervous systems dissected from uninfected specimens of B. alexandrina. Raw Illumina RNA-seq data (~ 20.3 million paired end reads of 150 base pairs length each) generated a transcriptome consisting of 144,213 transcript elements with an N50 contig size of 716 base pairs. Orthologs of 15,246 transcripts and homologs for an additional 16,810

2017 BMC research notes

192. Pulmonary edema following central nervous system lesions induced by a non- mouse-adapted EV71 strain in neonatal BALB/c mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

model and further explore the underlying association of central nervous system (CNS) invasion with pulmonary edema, we isolated a clinical source EV71 strain (ZZ1350) from a severe case in Henan Province.We evaluated the cytotoxicity of ZZ1350 strain and the susceptibility in 3-day-old BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal, intracerebral and intramuscular inoculation. Various histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to determine the target organs or tissue damage after infection (...) Pulmonary edema following central nervous system lesions induced by a non- mouse-adapted EV71 strain in neonatal BALB/c mice Enterovirus (EV) infection has been a serious health issue in Asia-Pacific region. It has been indicated that the occurrence of fatal hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases following EV71 infection is mainly attributed to pulmonary edema. However, the development of pulmonary disorders after EV71 infection remains largely unknown. To establish an EV71-infected animal

2017 Virology journal

193. Incidence and outcomes of primary central nervous system lymphoma in solid organ transplant recipients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence and outcomes of primary central nervous system lymphoma in solid organ transplant recipients. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) risk is greatly increased in immunosuppressed human immunodeficiency virus-infected people. Using data from the US transplant registry linked with 17 cancer registries (1987-2014), we studied PCNSL and systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in 288 029 solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant recipients had elevated incidence for PCNSL compared (...) with the general population (standardized incidence ratio = 65.1; N = 168), and this elevation was stronger than for systemic NHL (standardized incidence ratio=11.5; N = 2043). Compared to kidney recipients, PCNSL incidence was lower in liver recipients (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 0.52), similar in heart and/or lung recipients, and higher in other/multiple organ recipients (aIRR = 2.45). PCNSL incidence was higher in Asians/Pacific Islanders than non-Hispanic whites (aIRR = 2.09); after induction

2017 American Journal of Transplantation

194. In utero negativization of Zika virus in a case with serious Central Nervous System abnormalities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In utero negativization of Zika virus in a case with serious Central Nervous System abnormalities. We describe a case of a pregnant woman with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and a foetus with severe brain malformations. ZIKV tested positive in amniotic fluid at 19 weeks but was negative at delivery. The newborn did not meet the case definition of congenital ZIKV syndrome because neither ZIKV RNA nor IgM antibodies were detected; however, prenatal brain lesions were confirmed after birth (Graphical (...) Abstract).Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2017 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

195. Infant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis with First-episode of Intracranial Hemorrhage: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Infant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis with First-episode of Intracranial Hemorrhage: A case report. Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis has the characteristics of multifocality, polymorphism, and coexistence of pathological types, and missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis frequently occur at the initial stage. The thesis reports a rare case of infant infection of CNS aspergillosis with the first-episode of intracranial hemorrhage.An 11-month-old female infant suffered convulsion (...) (GM) antigen in CSF counted 3.0, higher than that in BALF which counted 2.6, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple ring reinforced tubercles in sulci. Hence it was clinically diagnosed with CNS aspergillosis.Voriconazole for intravenous injection. After the intravenous injection, its trough concentration was 4.2 μg/mL, and it was within the recommended range.After one week's treatment with voriconazole, the infant's consciousness was improved. Four weeks later

2017 Medicine

196. Effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells of the central nervous system Full Text available with Trip Pro

mediators that were induced by Bb. Dexamethasone also inhibited the formation of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and demyelinating lesions in the brain and spinal cord of these animals. In contrast, these signs were evident in the infected animals that were left untreated or in those that were treated with meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.To address the differential anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam in the central nervous system (CNS), we evaluated the potential (...) Effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells of the central nervous system Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone significantly reduced both pleocytosis and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune

2017 Journal of neuroinflammation

197. Myeloid and T Cell-Derived TNF Protects against Central Nervous System Tuberculosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Myeloid and T Cell-Derived TNF Protects against Central Nervous System Tuberculosis Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is a devastating complication of tuberculosis, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for innate immunity and controlling the infection. TNF is produced by many cell types upon activation, in particularly the myeloid and T cells during neuroinflammation. Here we used mice with TNF ablation targeted to myeloid and T cell (MT-TNF-/-) to assess (...) the contribution of myeloid and T cell-derived TNF in immune responses during CNS-TB. These mice exhibited impaired innate immunity and high susceptibility to cerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, a similar phenotype to complete TNF-deficient mice. Further, MT-TNF-/- mice were not able to control T cell responses and cytokine/chemokine production. Thus, our data suggested that collective TNF production by both myeloid and T cells are required to provide overall protective immunity against CNS-TB

2017 Frontiers in immunology

198. The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) either as a single cell or inside of macrophages. Upon traversing the blood brain barrier (...) , C. neoformans has the capacity to form biofilm-like structures known as cryptococcomas. Hence, we will discuss the C. neoformans elements contributing to biofilm formation including the fungus' ability to survive in the acidic environment of a macrophage phagosome and inside of the CNS. The purpose of this mini-review is to instill fresh interest in understanding the importance of biofilms on fungal pathogenesis.

2017 Journal of Fungi

199. Criteria to Screen Molecular Tests for the Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus in the Central Nervous System have no Propensity to Harm Full Text available with Trip Pro

Criteria to Screen Molecular Tests for the Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus in the Central Nervous System have no Propensity to Harm Investigators have ruled out herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection without the detection of herpes simplex deoxyribonucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (i.e., HSV polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) by laboratory (normal CSF white blood cell count and protein) and clinical criteria (age ≥2 years, no history of human immunodeficiency virus or solid-organ (...) transplant). Compared to HSV PCR of all samples, the algorithm saves money in test costs and may decrease exposure to acyclovir by illustrating the low probability that the patient has HSV. Concern exists that algorithm use may cause harm through alteration of empiric acyclovir treatment in patients with true HSV central nervous system infection.All Department of Veterans Affair's patients with a positive HSV PCR of the CSF between 2000 and 2013 were identified and their medical records reviewed

2017 Journal of pathology informatics

200. The Brief Case: Central Nervous System Sparganosis in a 53-Year-Old Thai Man Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Brief Case: Central Nervous System Sparganosis in a 53-Year-Old Thai Man 28122993 2018 07 23 2018 11 13 1098-660X 55 2 2017 02 Journal of clinical microbiology J. Clin. Microbiol. The Brief Case: Central Nervous System Sparganosis in a 53-Year-Old Thai Man. 352-355 10.1128/JCM.01328-16 Carlson Abigail L AL 0000-0002-3036-5970 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Pruetpongpun Nattapol N Division (...) Anucha A Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand anapisarn@yahoo.com. eng Case Reports Editorial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States J Clin Microbiol 7505564 0095-1137 0 Anthelmintics 6490C9U457 Praziquantel IM Animals Anthelmintics administration & dosage Asian Continental Ancestry Group Brain diagnostic imaging pathology Central Nervous System Helminthiasis diagnosis diagnostic imaging pathology therapy Humans Magnetic

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

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