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CNS Infection

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181. Occam’s razor need not apply: Advanced HIV infection presenting with five simultaneous opportunistic infections and central nervous system lymphoma (PubMed)

(ART) for several years developed advanced HIV infection (CD4 count 19 cells/uL) and presented with five simultaneous opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bloodstream infection, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. Simultaneously, he was found to have primary central nervous system (CNS) B-cell lymphoma. Treatment decisions for such patients are often complex (...) Occam’s razor need not apply: Advanced HIV infection presenting with five simultaneous opportunistic infections and central nervous system lymphoma Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are at risk for multiple infectious and oncologic complications. In such cases, Occam's razor need not apply: multiple infections and malignancies are often present concurrently upon presentation to care. A patient off anti-retroviral therapy

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2018 IDCases

182. Risk of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected persons with syphilis lacking signs or symptoms of central nervous system infection. (PubMed)

Risk of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected persons with syphilis lacking signs or symptoms of central nervous system infection. People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of asymptomatic neurosyphilis; thus, it has been common practice to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in all PLWH presenting with syphilis regardless of stage, signs or symptoms. However, this practice varies widely among clinicians. Our objective was to elucidate the number of LPs required to diagnose a single case (...) count (P = 0.0007), high rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre (P = 0.019) and lack of HIV virological suppression (P = 0.003). The majority of our subjects (78%) with neurosyphilis presented with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. We estimate, if standard practice is to perform LP in all patients, that the number needed to test (NNTT) = 38.This large number of potentially unnecessary LPs, along with heterogeneity of presentation, and the never-nil risk of asymptomatic neurosyphilis should

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2018 HIV medicine

183. A Case-Control Study: Clinical Characteristics of Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections Versus Non-bloodstream Infections of Acinetobacter spp. (PubMed)

A Case-Control Study: Clinical Characteristics of Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections Versus Non-bloodstream Infections of Acinetobacter spp. Acinetobacter spp. are among the most common causes of bacterial nosocomial infections, including pneumonia and bloodstream infections. Previous studies on the risk factors of bloodstream Acinetobacter spp. infections (BSAcIs) primarily compared uninfected patients to those with BSAcIs. However, the identified risk factors contribute to either BSIs (...) or Acinetobacter spp. infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the risk factors of BSAcIs in comparison to non-bloodstream Acinetobacter infections (non-BSAcIs).We retrospectively reviewed 10 years of medical records of BSAcIs from a teaching hospital in Shanghai. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between BSAcIs and non-BSAcIs. Treatment outcomes of carbapenem- and sulbactam-based regimens were also evaluated.Respiratory tract infections (43.1

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

184. Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications

Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications | Circulation Search Hello Guest! Login to your account Email Password Keep me logged in Search March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 March 2019 February 2019 February 2019 February 2019 February 2019 January 2019 January 2019 January 2019 January 2019 January 2019 Free Access article Share (...) on Jump to Free Access article Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association , MD, FAHA , MD , MD , MD, MHS , MD, MSc , PharmD, MPH , MD, PhD , DDS , MD, FAHA , MD , MD, FAHA , MD , MD , PhD, RN and MD, FAHA PhD, FAHA Larry M. Baddour , Walter R. Wilson , Arnold S. Bayer , Vance G. FowlerJr , Imad M. Tleyjeh , Michael J. Rybak , Bruno Barsic , Peter B. Lockhart

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2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America

185. Productive infection of human neural progenitor cells by R5 tropic HIV-1: opiate co-exposure heightens infectivity and functional vulnerability. (PubMed)

Productive infection of human neural progenitor cells by R5 tropic HIV-1: opiate co-exposure heightens infectivity and functional vulnerability. HIV type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Reports (...) were due to soluble factors/viral proteins, not infection per se. Morphine co-exposure exacerbated certain functional consequences of HIVsup, and sustained the infection of hNPCs.hNPCs can be infected and propagate virus in vitro. hNPCs or their progeny may represent an underappreciated viral reservoir. Factors from infected cells alter hNPC proliferation and neural cell maturation, which likely compromises CNS structure and function. Morphine-HIV interactions may worsen dysfunction and sustain

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2017 AIDS

186. Adaptive Immune Responses To Zika Virus Are Important For Controlling Virus Infection And Preventing Infection In Brain And Testes (PubMed)

Adaptive Immune Responses To Zika Virus Are Important For Controlling Virus Infection And Preventing Infection In Brain And Testes The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role (...) for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models. Thus, as we show in this article, although wild-type C57BL/6 mice mount cell-mediated and humoral adaptive immune responses to ZIKV, these responses were not required to prevent disease. However, when the type I IFN response of mice was suppressed, then the adaptive immune responses became critical. For example

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2017 Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

187. Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections and mortality in HIV-infected adults in Central China (PubMed)

Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections and mortality in HIV-infected adults in Central China CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited.Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral (...) %) for CMV, 2 (3.7%) for VZV, 1 (1.9%) for EBV, 1 (1.9%) for HHV-6 and 1 (1.9%) for JCV. No patient was positive for HSV. Pathogen-based treatment and high GCS score tended to have a lower mortality rate, whereas patients with multiple pathogens infection, seizures or intracranial hypertension showed higher odds of death.CNS OIs are frequent and multiple pathogens often coexist in CSF. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent CNS disorders among AIDS. The utility of molecular diagnostics

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2017 AIDS research and therapy

188. Herpes simplex virus-1 infects the olfactory bulb shortly following ocular infection and exhibits a long-term inflammatory profile in the form of effector and HSV-1-specific T cells (PubMed)

Herpes simplex virus-1 infects the olfactory bulb shortly following ocular infection and exhibits a long-term inflammatory profile in the form of effector and HSV-1-specific T cells Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular (...) infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency.Scarified corneas of C57BL/6 or reporter-inducible Rosa mice (RosaTd/Tm) were inoculated with HSV-1 and assessed for viral dissemination into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and CNS by RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. T cells and the resident

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2017 Journal of neuroinflammation

189. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas. (PubMed)

Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas. The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age (...) , and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients

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2013 Haematologica

190. The effect of mouse strain on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) (PubMed)

The effect of mouse strain on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) Mice infected with HSV-1 can develop lethal encephalitis or virus induced CNS demyelination. Multiple factors affect outcome including route of infection, virus and mouse strain. When infected with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 strain 2 via the oral mucosa, susceptible SJL/J, A/J, and PL/J mice develop demyelinating lesions throughout the brain. In contrast, lesions are restricted (...) are restricted to the BST of BALB/c mice and do not occur in BL/6 mice.The results of this study indicate that susceptible mouse strains, infected with HSV-1 via the oral mucosa, develop CNS demyelination during the first 24 days PI in several stages. These include: the initial spread of virus and infection of cells in non-contiguous areas throughout the brain, the development of 'focal' areas of virus infected neuronal and non-neuronal cells, the co-localization of 'focal' areas with developing

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2012 Herpesviridae

191. HIV-associated opportunistic infections of the CNS. (PubMed)

HIV-associated opportunistic infections of the CNS. Survival in people infected with HIV has improved because of an increasingly powerful array of antiretroviral treatments, but neurological symptoms due to comorbid conditions, including infection with hepatitis C virus, malnutrition, and the effects of accelerated cardiovascular disease and ageing, are increasingly salient. A therapeutic gap seems to exist between the salutary effects of antiretroviral regimens and the normalisation (...) of neurological function in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Despite the advances in antiretroviral therapy, CNS opportunistic infections remain a serious burden worldwide. Most opportunistic infections can be recognised by a combination of characteristic clinical and radiological features and are treatable, but some important challenges remain in the diagnosis and management of HIV-associated opportunistic infections.Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012 Lancet Neurology

192. A Safety and Dose-Determining Study of CMX001 In Infants With Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection Involving the Central Nervous System (CNS Disease)

A Safety and Dose-Determining Study of CMX001 In Infants With Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection Involving the Central Nervous System (CNS Disease) A Safety and Dose-Determining Study of CMX001 In Infants With Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection Involving the Central Nervous System (CNS Disease) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record (...) Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Safety and Dose-Determining Study of CMX001 In Infants With Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection Involving the Central Nervous System (CNS Disease) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal

2012 Clinical Trials

193. INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN THE CNS OF MICE (PubMed)

INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN THE CNS OF MICE The A/VN/1203/04 strain of the H5N1 influenza virus is capable of infecting the CNS of mice and inducing a number of neurodegenerative pathologies. Here, we examined the effects of H5N1 on several pathological aspects affected in parkinsonism, including loss of the phenotype of dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), expression of monoamines and indolamines in brain (...) , alterations in SNpc microglia number and morphology, and expression of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. We find that H5N1 induces a transient loss of the dopaminergic phenotype in SNpc and now report that this loss recovers by 90 d after infection. A similar pattern of loss and recovery was seen in monoamine levels of the basal ganglia. The inflammatory response in lung and different regions of the brain known to be targets of the H5N1 virus (brainstem, substantia nigra, striatum, and cortex

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2012 The Journal of Neuroscience

194. CNS Infection

CNS Infection CNS Infection Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 CNS Infection CNS Infection Aka: CNS Infection From (...) Related Chapters Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "CNS Infection." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Central Nervous System Infection (C0007684) Definition (NCI) An infectious process that affects the brain and/or spinal cord. Representative examples include encephalitis, poliomyelitis, arachnoiditis, and meningitis

2015 FP Notebook

195. Prolongation of prion disease-associated symptomatic phase relates to CD3+ T cell recruitment into the CNS in murine scrapie-infected mice. (PubMed)

Prolongation of prion disease-associated symptomatic phase relates to CD3+ T cell recruitment into the CNS in murine scrapie-infected mice. Prion diseases are caused by the transconformation of the host cellular prion protein PrP(c) into an infectious neurotoxic isoform called PrP(Sc). While vaccine-induced PrP-specific CD4(+) T cells and antibodies partially protect scrapie-infected mice from disease, the potential autoreactivity of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) received little (...) attention. Beneficial or pathogenic influence of PrP(c)-specific CTL was evaluated by stimulating a CD8(+) T-cell-only response against PrP in scrapie-infected C57BL/6 mice. To circumvent immune tolerance to PrP, five PrP-derived nonamer peptides identified using prediction algorithms were anchored-optimized to improve binding affinity for H-2D(b) and immunogenicity (NP-peptides). All of the NP-peptides elicited a significant number of IFNγ secreting CD8(+) T cells that better recognized the NP-peptides

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2012 Brain, behavior, and immunity

196. Characterization and prevalence of a novel white spot syndrome viral genotype in naturally infected wild crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in Shanghai, China (PubMed)

. The WSSV-CN-Pc exhibited characteristics of a dominant genotype, with high infection load (107-108 WSSV/mg) and high prevalence (91.7%, 110 of 120 crayfish samples) observed in the surveyed wild crayfish. WSSV-CN-Pc was also detected, with similar infection pattern as observed in crayfish, in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp that shared similar ecological niches with the sampled crayfish. Our results indicated that there was horizontal transmission of WSSV-CN-Pc between crayfish and shrimp in nature (...) Characterization and prevalence of a novel white spot syndrome viral genotype in naturally infected wild crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in Shanghai, China White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection is commonly detected by vp28-qPCR assay in wild crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, a widespread crustacean species in the aquatic environment in China. The virions of crayfish WSSV have been isolated and purified. Based on TEM observation, they exhibited morphological structures that are identical

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2017 Virusdisease

197. Sirolimus in Combination With Metronomic Chemotherapy in Children With Recurrent and/or Refractory Solid and CNS Tumors

Sirolimus in Combination With Metronomic Chemotherapy in Children With Recurrent and/or Refractory Solid and CNS Tumors Sirolimus in Combination With Metronomic Chemotherapy in Children With Recurrent and/or Refractory Solid and CNS Tumors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Sirolimus in Combination With Metronomic Chemotherapy in Children With Recurrent and/or Refractory Solid and CNS Tumors (AflacST1502) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our

2015 Clinical Trials

198. Study of Talimogene Laherparepvec In Children With Advanced Non CNS Tumors

Study of Talimogene Laherparepvec In Children With Advanced Non CNS Tumors Study of Talimogene Laherparepvec In Children With Advanced Non CNS Tumors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Study (...) of Talimogene Laherparepvec In Children With Advanced Non CNS Tumors The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02756845 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : April 29, 2016 Last Update Posted : March 8, 2019 See

2015 Clinical Trials

199. Preoperative Ceritinib (LDK378) in Glioblastoma Multiforme and CNS Metastasis

Preoperative Ceritinib (LDK378) in Glioblastoma Multiforme and CNS Metastasis Preoperative Ceritinib (LDK378) in Glioblastoma Multiforme and CNS Metastasis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Preoperative Ceritinib (LDK378) in Glioblastoma Multiforme and CNS Metastasis The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02605746 Recruitment Status : Unknown Verified December 2016 by Madelon Petersen, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix. Recruitment status was: Recruiting First Posted

2015 Clinical Trials

200. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ibrutinib as Maintenance Treatment in Elderly Patients With Primary CNS Lymphoma

Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ibrutinib as Maintenance Treatment in Elderly Patients With Primary CNS Lymphoma Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ibrutinib as Maintenance Treatment in Elderly Patients With Primary CNS Lymphoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ibrutinib as Maintenance Treatment in Elderly Patients With Primary CNS Lymphoma The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details

2015 Clinical Trials

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