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Blunt Neck Trauma

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1041. Emergency bleeding control Full Text available with Trip Pro

a slice. The direction of the wound is random rather than straight, and it may have multiple branches. Most often caused by an object with a broken or edge, such as a piece of broken glass or metal, but may also be caused by a blow from a blunt object to tissue with bone immediately behind it. : Sharp object penetrates the tissue and travels inward, but does not move laterally in any direction from the point of entry. Such wounds can be misleading, as they may appear quite small on surface examination (...) , and most protocols give a maximum time for constriction (often around 10 minutes). There is particularly high danger if constricting the in the neck, as the brain is sensitive to and brain damage can result within minutes of application of pressure. Pressure on the carotid artery can also cause vagal tone induced bradycardia, which can eventually stop the heart. Other dangers in use of a constricting method include , which is a buildup of toxins below the pressure point, which if released back

2012 Wikipedia

1042. Epistaxis

. About 10% of nosebleeds are serious. Nosebleeds appear to have a bimodal distribution, most commonly affecting those younger than 10 and older than 50. Contents Cause [ ] Two children , the one on the right having a nosebleed due to a punch to the face. Nosebleeds can occur due to a variety of reasons. Some of the most common causes include trauma from , blunt trauma (such as a motor vehicle accident), or insertion of a foreign object (more likely in children). (including centrally heated buildings (...) Inflammatory: Medications/Drugs: ( , , etc) drugs (particularly ) (particularly prolonged or improper use of nasal steroids) Neoplastic: Traumatic: ( e.g. septal spurs) (usually a sharp blow to the face such as a punch, sometimes accompanying a ) (such as fingers during ) trauma (such as from descent in aircraft or ascent in scuba diving) fracture Septal fracture/perforation ( e.g. and ) Vascular Malformation: (Osler–Weber–Rendu disease) of carotid artery Pathophysiology [ ] Drawing demonstrating

2012 Wikipedia

1043. Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection Vertebral artery dissection - Wikipedia Vertebral artery dissection From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Vertebral artery dissection Other names Vertebral dissection Arteries of the neck, with arrows indicating the right vertebral artery Symptoms , , , , Causes Trauma, , , , invasive angiography Treatment , , surgery Medication , , Frequency 1.1 per 100,000 Vertebral artery dissection ( VAD ) is a of the inner lining of the , which is located in the neck (...) and supplies blood to the . After the tear, blood enters the arterial wall and forms a , thickening the artery wall and often impeding blood flow. The symptoms of vertebral artery dissection include head and neck pain and intermittent or permanent such as , and . It is usually diagnosed with a contrast-enhanced or scan. Vertebral dissection may occur after to the neck, such as a blunt injury (e.g. ), or , but may also happen spontaneously. 1–4% of spontaneous cases have a clear underlying affecting

2012 Wikipedia

1044. Tracheobronchial injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the chest cavity ( ). If air escapes from a penetrating injury to the neck, a definite diagnosis of TBI can be made. , a sound of crackling that occurs in time with the heartbeat, may also accompany TBI. Causes [ ] Injuries to the tracheobronchial tree within the chest may occur due to penetrating forces such as , but are more often the result of blunt trauma. TBI due blunt forces usually results from high-energy impacts such as falls from height and ; the injury is rare in low-impact mechanisms (...) a large amount of force to injure them. In blunt trauma, TBI is usually the result of violent compression of the chest. Rapid of the neck, usually resulting from vehicle crashes, can also injure the trachea, and trauma to the neck can crush the trachea against the vertebrae. A crush injury of the larynx or cervical trachea can occur in head-on collisions when the neck is hyperextended and strikes the steering wheel or dashboard; this has been called a "dashboard injury". The larynx and cervical

2012 Wikipedia

1045. Triage

blast injury may not be able to hear these instructions. Scoring systems [ ] Examples of scoring systems used: In the Triage (TRTS) is sometimes used and integrated into triage cards. The (ISS) is another example of a trauma scoring system. This assigns a score from 0 to 75 based on severity of injury to the human body divided into three categories: A (face/neck/head), B(thorax/abdomen), C(extremities/external/skin). Each category is scored from 0 to 5 using the Abbreviated Injury Scale, from (...) within its categories – e.g., protocol does not change whether 3, 30 or 3,000 casualties require its use, and regardless of available resources to be rationed not considering differences in injury severities and survival probabilities between types of trauma (blunt versus penetrating, etc.) and ages resulting in inconsistent tagging and prioritizing/ordering of casualties and substantial overtriage Research indicates there are wide ranges and overlaps of survival probabilities of the Immediate

2012 Wikipedia

1046. Traumatic brain injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

structures such as the scalp and skull. TBI can result in physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent or death. Causes include falls, vehicle collisions, and violence. Brain trauma occurs as a consequence of a sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium or by a complex combination of both movement and sudden impact. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, a variety of events following the injury (...) ). Mechanism-related classification divides TBI into and . A closed (also called nonpenetrating, or blunt) injury occurs when the brain is not exposed. A penetrating, or open, head injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and breaches the , the outermost . Severity Severity of traumatic brain injury Mild 13–15 <1 day 0–30 minutes Moderate 9–12 >1 to <7 days >30 min to <24 hours Severe 3–8 >7 days >24 hours Brain injuries can be classified into , moderate, and severe categories. The (GCS), the most

2012 Wikipedia

1047. Rhinoplasty

, is a procedure for correcting and reconstructing the . There are two types of plastic surgery used – that restores the form and functions of the nose and that improves the appearance of the nose. Reconstructive surgery seeks to resolve nasal caused by various including , and and trauma caused by . Reconstructive surgery also treats , , and failed primary rhinoplasties. Most patients ask to remove a bump, narrow nostril width, change the angle between the nose and the mouth, as well as correct injuries, birth (...) defects, or other problems that affect breathing, such as or a sinus condition. [ ] In closed rhinoplasty and open rhinoplasty surgeries – an (ear, nose, and throat specialist), an (jaw, face, and neck specialist), or a plastic surgeon creates a functional, aesthetic, and facially proportionate nose by separating the nasal skin and the from the , correcting them as required for form and function, the incisions, using and applying either a package or a , or both, to immobilize the corrected nose

2012 Wikipedia

1048. Dementia

, but this in turn may be due to underlying conditions (including , , , , , and ). People who receive frequent head trauma, such as boxers or football players, are at risk of (also called in boxers). In young adults (up to 40 years of age) who were previously of normal intelligence, it is very rare to develop dementia without other features of neurological disease, or without features of disease elsewhere in the body. Most cases of progressive cognitive disturbance in this age group are caused by psychiatric (...) dysfunction of shorter duration is called . Delirium can be easily confused with dementia due to similar symptoms. Delirium is characterized by a sudden onset, fluctuating course, a short duration (often lasting from hours to weeks), and is primarily related to a somatic (or medical) disturbance. In comparison, dementia has typically a long, slow onset (except in the cases of a stroke or trauma), slow decline of mental functioning, as well as a longer duration (from months to years). Some , including

2012 Wikipedia

1049. Shaken baby syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome Abusive head trauma - Wikipedia Abusive head trauma From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) Abusive head trauma Other names Shaken baby syndrome, non accidental head injury An with overlying from abusive head trauma Symptoms Variable , , , Usual onset Less than 5 years old Causes Blunt trauma, vigorous shaking Prevention Educating new parents Prognosis Long term health problems common Frequency 3 per 10,000 babies per year (US) Deaths ≈25% risk of death (...) Abusive head trauma ( AHT ), commonly known as shaken baby syndrome ( SBS ), is an injury to a child's head caused by someone else. Symptoms may range from subtle to obvious. Symptoms may include or a baby that will not settle. Often there are no visible signs of trauma. Complications include , , , and . The cause may be blunt trauma or vigorous shaking. Often this occurs as a result of a caregiver becoming frustrated due to the child crying. Diagnosis can be difficult as symptoms may be nonspecific

2012 Wikipedia

1050. Subcutaneous emphysema

the neck and chest, the swelling can interfere with breathing. The air can travel to many parts of the body, including the abdomen and limbs, because there are no separations in the in the skin to prevent the air from moving. Causes [ ] Trauma [ ] Conditions that cause subcutaneous emphysema may result from both blunt and penetrating trauma; SCE is often the result of a or gunshot wound. Subcutaneous emphysema is often found in car accident victims because of the force of the crash. , a major cause (...) occurs on the chest, neck and face, where it is able to travel from the chest cavity along the . Subcutaneous emphysema has a characteristic crackling feel to the touch, a sensation that has been described as similar to touching ; this sensation of air under the skin is known as subcutaneous crepitation . Numerous etiologies of subcutaneous emphysema have been described. was first recognized as a medical entity by , who reported it as a consequence of trauma in 1819. Later, in 1939, at , Dr. Louis

2012 Wikipedia

1051. Aortic dissection

with Marfan syndrome tend to have aneurysms of the aorta and are more prone to proximal dissections of the aorta. also increases the risk of aortic dissection, by aortic root dilatation. Chest trauma leading to aortic dissection can be divided into two groups based on cause: blunt chest trauma (commonly seen in ) and . Iatrogenic causes include trauma during or due to an . Aortic dissection may be a late sequela of . About 18% of individuals who present with an acute aortic dissection have a history (...) . Causes [ ] Aortic dissection is associated with (high blood pressure) and many disorders. ( of an artery) is rarely associated with aortic dissection. It can also be the result of chest trauma. About 72 to 80% of individuals who present with an aortic dissection have a previous history of hypertension. Illicit drug use with stimulants such as and is also a modifiable risk factor for AD. It can also be caused by smoking. A (a type of involving the ) is found in 7–14% of individuals who have an aortic

2012 Wikipedia

1052. Autopsy

, Combs DL, Annest JL (1993). "Temporal and geographic trends in the autopsy frequency of blunt and penetrating trauma deaths in the United States". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association . 269 (12): 1525–31. : . . . www.cdc.gov . Retrieved 2017-02-06 . St Andrew's House (18 July 2007). . Scottish Government . . Archived from on 9 March 2011. ^ Schafer, Elizabeth D. (2008). "Ancient science and forensics". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass. Forensic Science . Salem Press. p. 43 (...) is sometimes termed a "view and grant". The principle behind this is that the medical records, history of the deceased and circumstances of death have all indicated as to the cause and manner of death without the need for an internal examination. Internal examination [ ] If not already in place, a plastic or rubber brick called a "head block" is placed under the shoulders of the deceased, hyperflexing the neck making the spine arch backward while stretching and pushing the upward to make it easier

2012 Wikipedia

1053. Brown-Séquard syndrome

of a case". J Emerg Med . 15 (3): 309–12. : . . Harris P (November 2005). "Stab wound of the back causing an acute subdural haematoma and a Brown-Sequard neurological syndrome". Spinal Cord . 43 (11): 678–9. : . . Henderson SO, Hoffner RJ (1998). "Brown-Sequard syndrome due to isolated blunt trauma". J Emerg Med . 16 (6): 847–50. : . . Hwang W, Ralph J, Marco E, Hemphill JC (June 2003). "Incomplete Brown-Séquard syndrome after methamphetamine injection into the neck". Neurology . 60 (12): 2015–16 (...) and temperature sensation on the opposite (or contralateral) side as the lesion. It is named after physiologist , who first described the condition in 1850. Contents Causes [ ] Brown-Séquard syndrome may be caused by injury to the spinal cord resulting from a spinal cord , trauma [such as a fall or injury from gunshot or puncture to the cervical or thoracic spine], ischemia (obstruction of a blood vessel), or infectious or diseases such as , or . In its pure form, it is rarely seen. The most common cause

2012 Wikipedia

1054. Child abuse

health and development can be: . Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases). Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain, damage to the spinal cord and neck, and rib or bone fractures. Impaired brain . Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting (...) adverse childhood experiences including verbal, physical and sexual abuse, as well as other forms of childhood trauma found 25.9% of adults reported verbal abuse as children, 14.8% reported physical abuse, and 12.2% reported sexual abuse. Data from the (CDC) and corroborate these high rates. There is a high correlation between the number of different adverse childhood experiences (A.C.E.s) and risk for poor health outcomes in adults including cancer, heart attack, mental illness, reduced longevity

2012 Wikipedia

1055. Spinal disc herniation

Spinal disc herniation Spinal disc herniation - Wikipedia Spinal disc herniation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Slipped disc" redirects here. For other uses, see . Spinal disc herniation Other names Slipped disc, ruptured disc, herniated disc, prolapsed disc, herniated nucleus pulposus A spinal disc herniation shown by MRI. , Spinal disc herniation is an injury to the cushioning and connective tissue between , usually caused by excessive strain or trauma to the spine. It may result (...) nerves, which may produce intense and potentially disabling pain and other symptoms. [ ] Some authors favour degeneration of the intervertebral disc as the major cause of spinal disc herniation and cite trauma as a minor cause. Disc degeneration occurs both in and aging. With degeneration, the disc components – the nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus – become exposed to altered loads. Specifically, the nucleus becomes fibrous and stiff and less able to bear load. Excess load is transferred

2012 Wikipedia

1056. Spinal cord injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

vessels. Without the sympathetic input, the vessels relax and dilate. Neurogenic shock presents with dangerously low blood pressure, , and blood pooling in the limbs—which results in insufficient blood flow to the spinal cord and potentially further damage to it. Cervical [ ] Spinal cord injuries at the cervical (neck) level result in full or partial (also called quadriplegia). Depending on the specific location and severity of trauma, limited function may be retained. Function after complete cervical (...) and restricting further motion of the spine. In the emergency setting, most people who has been subjected to forces strong enough to cause SCI are treated as though they have instability in the spinal column and have to prevent damage to the spinal cord. Injuries or fractures in the head, neck, or pelvis as well as penetrating trauma near the spine and falls from heights are assumed to be associated with an unstable spinal column until it is ruled out in the hospital. High-speed vehicle crashes, sports

2012 Wikipedia

1057. Implementation of the Canadian C-Spine Rule: prospective 12 centre cluster randomised trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Implementation of the Canadian C-Spine Rule: prospective 12 centre cluster randomised trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of an active strategy to implement the validated Canadian C-Spine Rule into multiple emergency departments.Matched pair cluster randomised trial.University and community emergency departments in Canada. Participants 11 824 alert and stable adults presenting with blunt trauma to the head or neck at one of 12 hospitals.Six hospitals were randomly allocated to the intervention

2009 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1058. Evaluation of the Nursing C-Spine (Phase IV)

Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Neck injuries are a common problem among blunt trauma victims with more than 8,000,000 cases being seen annually in U.S. and Canadian EDs. While the majority of these cases represent soft tissue injuries, 30,000 patients suffer cervical spine fractures or dislocations and approximately 10,000 suffer spinal cord injury. There are no readily available national Canadian data on ED visits such as those provided by the U.S. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical (...) : August 2010 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Cervical spine injury We enrolled consecutive alert adults who were in stable condition and who presented with potential cervical spine injury after acute blunt trauma, including patients with posterior neck pain and those presenting by ambulance with immobilization of the cervical spine. Other: Clinical decision rule - clearing the c-spine The goal of phase

2010 Clinical Trials

1059. Evaluation of the Safety of C-Spine Clearance by Paramedics

, stable adults evaluated by the paramedics with potential c-spine injury after sustaining acute blunt trauma. Patient eligibility will be determined at the time of paramedic arrival at the scene based on the following criteria: "Potential c-spine injury after sustaining acute blunt trauma" will include patients with either: neck pain with any mechanism of injury (subjective complaint by the patient of any pain in the posterior aspect of the neck), no neck pain but some visible injury above (...) Research (CIHR) Information provided by (Responsible Party): Ottawa Hospital Research Institute Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The goal of this cohort study is to evaluate the safety and potential impact of an active strategy that allows paramedics to assess very low-risk trauma patients with the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) and transport them to the Emergency Department without immobilization. The specific objectives of the study are to determine safety, determine the clinical

2010 Clinical Trials

1060. The Prophylactic Hypothermia Trial to Lessen Traumatic Brain Injury

the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years to 60 Years (Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Blunt trauma with clinical diagnosis of severe TBI and GCS <9 Estimated age ≥ 18 and < 60 years of age The patient is intubated or intubation is imminent Exclusion Criteria: Pre-hospital: Clinical diagnosis of drug or alcohol intoxication as predominant cause of coma (...) post-randomisation. Where available, total costs of care provided by the state government through the relevant compensation scheme will be obtained for the subgroup of road trauma patients, and this data will be used to determine the cost per additional QALY and cost per additional favourable neurological outcome in this subgroup. Pre-Specified sub group [ Time Frame: 6 Months post injury ] The primary and secondary outcomes will be evaluated according to (i) the presence of surgically evacuated

2009 Clinical Trials

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