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Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure

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1. Occupational blood exposures in health care workers: incidence, characteristics, and transmission of bloodborne pathogens in South Korea. (PubMed)

Occupational blood exposures in health care workers: incidence, characteristics, and transmission of bloodborne pathogens in South Korea. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk for occupational blood exposures (OBEs) and transmission of bloodborne pathogens. This study elucidated the incidence rate and epidemiological characteristics of OBEs among HCWs and investigated the pathogen transmission rate for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV (...) rate in a Korean university hospital was 5.6 cases per 100 person-years and 20.3 per 100 bed-years and was related to HCW workload and work proficiency. Though the actual bloodborne pathogen transmission rate was low, efforts to prevent OBE should be made for hospital safety.

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2017 BMC Public Health

2. Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure

Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure (...) Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Aka: Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure , Needlestick Injury II. Background Needlestick related transmission risks (if source positive) : 1-6% (up to 30% if positive) : 1.8% on average (up to 7% in some studies) HIV: 0.3% (up to 0.5% in some studies) III. Step 1: Initial Management Wash wounds with copious soap and water Flush exposed mucous membranes with water IV. Step 2: Evaluate Source of Exposure Avoid testing discarded needles or syringes Test known source ing is available

2018 FP Notebook

3. Use of Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plans in Private Dental Practices: Results and Clinical Implications of a National Survey (PubMed)

Use of Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plans in Private Dental Practices: Results and Clinical Implications of a National Survey Dental healthcare workers (DHWs) are at risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBPs). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration Bloodborne Pathogens Standard requires employers to have a written exposure control plan (ECP) detailing methods and means to reduce and manage occupational BBP exposures. Because little information is available (...) unaware of any federal requirements for an ECP prior to the survey. Engineering controls were used by many practices, although the type varied. Fifteen percent of practices did not offer the hepatitis B vaccine for employees. The survey revealed many dental practices were unaware of or were lacking required elements of the ECP. Findings from this survey indicate DHWs would benefit from increased education regarding methods to prevent occupational exposures to BBPs.

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2016 Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995)

4. Effects of training course on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens: a controlled interventional study. (PubMed)

Effects of training course on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens: a controlled interventional study. One of the serious occupational concerns in health care workers (HCWs) is exposure to blood/body fluids that can transmit blood borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B and C viruses. We are reporting the effects of training course and surveillance on the rate of needle stick injuries (NSIs) among HCWs at an educational hospital in Iran.To evaluate

2014 International journal of preventive medicine

5. Implementation of an enhanced safety-engineered sharp device oversight and bloodborne pathogen protection program at a large academic medical center. (PubMed)

Implementation of an enhanced safety-engineered sharp device oversight and bloodborne pathogen protection program at a large academic medical center. Exposure of healthcare personnel to bloodborne pathogens (BBPs) can be prevented in part by using safety-engineered sharp devices (SESDs) and other safe practices, such as double gloving. In some instances, however, safer devices and practices cannot be utilized because of procedural factors or the lack of a manufactured safety device

2014 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

6. Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure

Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure (...) Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Aka: Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure , Needlestick Injury II. Background Needlestick related transmission risks (if source positive) : 1-6% (up to 30% if positive) : 1.8% on average (up to 7% in some studies) HIV: 0.3% (up to 0.5% in some studies) III. Step 1: Initial Management Wash wounds with copious soap and water Flush exposed mucous membranes with water IV. Step 2: Evaluate Source of Exposure Avoid testing discarded needles or syringes Test known source ing is available

2015 FP Notebook

7. Patient Notification for Bloodborne Pathogen Testing due to Unsafe Injection Practices in the US Health Care Settings, 2001-2011. (PubMed)

from unsafe injection practices in the US health care settings.We examined records of events that involved communications to groups of patients, conducted during 2001-2011, advising bloodborne pathogen testing stemming from potential exposures to unsafe injection practices.We identified 35 patient notification events related to unsafe injection practices in at least 17 states, resulting in an estimated total of 130,198 patients notified. Among the identified notification events, 83% involved (...) Patient Notification for Bloodborne Pathogen Testing due to Unsafe Injection Practices in the US Health Care Settings, 2001-2011. Syringe reuse and other unsafe injection practices can expose patients to bloodborne pathogens (eg, hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus). Evidence of such infection control lapses has resulted in patient notifications, but the scope and magnitude of these events have not been well characterized.To summarize patient notification events resulting

2012 Medical Care

8. Risk factors for bloodborne viral hepatitis in healthcare workers of Pakistan: a population based case-control study. (PubMed)

to bend or break a needle after use (OR=4.9; CI95 1 to 24).Healthcare workers in Pakistan are at additional risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Bi-dimensional risk factors present at individual and broader health systems levels are responsible. Occupational safety, health trainings and redesigning of the curriculum for allied health professionals are required.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http (...) Risk factors for bloodborne viral hepatitis in healthcare workers of Pakistan: a population based case-control study. A high prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C was found among healthcare workers during a province-wide screening in Sindh Province, Pakistan. A follow-up study was undertaken to identify risk factors for this high prevalence in healthcare workers.Population based case-control design.Public sector healthcare facilities in a rural district of Pakistan.Healthcare workers who were

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2014 BMJ open

9. Postexposure prophylaxis after hepatitis C occupational exposure in the interferon-free era. (PubMed)

Postexposure prophylaxis after hepatitis C occupational exposure in the interferon-free era. Healthcare personnel are at risk for occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens. Primary prevention remains the first line of defense, but secondary prevention measures known to be effective should be implemented when percutaneous exposures occur. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major infectious cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic HCV treatment has changed dramatically, with many (...) all-oral directly acting anti-HCV antiviral (DAA) regimens now available. Evidence for the use of DAAs as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) after occupational exposures to HCV is summarized here.Little new evidence supports the use of antivirals in acute HCV infection. Several preliminary studies have examined the use of DAAs or host target agents in chronic HCV treatment. Effective HCV PEP requirements likely include pan-genotypic activity and a high barrier to resistance. One investigational DAA

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2016 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

10. Body Fluid Exposures (Follow-up)

15. 47:1-33. . Gerberding JL, Henderson DK. Management of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis . 1992 Jun. 14(6):1179-85. . Jagger J. Risky procedures, risky devices, risky job. Adv in Exposure Prev . 1994. 1:4-6. Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, Tanaka E, et al. Hepatitis C in hospital employees with needlestick injuries. Ann Intern Med . 1991 Sep 1. 115(5):367-9. . Lanphear BP. Trends and patterns (...) hospital employees who may be exposed in the future, as this reporting may prompt the institution’s administration to take steps to prevent future incidents. Previous References Lohiya GS, Tan-Figueroa L, Lohiya S, Lohiya S. Human bites: bloodborne pathogen risk and postexposure follow-up algorithm. J Natl Med Assoc . 2013 Spring. 105(1):92-5. . Henderson DK. Management of needlestick injuries: a house officer who has a needlestick. JAMA . 2012 Jan 4. 307(1):75-84. . West CP, Tan AD, Shanafelt TD

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

11. Body Fluid Exposures (Overview)

be emphasized. Also, the patient should understand to return to the emergency department (ED) immediately for any complications of the body fluid exposure or the PEP regimen. The importance of outpatient follow-up should be stressed to the patient. For additional patient education information, see the and the , as well as , , and . Previous References Lohiya GS, Tan-Figueroa L, Lohiya S, Lohiya S. Human bites: bloodborne pathogen risk and postexposure follow-up algorithm. J Natl Med Assoc . 2013 Spring. 105 (...) for the management of health-care worker exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep . 1998 May 15. 47:1-33. . Gerberding JL, Henderson DK. Management of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis . 1992 Jun. 14(6):1179-85. . Jagger J. Risky procedures, risky devices, risky job. Adv in Exposure Prev . 1994. 1:4-6. Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

12. Body Fluid Exposures (Treatment)

15. 47:1-33. . Gerberding JL, Henderson DK. Management of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis . 1992 Jun. 14(6):1179-85. . Jagger J. Risky procedures, risky devices, risky job. Adv in Exposure Prev . 1994. 1:4-6. Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, Tanaka E, et al. Hepatitis C in hospital employees with needlestick injuries. Ann Intern Med . 1991 Sep 1. 115(5):367-9. . Lanphear BP. Trends and patterns (...) hospital employees who may be exposed in the future, as this reporting may prompt the institution’s administration to take steps to prevent future incidents. Previous References Lohiya GS, Tan-Figueroa L, Lohiya S, Lohiya S. Human bites: bloodborne pathogen risk and postexposure follow-up algorithm. J Natl Med Assoc . 2013 Spring. 105(1):92-5. . Henderson DK. Management of needlestick injuries: a house officer who has a needlestick. JAMA . 2012 Jan 4. 307(1):75-84. . West CP, Tan AD, Shanafelt TD

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

13. Body Fluid Exposures (Diagnosis)

be emphasized. Also, the patient should understand to return to the emergency department (ED) immediately for any complications of the body fluid exposure or the PEP regimen. The importance of outpatient follow-up should be stressed to the patient. For additional patient education information, see the and the , as well as , , and . Previous References Lohiya GS, Tan-Figueroa L, Lohiya S, Lohiya S. Human bites: bloodborne pathogen risk and postexposure follow-up algorithm. J Natl Med Assoc . 2013 Spring. 105 (...) for the management of health-care worker exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep . 1998 May 15. 47:1-33. . Gerberding JL, Henderson DK. Management of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens: hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis . 1992 Jun. 14(6):1179-85. . Jagger J. Risky procedures, risky devices, risky job. Adv in Exposure Prev . 1994. 1:4-6. Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

14. Population risk of syringe reuse: estimating the probability of transmitting bloodborne disease. (PubMed)

of bloodborne infection in hospital and clinic settings.A risk assessment model was developed to predict the risk of a patient contracting a bloodborne viral infection from the practice. The risk of transmission was defined as the product of 5 factors: (1) the population prevalence of a specific bloodborne pathogen, (2) the probability of finding a viral bloodborne pathogen in an intravenous circuit, (3) the rate of syringe reuse, (4) the probability of causing disease given a bloodborne pathogen exposure (...) Population risk of syringe reuse: estimating the probability of transmitting bloodborne disease. In 2008, the Medical Officer of Health at Alberta Health Services (Edmonton, Canada) was notified that, in some practice settings, a syringe was used to administer medication through the side port of an intravenous circuit and then the syringe, with residual drug, was used to administer medication to other patients in the same manner. This practice has been implicated in several outbreaks

2010 Infection control and hospital epidemiology

15. Educational intervention for preventing bloodborne infection among medical students in China. (PubMed)

included knowledge of transmission route, first-aid care, and post-exposure prophylaxis. Pearson's chi(2)-test was used, and the efficacy of students was analysed to control for bias. Intervention in the form of a one-time bloodborne pathogen educational prevention programme for Chinese medical students had little effect on knowledge.Copyright (c) 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) Educational intervention for preventing bloodborne infection among medical students in China. Although medical students are known to be at risk for bloodborne infections, there have been no systematic studies, effective intervention programmes, or guidelines for them in China. We developed prevention guidelines, implemented an intervention, and evaluated the effectiveness of knowledge among medical students. This study was designed as a cluster randomised controlled trial. All those who

2010 The Journal of hospital infection

16. Safety engineered injection devices for intravenous use in healthcare delivery settings

: epidemiologic, economic, and quality of life issues. Workplace Health & Safety, 53(3), 117. 2. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2010). Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare. Australia. 3. Jagger, J., Perry, J., Gomaa, A., & Phillips, E. K. (2008). The impact of US policies to protect healthcare workers from bloodborne pathogens: the critical role of safety-engineered devices. Journal of infection and public health, 1(2), 62-71. 4. Hadaway, L. (2012 (...) of needlestick injury, followed by injections and recapping of used needles 11 . Needlestick injuries are more likely to happen in understaffed departments, and in nurses who work mixed shifts 11 . The most significant risk factors for needlestick injuries were being senior or nursing officer, having <10 years work experience, working long hours, and not wearing gloves 4,11 . The main reasons for occupational exposure to blood and body fluids were: a sudden movement of the patient during blood sampling

2017 Monash Health Evidence Reviews

17. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Health Care Workers

Intervention/treatment Phase Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug: emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Phase 4 Detailed Description: Health Care Workers that have occupational exposure to blood are at risk for HIV infection. Prevention of blood exposure, through safer practices, barrier precautions, safer needle devices, and other innovations, is the best way to prevent infection with HIV and other bloodborne pathogens. Though these strategies have been successful in reducing the frequency of blood (...) Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Health Care Workers Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Health Care Workers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Health Care Workers (PEP

2010 Clinical Trials

18. Labor and Delivery Management of Women With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

in patients receiving zidovudine prophylaxis. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:897–908. Navarro J, Curran A, Burgos J, Torrella A, Ocaña I, Falcó V, et al. Acute leg ischaemia in an HIV-infected patient receiving antiretroviral treatment. Antivir Ther (Lond ) 2017;22:89–90. Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. Centers (...) of pregnant women during pregnancy and delivery to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prevention of transmission of HIV from the woman to her fetus or newborn is a major goal in the care of pregnant women infected with HIV. Continuing research into mother-to-child transmission of HIV has suggested that a substantial number of cases of perinatal HIV transmission occur as the result of fetal exposure to the virus during labor and delivery. The precise mechanisms

2018 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

19. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review

with repeat testing on the EIA, or when the presence of Abs has been confirmed by a supplementary Ab test such as an immunoblot or another EIA. However, the presence of Abs (anti-HCV Ab+) indicates exposure to HCV but does not necessarily indicate current or active HCV infection; it may reflect past disease in patients who have spontaneously cleared the infection without treatment or in individuals who have been successfully treated and cured of their infection. 7,9,21 Furthermore, the production of anti (...) and 1965 (i.e., baby boomers). 36 The CDC also recommends ongoing screening for persons with recognized exposure (such as children born to HCV-positive women) or at continued risk for contracting HCV (such as people who inject drugs [PWID]). In June 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) updated its 2004 guidelines on HCV screening and now recommends one-time screening for asymptomatic adults either born between 1945 and 1965 or who are at high risk for infection. 37 The USPSTF

2017 CADTH - Health Technology Assessment

20. Occupational transmission of bloodborne diseases to healthcare workers in developing countries: meeting the challenges. (PubMed)

Occupational transmission of bloodborne diseases to healthcare workers in developing countries: meeting the challenges. Healthcare workers have increased chance of acquiring bloodborne pathogens through occupational exposure in developing countries due to a combination of increased risk and fewer safety precautions. As loss of workers can seriously undermine developing health systems, it is important that risks are minimised. A literature search was conducted to investigate the risks (...) of transmission of three pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses; and to identify factors that influenced the risk with reference to developing countries. There are many difficulties faced by developing countries in minimising the risk of occupational exposure. Efforts have been made to address the problems both on international and national levels. It is imperative that all healthcare workers are protected in order to prevent the loss of such a crucial component

2009 Journal of Hospital Infection

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