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8481. Air ambulance

. In recent years, the service has moved towards the physician-paramedic model of care. This has necessitated some charities commissioning clinical governance services, however many air ambulances operate under the tasking ambulances services clinical governance. The AAA now publishes Best Practice Guidance on a range of operational and clinical functions and provides a code of conduct that all full members, both ambulance services and charities must uphold. "Heavy-Lift" [ ] A final area of distinction (...) that binds one of the most regulated areas of operation together. It brings the Fundraising Standards Board, CAA / EASA and the CQC together ensuring fundraising, air and clinical operations are inline with national regulation and best practice. The code goes further with an expectation of mutual support and working within its policy and best practice guides. Japanese Physician Delivery Helicopter Medical control [ ] The nature of the air operation frequently determines the type of medical control

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2012 Wikipedia

8482. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

in 1967. Although the terminology of "adult respiratory distress syndrome" has at times been used to differentiate ARDS from " " in newborns, the international consensus is that "acute respiratory distress syndrome" is the best term because ARDS can affect people of all ages. There are modified diagnostic criteria for children and areas of the world with less resources. Contents Terminology [ ] ARDS is the severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) and of (TRALI). The Berlin definition included ALI (...) alveoli open), mean airway pressure (to promote recruitment (opening) of easily collapsible alveoli and predictor of hemodynamic effects) and (best predictor of alveolar overdistention) are used. Previously, mechanical ventilation aimed to achieve tidal volumes ( V t ) of 12–15 ml/kg (where the weight is rather than actual weight). Recent studies have shown that high tidal volumes can overstretch alveoli resulting in (secondary lung injury). The ARDS Clinical Network, or ARDSNet, completed a clinical

2012 Wikipedia

8483. Magnetic resonance imaging

, as in and material, such as , intracelullar , , , , Protein-rich fluid Diagnostics [ ] Usage by organ or system [ ] Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen. MRI has a wide range of applications in and more than 25,000 scanners are estimated to be in use worldwide. MRI affects diagnosis and treatment in many specialties although the effect on improved health outcomes is uncertain. [ ] MRI is the investigation of choice in the preoperative of and and, has a role in the diagnosis, staging (...) , and follow-up of other tumors. Neuroimaging [ ] Main article: See also: MRI image of tracts MRI is the investigative tool of choice for neurological cancers, as it has better resolution than CT and offers better visualization of the , containing the and the . The contrast provided between and makes MRI the best choice for many conditions of the , including , , , , and . Since many images are taken milliseconds apart, it shows how the brain responds to different stimuli, enabling researchers to study both

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2012 Wikipedia

8484. Major depressive disorder

be exacerbated during particular months (usually winter) for those with . Depression and often co-occur. One or more pain symptoms are present in 65% of depressed patients, and anywhere from 5 to 85% of patients with pain will be suffering from depression, depending on the setting; there is a lower prevalence in general practice, and higher in specialty clinics. The diagnosis of depression is often delayed or missed, and the outcome can worsen if the depression is noticed but completely misunderstood (...) to reach their large target audience most efficiently through the . However, an earlier meta-analysis found preventive programs with a competence-enhancing component to be superior to behavior-oriented programs overall, and found behavioral programs to be particularly unhelpful for older people, for whom social support programs were uniquely beneficial. In addition, the programs that best prevented depression comprised more than eight sessions, each lasting between 60 and 90 minutes, were provided

2012 Wikipedia

8485. Management of cancer

(that is, achieving with near-zero ) is the ideal goal of treatment and is often the goal in practice. Sometimes this can be accomplished by surgery, but the propensity of cancers to invade adjacent tissue or to spread to distant sites by microscopic often limits its effectiveness; and chemotherapy and radiotherapy can have a negative effect on normal cells. Therefore, cure with nonnegligible adverse effects may be accepted as a practical goal in some cases; and besides , practical goals of therapy can also (...) include (1) suppressing the cancer to a subclinical state and maintaining that state for years of good (that is, treating the cancer as a ), and (2) without curative intent (for advanced-stage metastatic cancers). Because "cancer" refers to a class of diseases, it is unlikely that there will ever be a single " " any more than there will be a single treatment for all . were once thought to have potential as a " " treatment applicable to many types of cancer, but this has not been the case in practice

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2012 Wikipedia

8486. Managed care

the establishment of HMOs and in monitoring their operations. In practice, an HMO is a coordinated delivery system that combines both the financing and the delivery of health care for enrollees. In the design of the plan, each member is assigned a "gatekeeper", a (PCP) responsible for the overall care of members assigned. Specialty services require a specific referral from the PCP to the specialist. Non-emergency hospital admissions also require specific pre-authorization by the PCP. Typically, services (...) for each enrolled person assigned to that physician or group of physicians, whether or not that person seeks care. The contract is not usually exclusive so individual doctors or the group may sign contracts with multiple HMOs. Physicians who participate in IPAs usually also serve patients not associated with managed care. IPAs usually have a governing board to determine the best forms of practices. Preferred provider organization (PPO) [ ] Main article: Rather than contract with the various insurers

2012 Wikipedia

8487. Paramedics in Canada

are increasingly being utilized in emergency rooms by providing patient care in collaboration with physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, registered practical nurses and registered respiratory therapists. Increasingly in Canada, paramedics are actively pursuing self-regulation. Contents Training [ ] Paramedic education, or the study of paramedicine in Canada, is an intensive academic program of formal theory and clinical experience which varies from province to province (...) to when nursing moved from the college based program to the collaborative or university based program in Canada. These programs are often offered through partnerships between Canadian and , blending vocational training with higher education. The accreditation of paramedic educational programs in Canada also varies from province to province. The 's Committee on Conjoint Accreditation offers the most comprehensive and best known system of national accreditation. Their accreditation model

2012 Wikipedia

8488. Louis Pasteur

discoveries of the principles of , and . He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of , and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from , and created the first vaccines for and . His medical discoveries provided direct support for the and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating and to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called . He is regarded (...) , until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals. Contents Education and early life The house in which Pasteur was born, Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in , , to a family of a poor . He was the third child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette

2012 Wikipedia

8489. Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

dissidents who cannot be punished by legal means." Punitive psychiatry is neither a discrete subject nor a psychiatric specialty but, rather, it is an emergency arising within many applied sciences in totalitarian countries where members of a profession may feel themselves compelled to serve the diktats of power. Psychiatric confinement of sane people is uniformly considered a particularly pernicious form of repression and Soviet punitive psychiatry was one of the key weapons of both illegal and legal (...) European countries such as , , , and . The practice of incarceration of political dissidents in mental hospitals in Eastern Europe and the former USSR damaged the credibility of psychiatric practice in these states and entailed strong condemnation from the international community. Psychiatrists have been involved in human rights abuses in states across the world when the definitions of mental disease were expanded to include political disobedience. As scholars have long argued, governmental and medical

2012 Wikipedia

8490. Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery Plastic surgery - Wikipedia Plastic surgery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two categories. The first is reconstructive surgery which includes , , , and the treatment of . The other is cosmetic or aesthetic surgery. While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic surgery aims (...) with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds). [ ] After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and travelled extensively to promote his advanced techniques worldwide. In 1930, Gillies' cousin, , joined the practice and became committed to plastic surgery. When broke out, plastic surgery provision was largely divided between the different services of the , and Gillies and his team were split up. Gillies himself was sent to near , which

2012 Wikipedia

8491. Physician assistant

that there is an expected 37 percent growth between the year 2016-2026, much greater than the average job at 7 percent. For PAs in primary care practice, insurance policies with $100,000–300,000 in coverage can cost less than $600 per year; premiums are higher for PAs in higher-risk specialties. Money magazine, in conjunction with Salary.com, listed the PA profession as the "fifth best job in America" in May 2006, based both on salary and job prospects, and on an anticipated 10-year job growth of 49.65%. In 2010, CNN (...) , and exercise autonomy in medical decision making. PAs assist physicians in the practice or medical specialties, including emergency medicine, surgery, cardiology, etc. according to a legal that may vary across jurisdictions. A period of extensive clinical training precedes obtaining a license to practice as a physician assistant, and similar to physician training but much shorter in duration, includes all systems of the human body. Renewal of licensure is necessary every few years, varying by jurisdiction

2012 Wikipedia

8492. Physician

members. However, the , established in 1915, does not: its title uses physician in its original sense. American physicians The vast majority of have a degree, and use the initials A smaller number attend Osteopathic schools and have a degree and use the initials After completion of medical school, physicians complete a residency in the specialty in which they will practice. Subspecialties require the completion of a fellowship after residency. All boards of certification now require that physicians (...) . The best known example of this is probably the of Britain. In all countries, the regulating authorities will revoke permission to practice in cases of or serious misconduct. In the large English-speaking federations ( , , ), the licensing or registration of medical practitioners is done at a state or provincial level or nationally as in New Zealand. Australian states usually have a "Medical Board," which has now been replaced by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulatory Authority (AHPRA) in most

2012 Wikipedia

8493. Pfizer

is organised into nine principal operating divisions: Primary Care, Specialty Care, Oncology, Emerging Markets, Established Products, Consumer Healthcare, Nutrition, Animal Health, and Capsugel. Partnerships [ ] In May 2015, Pfizer and a laboratory announced a partnership based on the development of medical . Research and development [ ] Pfizer's research and development activities are organised into two principal groups: the PharmaTherapeutics Research & Development Group, which focuses on the discovery (...) statin drugs. From 1996 to 2012 under the trade name Lipitor, atorvastatin became the world's best-selling drug of all time, with more than $125 billion in sales over approximately 14.5 years. Lipitor alone "provided up to a quarter of Pfizer Inc.'s annual revenue for years." (13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine) is a vaccine for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal infections. The introduction of the original, 7-valent version of the vaccine in 1999 led to a 75% reduction in the incidence

2012 Wikipedia

8494. Randomized controlled trial

of procedures, tests, outpatient visits, and follow-up calls, should be those intrinsic to the treatments being compared. The most important advantage of proper randomization is that it minimizes allocation bias, balancing both known and unknown prognostic factors, in the assignment of treatments. The terms "RCT" and randomized trial are sometimes used synonymously, but the methodologically sound practice is to reserve the "RCT" name only for trials that contain groups, in which groups receiving (...) the experimental treatment are compared with control groups receiving no treatment (a ) or a previously tested treatment (a ). The term "randomized trials" omits mention of controls and can describe studies that compare multiple treatment groups with each other (in the absence of a control group). Similarly, although the "RCT" name is sometimes expanded as " randomized clinical trial " or " randomized comparative trial ", the methodologically sound practice, to avoid ambiguity in the , is to retain "control

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2012 Wikipedia

8495. Radiology

modules and graded pass-fail. It is given twice a year in Chicago and Tucson. Recertification examinations are taken every 10 years, with additional required continuing medical education as outlined in the Maintenance of Certification document. Certification may also be obtained from the (AOBR) and the American Board of Physician Specialties. Following completion of residency training, Radiologists may either begin practicing as a general Diagnostic Radiologist or enter into subspecialty training (...) Radiology Radiology - Wikipedia Radiology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The article focuses on radiology as a medical specialty. See also and ; . For industrial application, see or . A radiologist interpreting . Dr. Macintyre's X-Ray Film (1896). Radiology is the medical specialty that uses to diagnose and treat diseases within the human body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray , , (CT), including (PET), and (MRI) are used to diagnose or treat diseases. is the performance

2012 Wikipedia

8496. Radiation therapy

nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumor, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. It is necessary to include a margin of normal tissue around the tumor to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor motion. These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external skin marks relative to the tumor position. Radiation oncology is the medical specialty concerned (...) is described by its radiosensitivity. Highly radiosensitive cancer cells are rapidly killed by modest doses of radiation. These include , most and . The majority of are only moderately radiosensitive, and require a significantly higher dose of radiation (60-70 Gy) to achieve a radical cure. Some types of cancer are notably radioresistant, that is, much higher doses are required to produce a radical cure than may be safe in clinical practice. and are generally considered to be radioresistant but radiation

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2012 Wikipedia

8497. Psychotherapy

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct . The examines and certifies "psychologists who demonstrate competence in approved specialty areas in professional psychology". History [ ] See also: and Psychotherapy can be said to have been practiced through the ages, as medics, philosophers, spiritual practitioners and people in general used psychological methods to heal others. In the , by the 19th century, a movement (then meaning morale or mental) developed based on non-invasive non (...) . Psychotherapy may address as a significant part of someone's mental / psychological life, and some forms are derived from spiritual philosophies, but practices based on treating the spiritual as a separate dimension are not necessarily considered as traditional or 'legitimate' forms of psychotherapy. Historically, psychotherapy has sometimes meant "interpretative" (i.e. ) methods, namely , in contrast with other methods to treat psychiatric disorders such as behavior modification. Psychotherapy is often

2012 Wikipedia

8498. Psychology

, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of . By many accounts psychology ultimately aims to benefit society. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in , , or settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed (...) -Jewish policies of the , and all psychologists had to distance themselves from Freud and Adler. The Göring Institute was well-financed throughout the war with a mandate to create a "New German Psychotherapy". This psychotherapy aimed to align suitable Germans with the overall goals of the Reich; as described by one physician: "Despite the importance of analysis, spiritual guidance and the active cooperation of the patient represent the best way to overcome individual mental problems

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2012 Wikipedia

8499. Psychiatry

of psychiatry has continued to become more biological and less conceptually isolated from other medical fields. Scope of practice [ ] Further information: for neuropsychiatric conditions per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002. no data less than 10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 120-140 140-150 more than 150 Though the medical specialty of psychiatry uses research in the field of , , , , , and , it has generally been considered a middle ground between and psychology. Because psychiatry (...) to twice a year, depending on the type, severity and stability of each person's condition, and depending on what the clinician and patient decide would be best. Increasingly, psychiatrists are limiting their practices to psychopharmacology (prescribing medications), as opposed to previous practice in which a psychiatrist would provide traditional 50-minute psychotherapy sessions, of which psychopharmacology would be a part, but most of the consultation sessions consisted of "talk therapy." This shift

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2012 Wikipedia

8500. Psychiatric and mental health nursing

practices as a or a after obtaining a master's degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing. Psychiatric-mental health nursing (PMHN) is a nursing specialty. The course work in a master's degree program includes specialty practice. APRN’s assess, diagnose, and treat individuals or families with psychiatric problems/disorders or the potential for such disorders, as well as performing the functions associated with the basic level. They provide a full range of primary mental health care services (...) a questionnaire for the mentally ill using biographical information to determine the best course of psychological treatment and care. Some of the first known psychiatric care centers were constructed in the Middle East during the 8th century. The medieval Muslim physicians and their attendants relied on clinical observations for diagnosis and treatment. In 13th century medieval Europe, psychiatric hospitals were built to house the mentally ill, but there were not any nurses to care for them and treatment

2012 Wikipedia

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