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121. Association of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness With Longitudinal β-Amyloid Accumulation in Elderly Persons Without Dementia. (PubMed)

Association of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness With Longitudinal β-Amyloid Accumulation in Elderly Persons Without Dementia. Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear.To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly (...) individuals without dementia.This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Of 2900 participants, 2172 (74.9%) agreed to undergo carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET). We included 283 participants 70 years or older without dementia who completed surveys assessing sleepiness at baseline and had at least 2 consecutive PiB-PET scans from January 1, 2009

2018 JAMA neurology

122. Co-morbidities only account for a small proportion of excess mortality after fracture: a record linkage study of individual fracture types. (Full text)

Co-morbidities only account for a small proportion of excess mortality after fracture: a record linkage study of individual fracture types. Nonhip, nonvertebral (NHNV) fractures constitute the majority of osteoporotic fractures, but few studies have examined the association between these fractures, comorbidity, and mortality. Our objective was to examine the relationship between individual nonhip, nonvertebral fractures, comorbidities, and mortality. The prospective population-based cohort

2018 Journal of Bone and Mineral Research PubMed

123. Self-reported body silhouette trajectories across the lifespan and excessive daytime sleepiness in adulthood: a retrospective analysis. The Paris Prospective Study III. (Full text)

Self-reported body silhouette trajectories across the lifespan and excessive daytime sleepiness in adulthood: a retrospective analysis. The Paris Prospective Study III. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common sleep complaint in the population and is increasingly recognised as deleterious for health. Simple and sensitive tools allowing identifying individuals at greater risk of EDS would be of public health importance. Hence, we determined trajectories of body silhouette from early (...) childhood to adulthood and evaluated their association with EDS in adulthood.A retrospective analysis in a prospective community-based study.6820 men and women self-reported their silhouette at ages 8, 15, 25, 35 and 45 using the body silhouettes proposed by Stunkard et al. EDS was defined by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥11.Presence of EDS in adulthood.The study population comprised 6820 participants (mean age 59.8 years, 61.1% men). Five distinct body silhouettes trajectories over the lifespan

2018 BMJ open PubMed

124. Multiple dimensions of excessive daytime sleepiness (Full text)

Multiple dimensions of excessive daytime sleepiness In this study we investigated subjective measures of sleepiness and related our findings to dimensions of affect, fatigue, emotion, mood and quality of life based on a hypothetical multidimensional model of sleepiness.Patients referred to a sleep clinic were assessed regarding their excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep complaints, routine and symptoms. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Stanford

2018 Journal of thoracic disease PubMed

125. Collagen Damage Location in Articular Cartilage Differs if Damage is Caused by Excessive Loading Magnitude or Rate (Full text)

Collagen Damage Location in Articular Cartilage Differs if Damage is Caused by Excessive Loading Magnitude or Rate Collagen damage in articular cartilage is considered nearly irreversible and may be an early indication of cartilage degeneration. Surface fibrillation and internal collagen damage may both develop after overloading. This study hypothesizes that damage develops at these different locations, because the distribution of excessive strains varies with loading rate as a consequence (...) of time-dependent cartilage properties. The objective is to explore whether collagen damage could preferentially occur superficially or internally, depending on the magnitude and rate of overloading. Bovine osteochondral plugs were compressed with a 2 mm diameter indenter to 15, 25, 35 and 45 N, and at 5, 60 and 120 mm/min. Surface fibrillation and internal collagen damage were graded by four observers, based on histology and staining of collagen damage. Results show that loading magnitude affects

2018 Annals of biomedical engineering PubMed

126. Patterns of methadone maintenance treatment provision in Ontario: Policy success or pendulum excess? (Full text)

Patterns of methadone maintenance treatment provision in Ontario: Policy success or pendulum excess? To describe recent trends and patterns in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) practice regionally and over time in the province of Ontario.Population-based descriptive study using health administrative data between September 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014.Ontario.All active MMT-prescribing physicians and patients receiving MMT in the study period.Characteristics of MMT-prescribing physicians

2018 Canadian Family Physician PubMed

127. Differences over 12 Years in Food Portion Size and Association with Excess Body Weight in the City of São Paulo, Brazil (Full text)

Differences over 12 Years in Food Portion Size and Association with Excess Body Weight in the City of São Paulo, Brazil Although changes in Brazilian diet have occurred over the last decades, there is no evidence about differences in food portion sizes (FPS) over time. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of FPS with excess body weight (EBW), and to monitor differences in the population from São Paulo, Brazil, from 2003 to 2015. Data came from three cross-sectional population-based

2018 Nutrients PubMed

128. A Cause-of-Death Decomposition of Young Adult Excess Mortality (Full text)

A Cause-of-Death Decomposition of Young Adult Excess Mortality We propose a method to decompose the young adult mortality hump by cause of death. This method is based on a flexible shape decomposition of mortality rates that separates cause-of-death contributions to the hump from senescent mortality. We apply the method to U.S. males and females from 1959 to 2015. Results show divergence between time trends of hump and observed deaths, both for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The study

2018 Demography PubMed

129. Reduction of Prolonged Excessive Pressure in Seated Persons With Paraplegia Using Wireless Lingual Tactile Feedback: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Full text)

Reduction of Prolonged Excessive Pressure in Seated Persons With Paraplegia Using Wireless Lingual Tactile Feedback: A Randomized Controlled Trial Pressure ulcers (PU) are known to be a high-cost disease with a risk of severe morbidity. This paper evaluates a new clinical strategy based on an innovative medical device [Tongue Display Unit (TDU)] that implements perceptive supplementation in order to reduce prolonged excessive pressure, recognized as one of the main causes of PU. A randomized (...) that persons with SCI could benefit from a system based on perceptive supplementation that alerts and guides the user on how to adapt their posture in order to reduce prolonged excessive pressure, one of the main causes of PU.

2018 IEEE journal of translational engineering in health and medicine PubMed

130. Hydroxychloroquine prescription trends and predictors for excess dosing per recent ophthalmology guidelines (Full text)

Hydroxychloroquine prescription trends and predictors for excess dosing per recent ophthalmology guidelines Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy may be more common than previously recognized; recent ophthalmology guidelines have revised recommendations from ideal body weight (IBW)-based dosing to actual body weight (ABW)-based dosing. However, contemporary HCQ prescribing trends in the UK remain unknown.We examined a UK general population database to investigate HCQ dosing between 2007 and 2016 (...) % (multivariable OR 1.98; 95% CI,1.81-2.15) using ABW. Applying IBW, 37% of normal and 44% of obese patients were excess-dosed; however, applying ABW, 53% of normal and 10% of obese patients were excess-dosed (multivariable ORs = 1.61 and 0.1 (reference = normal); both p < 0.01). Long-term HCQ users showed similar excess dosing.A substantial proportion of HCQ users in the UK, particularly women, may have excess HCQ dosing per the previous or recent weight-based guidelines despite a modest decline in recent

2018 Arthritis research & therapy PubMed

131. Partnering With WIC to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Pregnancy

Partnering With WIC to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Pregnancy Partnering With WIC to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Pregnancy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Partnering With WIC (...) to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Pregnancy (GWG) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03707834 Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting First Posted : October 16, 2018 Last Update Posted : October 16, 2018 Sponsor: Temple University Collaborator: National Institute of Diabetes

2018 Clinical Trials

132. Irisin alleviates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and decreasing oxidative stress (Full text)

Irisin alleviates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and decreasing oxidative stress Current management of liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is mainly based on supportive care and no specific treatment is available. Irisin, a recently identified hormone, plays pivotal roles in energy expenditure and oxidative metabolism; however, it remains unknown whether irisin has any protective effects on hepatic I/R

2018 Redox biology PubMed

133. A Novel Hypothesis on Excessive Activation of Residual B Lymphocytes in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Concurrent with Aseptic, Erosive Polyarthritis (Full text)

A Novel Hypothesis on Excessive Activation of Residual B Lymphocytes in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Concurrent with Aseptic, Erosive Polyarthritis The aim of this study was to report aseptic, erosive polyarthritis in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), which is quite different from the vastly more common nonerosive form. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patient were isolated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the proportion and function of lymphocytes (...) . A Parker-Pearson needle biopsy was performed on the right knee. Four of her unaffected family members were enrolled as controls. A 21-year-old woman was admitted for recurrent polyarthritis of 3-year duration. The right knee, hip, wrist, proximal interphalangeal joints, and left elbow were involved, with progressive joint destruction. She was diagnosed as having CVID based on her recurrent infections, poor response to vaccines, and marked hypogammaglobulinemia. No bacterium or mycobacterium

2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research PubMed

134. Understanding how excess lead iodide precursor improves halide perovskite solar cell performance (Full text)

film on charge diffusion length, using electron-beam-induced current measurements, and on film formation properties, from grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on our results, we propose that excess lead iodide in the perovskite precursors can reduce the halide vacancy concentration and lead to formation of azimuthal angle-oriented cubic α-perovskite crystals in-between 0° and 90°. We further identify a higher perovskite carrier (...) Understanding how excess lead iodide precursor improves halide perovskite solar cell performance The presence of excess lead iodide in halide perovskites has been key for surpassing 20% photon-to-power conversion efficiency. To achieve even higher power conversion efficiencies, it is important to understand the role of remnant lead iodide in these perovskites. To that end, we explored the mechanism facilitating this effect by identifying the impact of excess lead iodide within the perovskite

2018 Nature communications PubMed

135. An early increase in endothelial protein C receptor is associated with excess mortality in pneumococcal pneumonia with septic shock in the ICU (Full text)

An early increase in endothelial protein C receptor is associated with excess mortality in pneumococcal pneumonia with septic shock in the ICU This study investigated changes in plasma level of soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) in association with outcome in patients with septic shock. We explored sEPCR for early sepsis prognosis assessment and constructed a scoring system based on clinical and biological data, in order to discriminate between surviving at hospital discharge (...) and non-surviving patients.Clinical data and samples were extracted from the prospective "STREPTOGENE" cohort. We enrolled 278 patients, from 50 intensive care units (ICUs), with septic shock caused by pneumococcal pneumonia. Patients were divided into survivors (n = 194) and non-survivors (n = 84) based on in-hospital mortality. Soluble EPCR plasma levels were quantified at day 1 (D1) and day 2 (D2) by ELISA. The EPCR gene A3 haplotype was determined. Patients were followed up until hospital

2018 Critical Care PubMed

136. Clustering of Excess Body Weight-Related Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Adolescents (Full text)

Clustering of Excess Body Weight-Related Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Adolescents The aim of the study was to identify the existence of clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviors, including consumption of fruits/vegetables, sugary products/soft drinks, physical activity and sedentary behavior. The association between identified clusters and excess body weight in a sample of adolescents from Dourados, Brazil, was examined. This is a cross-sectional school-based study involving 578 (...) participants aged 12⁻18 of both sexes. Anthropometric measurements were performed and a questionnaire was applied with structured questions to collect data. Excess body weight was identified through body mass index. Cluster analysis was performed to identify sex-specific clusters of multiple lifestyle behaviors. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between clusters and excess body weight. Six clusters were identified in both sexes. Girls and boys in the cluster

2018 Nutrients PubMed

137. Accuracy of new recommendations for adrenal incidentalomas in the evaluation of excessive cortisol secretion and follow-up. (PubMed)

Accuracy of new recommendations for adrenal incidentalomas in the evaluation of excessive cortisol secretion and follow-up. To evaluate whether the 2016 European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) recommendations for the management of adrenal incidentalomas accurately classifies those patients who do not require further follow-up.Single centre retrospective study. From 2010 to 2015, 130 patients with adrenal incidentaloma were evaluated and followed-up. Clinical, analytical and radiological data (...) were recorded and the presence of comorbidities was assessed. Patients were grouped as nonfunctional or subclinical Cushing syndrome according to American guidelines; and nonfunctional, possible autonomous cortisol secretion and autonomous cortisol secretion, according to ESE guidelines.Based on American guidelines, 94% of patients had nonfunctional adrenal incidentalomas and 6% had subclinical Cushing syndrome. Based on ESE guidelines, patients were classified into nonfunctional (54%), possible

2018 European journal of clinical investigation

138. Multistate modelling to estimate excess length of stay and risk of death associated with organ/space infection after elective colorectal surgery. (PubMed)

).A multicentre prospective adult cohort undergoing ECS, January 2012 to December 2014, at 10 Spanish hospitals was used. SSI was considered the time-varying exposure and defined as incisional (superficial and deep) or OS. Discharge alive and death were the study endpoints. The mean excess LOS was estimated using a multistate model which provided a weighted average based on the states patients passed through. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to assess the effect of OS-SSI on risk of discharge (...) Multistate modelling to estimate excess length of stay and risk of death associated with organ/space infection after elective colorectal surgery. Accounting for time-dependency and competing events are strongly recommended to estimate excess length of stay (LOS) and risk of death associated with healthcare-associated infections.To assess the effect of organ/space (OS) surgical site infection (SSI) on excess LOS and in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery (ECS

2018 Journal of Hospital Infection

139. Social Class and Excess Mortality in Sweden During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. (PubMed)

by combining information from death records with census data on occupation. Social class was measured by an occupation-based class scheme. Excess mortality during the pandemic was measured as the number of deaths relative to the number occurring in the same month the year before. Social class differences in numbers of deaths were modeled using a complementary log-log model that was adjusted for potential confounding at the family, the residential (urban/rural), and the county levels. We found notable class (...) Social Class and Excess Mortality in Sweden During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Consensus is lacking in the literature about the role of socioeconomic factors on influenza-associated deaths during the 1918 pandemic. Although some scholars have found that social factors were important, others have not. In this study, we analyzed differences in excess mortality by social class in Sweden during the 1918 pandemic. We analyzed individual-level mortality of the entire population aged 30-59 years

2018 American Journal of Epidemiology

140. Inconsistent and excessive opioid prescribing after common pediatric surgical operations. (PubMed)

Inconsistent and excessive opioid prescribing after common pediatric surgical operations. Opioid misuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Post-operative opioids have been linked to overdose, diversion, and dependency in adults, but comparatively less is known in children. We evaluated opioid prescriptions following tonsillectomy and hernia repair at our institution.Retrospective chart review of all outpatient tonsillectomies and inguinal/umbilical hernia repairs at a single (...) -provider variation in the days' supplied of post-operative opioid. 90-100% of patients reported adequate pain control at discharge callback regardless of pain control regimen (opioid alone, opioid + non-opioid analgesic, non-opioid analgesic alone).Significant variation in post-operative prescribing practices was identified as well as overall over-prescription, which will serve as a starting point to institute evidence-based intervention to reduce post-operative opioid misuse after these common

2018 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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