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98401. Stress among general practitioners and their spouses: a qualitative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

concern regarding their husbands' excessive commitment to work and problems with communication.Recent changes to contractual working conditions have caused general practitioners to focus their energies on their practice instead of paying attention to the needs of their family. Male general practitioners leave the bulk of responsibility for running the family and household to their wives, but women general practitioners appear to maintain domestic responsibility while spending as much time in medical (...) practice as their male colleagues. This is only an exploratory study based on a small sample, and so the findings cannot be generalized; however, it provides in-depth information on stress among general practitioners and their spouses.

1996 The British Journal of General Practice

98402. Evidence of an association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and skin cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and vice versa, were studied. Expected numbers of subsequent cancers were calculated by sex, age, and period specific national incidence rates multiplied by the person years under observation in the cohorts.Denmark (1943-89) and Sweden (1958-89).Four population based cohorts identified in the nationwide cancer registries (34,641 people with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 17,400 with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, 34,989 with malignant melanoma, 25,980 with squamous (...) risks for malignant melanoma were 2.4 (1.8 to 3.2) for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 3.1 (2.1 to 4.4) for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. After squamous cell skin cancer had been diagnosed there was a twofold excess risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. By contrast, in each of the cohorts the general cancer risks excluding skin and lymphoproliferative malignancies were close to the expected.The occurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and skin cancer

1995 BMJ : British Medical Journal

98403. The effect of bronchial blood flow on hyperpnea-induced airway obstruction and injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the absence of BBF; and (g) ligation of the bronchial artery and hyperpnea with dry air each increased airway vessel diameter, and these effects were additive. We conclude that either impairment or absence of BBF abolishes bronchovascular leakage and increases hyperpnea-induced mucosal injury, but fails to affect HIAO. Based on these results we speculate that bronchovascular leakage protects the bronchial mucosa from excessive losses of heat and water, and inhibits mucosal damage.

1995 Journal of Clinical Investigation

98404. Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders. We develop several formal models for comorbidity between multifactorial disorders. Based on the work of D. N. Klein and L. P. Riso, the models include (i) alternate forms, where the two disorders have the same underlying continuum of liability; (ii) random multiformity, in which affection status on one disorder abruptly increases risk for the second; (iii) extreme multiformity, where only extreme cases have an abruptly increased risk (...) for the second disorder; (iv) three independent disorders, in which excess comorbid cases are due to a separate, third disorder; (v) correlated liabilities, where the risk factors for the two disorders correlate; and (vi) direct causal models, where the liability for one disorder is a cause of the other disorder. These models are used to make quantitative predictions about the relative proportions of pairs of relatives who are classified according to whether each relative has neither disorder, disorder

1995 American Journal of Human Genetics

98405. Histological discrimination of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease from other types of colitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

other forms of colitis included distorted architecture, lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrate, excess of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, polymorphonuclear cryptitis, crypt abscesses, and basal lymphoid aggregates. The features discriminating between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis included an irregular or villous surface, distorted architecture, decrease in mucus content, and polymorphonuclear cryptitis. Using multivariate analysis, 90% of patients with Crohn's disease and 71% of those (...) with ulcerative colitis were correctly classified, the former being strongly defined by epithelioid granulomas, microgranulomas and isolated giant cells, and the latter best defined by an irregular or villous surface, decrease in mucus content and crypt atrophy.Examination of colorectal biopsy specimens is a reliable method for diagnosing IBD. In the absence of epithelioid granulomas, microgranulomas and isolated giant cells a diagnosis of Crohn's disease is based on the absence of histological criteria

1995 Journal of Clinical Pathology

98406. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92. To assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer.Record linkage study.Finland. SUBJECTS-1577 female and 187 male cabin attendants who had worked for the Finnish airline companies.Standardised incidence ratio; expected number of cases based on national cancer incidences.A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence (...) and parity--concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to the cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. Estimates of the effect of reproductive risk factors only partly explained the increased risk of breast cancer. If present estimates of health hazards due to radiation are also valid for cosmic radiation, then the radiation doses

1995 BMJ : British Medical Journal

98407. Respiratory illness in families of preterm infants with chronic lung disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Respiratory illness in families of preterm infants with chronic lung disease. AIMS--To examine the relation, based on two types of questionnaires, between (1) chronic lung disease of the newborn (CLDN) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) in siblings, and between (2) CLDN and asthma, chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD), or allergy in parents and grandparents. METHODS--Data from 209 children born before 32 weeks of gestation were randomly taken from the records of three neonatal units (...) . Taking into account age and gender, the excess of LRI was calculated for each family compared with the average of all families. Subsequently whether CLDN was associated with an excess of LRI in the family was tested. RESULTS--Thirty one (14.8%) children were diagnosed as having CLDN. The family probability index for LRI did not differ between children with or without CLDN. The prevalence of COPD, asthma, and allergy in parents of children with CLDN was similar to that of children without CLDN

1995 Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition

98408. Serologically diagnosed infection with human papillomavirus type 16 and risk for subsequent development of cervical carcinoma: nested case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serologically diagnosed infection with human papillomavirus type 16 and risk for subsequent development of cervical carcinoma: nested case-control study. To study human papillomavirus type 16 in the aetiology of cervical carcinoma.Within a cohort of 18814 Finnish women followed up to 23 years a nested case-control study was conducted based on serological diagnosis of past infection with human papillomavirus type 16.72 women (27 with invasive carcinoma and 45 with in situ carcinoma) and 143 (...) epidemiological evidence that infection with human papillomavirus type 16 confers an excess risk for subsequent development of cervical carcinoma.

1996 BMJ : British Medical Journal

98409. A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of a fiberglass manufacturing facility. Full Text available with Trip Pro

appears to be sufficiently greater than the corresponding United States data in 1955 to suggest that some of the previously reported excess of lung cancer for Newark based on United States mortality may be accounted for by differences in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between white men in Newark and those in the United States as a whole.

1992 British Journal of Industrial Medicine

98410. Cancer in Cumbria and in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear installation, 1963-90. Full Text available with Trip Pro

cancers and age groups.Previous reports of an increased incidence of cancer, especially of leukaemia, among those aged 0-24 years in Seascale during the period up to and including 1983 are confirmed. During 1984-90 there was an excess of total cancer among those aged 0-24 years. This was based on four cases including two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma but none of leukaemia. There was an increased, but nonsignificant, incidence of other cancers, based on two cases (one pinealoma and one Hodgkin's (...) Cancer in Cumbria and in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear installation, 1963-90. To reappraise the epidemiological findings reported by the Black Advisory Group concerning a possible excess of malignant disease, particularly of childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear installation, and to determine whether any excess of malignant disease had occurred among people aged 0-24 years in the area in the years after the Black report

1993 BMJ : British Medical Journal

98411. Mental health services and outcome-driven health care. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mental health services and outcome-driven health care. Mental disorders and mental symptoms often go untreated in both chronic care and primary care settings. However, they covary with functional disability. They are likely to impair social and occupational function in medical outpatients and to cause excess instrumental and cognitive disability in frail older persons. In both groups, they are frequent and often remediable. The costs of untreated mental disorders are often shifted to caregivers (...) and to society in general. To ensure adequate mental health care requires a reorientation of medical care toward optimizing function and well-being as well as longevity. Such a reorientation will necessarily entail more attention to treatable mental disorders. Research is needed to (1) develop firm knowledge on which to base integrated medical and mental health treatment and (2) evaluate the potential economic benefits of combined care. Incentives must be changed if such a paradigm of care is to prosper.

1993 American Journal of Public Health

98412. Characterization of insulin-stimulated protein serine/threonine kinases in CHO cells expressing human insulin receptors with point and deletion mutations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of cytosolic protein kinases which phosphorylated myelin basic protein, Kemptide and two peptide substrates based on sites phosphorylated on ribosomal protein S6 in vivo. (2) Further fractionation of cytosolic extracts by MonoQ chromatography revealed two peaks of insulin-stimulated myelin basic protein kinase activity which were highly related to the previously described mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1 and ERK2. In addition, at least two major peaks of S6 kinase activity were resolved, which (...) exhibited properties similar to the 70 kDa and 90 kDa S6 kinases described by others; the predominant effect of insulin was on the activity of the 90 kDa enzyme and was in excess of 10-fold. (3) MonoQ fractionation of extracts from parental CHO cells, or cells expressing kinase-deficient receptors, showed all insulin-stimulated peaks of activity to be almost completely absent. (4) Further studies demonstrated that substitution of tyrosine residues 1162 and 1163 (or 1162 alone) with phenylalanine led

1992 Biochemical Journal

98413. Musculoskeletal symptoms and type A behaviour in blue collar workers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Musculoskeletal symptoms and type A behaviour in blue collar workers. Type A behaviour pattern, characterised by excessive competitiveness, impatience, hostility and time urgency, has been previously investigated as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. There are few studies concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and type A behaviour. Could there be a higher frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms with a more pronounced type A behaviour?A cross sectional retrospective study. Standardised nordic (...) questionnaires were used for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms and the Bortner questionnaire and its subscales (1) speed and (2) hard driving and competitiveness were used to assess type A behaviour.Factory based (a manufacturing industry where they make ventilating shafts).58 blue collar workers (51 men and seven women). Mean age was 36.9 years. Mean employment time was seven years.Blue collar workers with musculoskeletal symptoms had a more pronounced type A behaviour than those without symptoms.For

1992 British Journal of Industrial Medicine

98414. Screening and genetic counselling for relatives of patients with breast cancer in a family cancer clinic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

cancer for relatives of women affected at different ages and used these to establish a family cancer clinic offering breast screening based on individual risk. In three years we have seen 851 patients. Compliance for annual radiology was in excess of 83% over this period and of five cancers detected one had a lump at presentation, two developed interval breast lumps, and two were asymptomatic.

1992 Journal of Medical Genetics

98415. Atrial fibrillation and stroke: prevalence in different types of stroke and influence on early and long term prognosis (Oxfordshire community stroke project) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Atrial fibrillation and stroke: prevalence in different types of stroke and influence on early and long term prognosis (Oxfordshire community stroke project) To determine in patients with first ever stroke whether atrial fibrillation influences clinical features, the need to perform computed tomography, and prognosis.Observational cohort study with maximum follow up of 6.5 years.Primary care, based on 10 general practices in urban and rural Oxfordshire.Consecutive series of 675 patients (...) fibrillation was not associated with a definite excess risk of recurrent stroke, either within 30 days or within the first few years. Survivors with and without atrial fibrillation had a clinically important absolute risk of further serious vascular events.

1992 BMJ : British Medical Journal

98416. Improving surveillance of the impact of influenza and its prevention in Canada Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improving surveillance of the impact of influenza and its prevention in Canada The organization of Canada's provincial health care systems and the administrative databases that sustain them provide physicians, epidemiologists and public health officials with unique opportunities to improve surveillance of influenza and its prevention. These databases can be used to measure the impact of influenza on excess mortality, hospitalization and costs to the health care system. They can also be used (...) to study the epidemiology of influenza vaccination practices. Studies using the administrative database for the province of Manitoba have established the epidemiological rationale for hospital-based vaccination and have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination. As pneumococcal vaccination becomes widespread in Canada, provincial databases should also prove useful in assessing the impact of the pneumococcal infections and their prevention with pneumococcal vaccine.

1993 The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases

98417. Segregation analysis of cancer in families of childhood soft-tissue-sarcoma patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Segregation analysis of cancer in families of childhood soft-tissue-sarcoma patients. This paper presents the analysis of familial cancer data collected in a hospital-based study of 159 childhood soft-tissue-sarcoma patients. Two different statistical models detected excess aggregation of cancer, which could be explained by a rare dominant gene. For each kindred, we estimated the probability of the observed cancer distribution under the dominant-gene model and identified 12 families

1992 American Journal of Human Genetics

98418. Passive smoking and lung cancer in nonsmoking women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Passive smoking and lung cancer in nonsmoking women. The causes of lung cancer among nonsmokers are not clearly understood. To further evaluate the relation between passive smoke exposure and lung cancer in nonsmoking women, we conducted a population-based, case-control study.Case patients (n = 618), identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1986 through 1991, included 432 lifetime nonsmokers and 186 ex-smokers who had stopped at least 15 years before diagnosis or who had (...) of pack-years and average hours exposed per day was considered, a 30% excess risk was shown at the highest quartile of exposure among lifetime nonsmokers.Ours and other recent studies suggest a small but consistent increased risk of lung cancer from passive smoking. Comprehensive actions to limit smoking in public places and worksites are well-advised.

1992 American Journal of Public Health

98419. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by us, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance (...) of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, transitions at the dinucleotide CpG show the largest male predominance (11-fold). In contrast to single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males

1993 American Journal of Human Genetics

98420. A note on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of VNTR data by using the Federal Bureau of Investigation's fixed-bin method. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(SBP) in forensic data bases, which could indicate lack of independence. Nevertheless, another explanation is that the excess SBP are artifacts of laboratory methods. In this report we examine the excess of SBP for three VNTR loci studied by the FBI (D17S79 and D2S44, for blacks, and D14S13, for Caucasians). The FBI claims that the excess is due to the effect of null alleles; the null alleles are suspected to be too small to be detected. We estimate the frequency of null alleles for two loci (...) A note on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of VNTR data by using the Federal Bureau of Investigation's fixed-bin method. To fully utilize the information of VNTR data for forensic inference, the probability of observing the matching suspect and evidentiary profile in a reference population is estimated, usually by assuming independence of alleles within and between loci. This assumption has been challenged on the basis of the observation that there is frequently an excess of single-band phenotypes

1992 American Journal of Human Genetics

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