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Bacterial Endocarditis

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1. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: distinct mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to damaged and inflamed heart valves. (PubMed)

Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: distinct mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to damaged and inflamed heart valves. The pathogenesis of endocarditis is not well understood resulting in unsuccessful attempts at prevention. Clinical observations suggest that Staphylococcus aureus infects either damaged or inflamed heart valves. Using a newly developed endocarditis mouse model, we therefore studied the initial adhesion of S. aureus in both risk states.Using 3D confocal microscopy, we examined (...) the adhesion of fluorescent S. aureus to murine aortic valves. To mimic different risk states we either damaged the valves with a surgically placed catheter or simulated valve inflammation by local endothelium activation. We used von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene-deficient mice, induced platelet and fibrinogen depletion and used several S. aureus mutant strains to investigate the contribution of both host and bacterial factors in early bacterial adhesion. Both cardiac valve damage and inflammation

2019 European Heart Journal

2. Endocarditis and bacterial brain abscess in a young woman with a single atrium, patent ductus arteriosus, and Eisenmenger syndrome: A case report. (PubMed)

Endocarditis and bacterial brain abscess in a young woman with a single atrium, patent ductus arteriosus, and Eisenmenger syndrome: A case report. A single atrium is a rare congenital heart disease (CHD) involving zero atrial septal traces and preserved intact ventricular septum and atrioventricular valves, requiring careful surgical intervention. However, developing to Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) makes the surgery complicated. Based on bidirectional cardiac shunting, vegetation easily develops (...) in case of bacterial infection.We reported a 35-year-old woman with a single atrium, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hypertension, and ES who developed infective endocarditis on her left ventricular outflow tract and complicated cerebral abscess and who underwent challenged medical treatment.Infection was successfully controlled after 4-time change in antibiotics over 4 months. However, surgery is complicated for her.The patient presented a relatively good outcome during follow-up for >6

2019 Medicine

3. Antibiotics for the prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis in dentistry. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for the prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis in dentistry. Infective endocarditis is a severe infection arising in the lining of the chambers of the heart with a high mortality rate.Many dental procedures cause bacteraemia and it was believed that this may lead to bacterial endocarditis (BE) in a few people. Guidelines in many countries have recommended that prior to invasive dental procedures antibiotics are administered to people at high risk of endocarditis. However, recent (...) guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England and Wales has recommended that antibiotics are not required.To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic administration, compared to no such administration or placebo, before invasive dental procedures in people at risk or at high risk of bacterial endocarditis influences mortality, serious illness or the incidence of endocarditis.The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials

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2013 Cochrane

4. New insights into valve-related intramural and intracellular bacterial diversity in infective endocarditis. (PubMed)

New insights into valve-related intramural and intracellular bacterial diversity in infective endocarditis. In infective endocarditis (IE), a severe inflammatory disease of the endocardium with an unchanged incidence and mortality rate over the past decades, only 1% of the cases have been described as polymicrobial infections based on microbiological approaches. The aim of this study was to identify potential biodiversity of bacterial species from infected native and prosthetic valves (...) . Furthermore, we compared the ultrastructural micro-environments to detect the localization and distribution patterns of pathogens in IE.Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rDNA, which allows analysis of the entire bacterial community within a single sample, we investigated the biodiversity of infectious bacterial species from resected native and prosthetic valves in a clinical cohort of 8 IE patients. Furthermore, we investigated the ultrastructural infected valve micro-environment by focused

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2017 PLoS ONE

5. Non-Bacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis Associated With Crohn's Disease. (PubMed)

Non-Bacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis Associated With Crohn's Disease. This report describes an atypical case of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis in a mitral valve. The patient suffered repeated emboli after achieving remission of Crohn disease in the acute phase. Echocardiography revealed mitral valve leaflet and subvalvular thickening. This initially was considered indicative of infective endocarditis or a cardiac tumor; however, pathologic and laboratory examinations showed nonbacterial (...) thrombotic endocarditis without antiphospholipid syndrome or a malignant tumor. We report a rare case of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis complicated with Crohn disease.Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

6. Outbreak of bacterial endocarditis associated with an oral surgery practice: New Jersey public health surveillance, 2013 to 2014. (PubMed)

Outbreak of bacterial endocarditis associated with an oral surgery practice: New Jersey public health surveillance, 2013 to 2014. In October and November 2014, the New Jersey Department of Health received reports of 3 patients who developed Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis after undergoing surgical procedures at the same oral surgery practice in New Jersey. Bacterial endocarditis is an uncommon but life-threatening condition; 3 patients with enterococcal endocarditis associated with a single (...) oral surgery practice is unusual. An investigation was initiated because of the potential ongoing public health risk.Public health officials conducted retrospective surveillance to identify additional patients with endocarditis associated with the practice. They interviewed patients using a standardized questionnaire. An investigative public health team inspected the office environment, interviewed staff, and reviewed medical records.Public health officials identified 15 confirmed patients

2018 Journal of the American Dental Association

7. Necrotizing Crescentic Glomerulonephritis Complicating Bivalvular Bacterial Endocarditis (PubMed)

Necrotizing Crescentic Glomerulonephritis Complicating Bivalvular Bacterial Endocarditis In the setting of an increasing incidence of endocarditis in the United States, we report a patient with necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) associated with native valve bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus parasanguinis. He was started on appropriate antibiotic treatment and subsequent blood cultures showed no growth. However, due to continuing decline in kidney function

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2018 Cureus

8. Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Definite Infective Endocarditis by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PubMed)

Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Definite Infective Endocarditis by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Infective endocarditis (IE) can be diagnosed using the Duke criteria, which cannot be conclusive especially when the results of blood cultures are negative. This study aimed at using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to isolate bacteria present in whole blood samples of patients with definitive IE on the basis of the method designed in this study. This laboratory and test (...) study was conducted on 20 whole blood samples taken from patients with definitive IE. Real-time PCR of the 16s rRNA was utilized to directly analyze whole blood samples to diagnose bacterial IE. Of 20 whole blood samples with definitive IE, only one blood culture (5%) was positive and the isolated bacterium belonged to Streptococci viridans group. Also, 13 whole blood samples were positive using real-time PCR technique. The isolated bacteria were Enterococcus faecalis with seven (35%) cases

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2018 Cardiology Research

9. Pseudo-vanishing lung syndrome in a patient with tricuspid valve bacterial endocarditis (PubMed)

Pseudo-vanishing lung syndrome in a patient with tricuspid valve bacterial endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with opioid use disorder who use injection drugs. It is frequently associated with tricuspid valve endocarditis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, with secondary pulmonary septic emboli. Herein, we report a unique case of pulmonary cavitation injury following pulmonary septic emboli in the setting of tricuspid valve (...) endocarditis in an injection drug user with opioid use disorder. The pattern of cavitary lung injury mimics radiographically indistinguishable features from vanishing lung syndrome during the most advanced stage of her illness. bacterial endocarditis secondary to septic emboli showered from the infected tricuspid valve. This complication, which resembles a pulmonary disease by the name of vanishing lung syndrome, is characterized

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2018 Journal of cardiology cases

10. Intracranial complications of acute bacterial endocarditis (PubMed)

Intracranial complications of acute bacterial endocarditis Infectious endocarditis (IE) clinically manifests as either subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) or acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE). Neurologic manifestations are markedly different for these two entities. ABE is caused by invasive, highly virulent pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus), whereas SBE is attributed to relatively avirulent, non-invasive organisms (e.g., viridans streptococci).Here, we reviewed the clinical (...) and radiographic presentations of a patient with cranial complications attributed to ABE. Such patients typically develop central nervous system (CNS) septic emboli resulting in stroke (with/without intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)) and/or mycotic aneurysms resulting in ICH bleeds.With ABE, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding may result in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), documented by positive Gram stain and/or culture for S. aureus, decreased glucose, highly elevated lactose acid levels, or ICH. Alternatively

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2018 Surgical neurology international

11. The risk of bacterial endocarditis after percutaneous and surgical biological pulmonary valve implantation. (PubMed)

The risk of bacterial endocarditis after percutaneous and surgical biological pulmonary valve implantation. This single center study compared the risk of bacterial endocarditis (BE) after surgical and percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation.Between Jan 1st 2010 and Dec 31st 2015 all patients who received a biological pulmonary valve (surgical/interventional) were identified. The clinical follow-up was analyzed with regard to BE applying the modified Duke criteria and echocardiographic

2018 International journal of cardiology

12. ANCA-associated pauci-immune glomerulonephritis in a patient with bacterial endocarditis: a challenging clinical dilemma (PubMed)

ANCA-associated pauci-immune glomerulonephritis in a patient with bacterial endocarditis: a challenging clinical dilemma We report the case of a 59-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and C infection presenting with acute kidney injury and enterococcus faecalis-infective endocarditis (IE). An elevated proteinase-3 (PR3)-ANCA and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) on renal biopsy were discovered, corresponding to ANCA-mediated GN. We conducted a literature review to assess the role of ANCA

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2017 Clinical Nephrology. Case Studies

13. A remarkable case of late-onset biatrial bacterial endocarditis of the Gore HELEX septal occluder (PubMed)

A remarkable case of late-onset biatrial bacterial endocarditis of the Gore HELEX septal occluder The HELEX septal occluder (W.L. Gore & Associates, Newark, DE, USA) is a popular closure device for patent foramen ovale (PFO) and secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Composed of a versatile polymer and a wire frame, it has been used for nearly a decade. A 50-year-old African American man with a PFO repaired 5 years previously with the HELEX was admitted to our hospital with methicillin-resistant

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2017 Journal of cardiology cases

14. Peripheral ischaemic retinopathy and neovascularisation in a patient with subacute streptococcus mitis-induced bacterial endocarditis (PubMed)

Peripheral ischaemic retinopathy and neovascularisation in a patient with subacute streptococcus mitis-induced bacterial endocarditis Objective: To describe a patient with peripheral retinal ischaemia and neovascularisation who was diagnosed with streptococcus mitis-induced bacterial endocarditis. Methods: Retrospective analysis of case report. A 57-year-old man presented with a history of a rapidly progressive, bilateral, painless visual loss. He also suffered from pain in the neck and lower (...) cultures confirmed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve. Streptococcus mitis was subsequently identified as the causative organism. Conclusion: Peripheral retinal ischaemia and neovascularisation were previously unrecognised as a feature of infectious endocarditis. Therefore, their presence, apart from the classic Roth spots, should prompt the consideration of infectious endocarditis in the etiologic work-up.

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2017 GMS Ophthalmology Cases

15. Bacterial Endocarditis Presenting as Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis (PubMed)

Bacterial Endocarditis Presenting as Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Subacute bacterial endocarditis can have many different presentations; in rare instances, it can present as leukocytoclastic vasculitis owing to the effect of circulating immune complexes and micro-emboli on the vascular endothelium. A high index of suspicion needs to be maintained to differentiate between infectious vs noninfectious autoimmune vasculitides, keeping in mind that missing a diagnosis can have fatal results (...) . In this case report, we introduce a young female patient who initially presented with a picture of idiopathic autoimmune cutaneous vasculitis delaying the diagnosis of an underlying infective endocarditis with aortic valve involvement.

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2017 Cureus

16. Viridans streptococcal (Streptococcus intermedius) mitral valve subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) in a patient with mitral valve prolapse after a dental procedure: The importance of antibiotic prophylaxis. (PubMed)

Viridans streptococcal (Streptococcus intermedius) mitral valve subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) in a patient with mitral valve prolapse after a dental procedure: The importance of antibiotic prophylaxis. Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) is an infection of the heart involving damaged valves or endothelium. The most common organisms causing SBE are the viridans streptococci. Viridans streptococci differ in their propensity to cause SBE, which is related to the ability to adhere (...) of viridans streptococci are inherently more virulent (eg, S. intermedius) and clinically resemble S. lugdunensis or S. aureus.We report a case of S. intermedius SBE in a patient with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Throughout the patient's life, she received antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures and never developed SBE. Because of changes in endocarditis prophylaxis guidelines in 2007, recommending no prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with MVP, she did not receive prophylaxis for a dental

2017 Heart & Lung

17. Daptomycin cure after cefazolin treatment failure of Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) tricuspid valve acute bacterial endocarditis from a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line. (PubMed)

Daptomycin cure after cefazolin treatment failure of Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) tricuspid valve acute bacterial endocarditis from a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line. Right-sided acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE) is an infrequent complication of central intravenous (IV) lines. We report a case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus tricuspid valve (TV) ABE related to a peripherally inserted central catheter line (PICC). Patients with right-sided

2017 Heart & Lung

18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mitral valve acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE) in a patient with Job's syndrome (hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome) successfully treated with linezolid and high-dose daptomycin. (PubMed)

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mitral valve acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE) in a patient with Job's syndrome (hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome) successfully treated with linezolid and high-dose daptomycin. Job's syndrome (hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome) is a congenitally acquired primary immune deficiency. The primary host defense defect in Job's syndrome is impaired phagocytosis. Accordingly, patients with Job's syndrome have difficulties eradicating staphylococcal (...) infections. A continuous, high-grade Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with a cardiac valve vegetation is the hallmark of S. aureus acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE). ABE may be caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We report a case of Job's syndrome MRSA mitral valve ABE. Presumably because of impaired phagocytic function, his MRSA ABE was complicated by extensive metastatic septic complications manifested as brain abscess, multiple

2017 Heart & Lung

19. Infective endocarditis

, the chordae tendineae, sites of septal defects, or the mural endocardium. Mylonakis E, Calderwood SB. Medical progress: infective endocarditis in adults. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 1;345(18):1318-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11794152?tool=bestpractice.com [Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: Gross pathology of subacute bacterial endocarditis involving mitral valve CDC/Dr Edwin P. Ewing, Jr; used with permission [Citation ends]. History and exam fever/chills night sweats (...) Infective endocarditis Infective endocarditis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Infective endocarditis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: August 2018 Summary Presentation is often non-specific and most commonly includes fever. Historical sources of bacteraemia should be considered, such as indwelling vascular catheters, recent dental work, and intravenous drug use. Symptoms are often subtle

2018 BMJ Best Practice

20. Analyzing The Effectiveness of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE) Prophylaxes in Dentistry

Analyzing The Effectiveness of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE) Prophylaxes in Dentistry UTCAT837, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Lack of Evidence for Effectiveness of Antibiotics for SBE Prophylaxes Prior to Invasive Dental Treatment Clinical Question In a patient with a history of heart murmur, how does the use of antibiotics compare to placebo with regards to SBE prophylaxes before an invasive (...) , and PIDS in the United States and other countries to prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis in high risk patients such as those having a previous history of bacterial endocarditis, prosthetic heart valve, or congenital heart abnormalities. | | | | | | | | Links from web sites affiliated with The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio's web site (www.uthscsa.edu) to other websites do not constitute or imply university endorsement of those sites, their content, or products and services

2011 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

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