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1. Vaccination of individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status

Vaccination of individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status Vaccination of individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status, 2018 •For online Green Book, see www.gov.uk/government/organisations/public-health-england/series/immunisation-against-infectious-disease-the-green-book • For other countries’ schedules, see http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/ 2 -12 months of age >12 months -2 years of age >2 years -10 years of age 10 years of age (...) follow the UK primary childhood immunisation schedule. The primary immunisation should NOT be delayed. • Children should not receive BCG. • If HAART is indicated for the older children with absent or non-protective antibody levels – vaccination should be delayed until ~ 6 months of VL 15% on HAART • UNLESS RELIABLE VACCINE HISTORY, INDIVIDUALS SHOULD BE ASSUMED TO BE UNIMMUNISED, AND A FULL COURSE OF IMMUNISATION PLANNED • First, check baseline serology if possible (diphtheria, tetanus, Hib, MenC

2018 The Children's HIV Association

2. The influence of neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation on heterologous vaccine responses in infants. (Abstract)

The influence of neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation on heterologous vaccine responses in infants. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), one of the most widely used vaccines, does not only provide protection against tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections, but also has non-specific (heterologous) immunomodulatory effects. In participants in a randomised trial, we investigated the effect of neonatal BCG immunisation on antibody responses to routine infant vaccines (...) given in the first year of life.Antibodies against antigens in the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were measured in 91 (45 BCG-vaccinated, 46 BCG-naïve) infants one month after, and in 310 (169 BCG-vaccinated, 141 BCG-naïve) infants seven months after immunisation at 6 weeks, 4 and 6 months of age. In addition, antibodies against meningococcus C, Hib, measles, mumps, and rubella were measured in 147 (78 BCG

2019 Vaccine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3. Characterization of immune responses of human PBMCs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra: Impact of donor declared BCG vaccination history on immune responses and M. tuberculosis growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of immune responses of human PBMCs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra: Impact of donor declared BCG vaccination history on immune responses and M. tuberculosis growth. This study characterized the immune responses in early Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Ra infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-collagen matrix culture and the impact of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination history of donor PBMCs on the immune responses to Mtb infection (...) . Aggregates of PBMCs were initially observed on day 3 and the size of aggregates continued to increase on day 8 post-infection, where macrophages and T cell subsets were identified to be present. Similarly, mycobacterial load progressively increased in infected PBMCs during the 8 days of culture but were significantly lower in infected PBMCs from BCG vaccinated (BCG+) donors compared to unvaccinated (BCG-) donors. The levels of INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 in the supernatants of Mtb-infected

2018 PLoS ONE

4. Canadian immunization guide : part 4. Active immunizing agents - Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine

Canadian immunization guide : part 4. Active immunizing agents - Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine Canadian Immunization Guide: Part 4 - Active Vaccines - Canada.ca Language selection Search Search Canada.ca Search Menu Main Menu You are here: Canadian Immunization Guide: Part 4 - Active Vaccines Table of Contents Organization: Updated: see Related Topics Report a problem or mistake on this page Please select all that apply: A link, button or video is not working It has a spelling mistake

2013 CPG Infobase

5. Vaccine-preventable Infections and Immunization in Multiple Sclerosis

to Poser 11 or McDonald 12 criteria. Initially, the panel included only cases of MS diagnosed by a neurologist but later revised this requirement because many studies used computerized databases. Accepted control group criteria varied by question. For questions referencing the general population, studies with only neurologic disease control groups were excluded. 11 The panel included immunizations recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 13 and vaccines suggested (...) immunization with BCG was not associated with increased risk of MS (10/140 cases, 10/131 HCs; OR 1; 95% CI, 0.4–2.6). In another Class II case-control study, 45 51 participants with MS and 34 matched HCs were evaluated for antibody reactivity to BCG. Anti- BCG IgG antibodies were found in 4/51 participants with MS and 6/34 HCs (OR 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1–1.5). A random-effects meta-analysis combining the 2 Class II studies found that individuals with MS had no higher odds of having a history of BCG vaccination

2019 American Academy of Neurology

6. A Trial Investigating the Influence of BCG and Hepatitis B Immunisation at Birth on Neonatal Immune Responses: The Early Life Vaccines and Immunity Study

specific targeted disease. The underlying immunological mechanisms responsible for these effects are incompletely understood, but evidence is mounting that the innate immune system is central to these observed effects. This study is a randomised controlled trial designed to determine the influence of two commonly administered neonatal immunisations, BCG and Hepatitis B vaccine, given at birth, on the neonatal immune responses to non-specific antigens. The investigators will recruit 200 newborns (...) : A Randomised, Controlled Trial Investigating the Influence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) and Hepatitis B Immunisation at Birth on Neonatal Immune Responses Study Start Date : March 2015 Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : June 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Active Comparator: Group 1 BCG vaccine, 0,05ml intradermally at birth Drug: BCG Vaccine

2015 Clinical Trials

7. Differential DNA methylation of potassium channel KCa3.1 and immune signalling pathways is associated with infant immune responses following BCG vaccination Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential DNA methylation of potassium channel KCa3.1 and immune signalling pathways is associated with infant immune responses following BCG vaccination Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) and induces highly variable protection against pulmonary disease in different countries. We hypothesised that DNA methylation is one of the molecular mechanisms driving variability in BCG-induced immune responses. DNA methylation in peripheral blood (...) mononuclear cells (PBMC) from BCG vaccinated infants was measured and comparisons made between low and high BCG-specific cytokine responders. We found 318 genes and 67 pathways with distinct patterns of DNA methylation, including immune pathways, e.g. for T cell activation, that are known to directly affect immune responses. We also highlight signalling pathways that could indirectly affect the BCG-induced immune response: potassium and calcium channel, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G Protein coupled

2018 Scientific reports

8. Balancing Trained Immunity with Persistent Immune Activation and the Risk of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Infant Macaques Vaccinated with Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Balancing Trained Immunity with Persistent Immune Activation and the Risk of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Infant Macaques Vaccinated with Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Our goal is to develop a pediatric combination vaccine to protect the vulnerable infant population against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and tuberculosis (TB) infections. The vaccine consists of an auxotroph Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain that coexpresses (...) bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), can induce potent innate immune responses and confer pathogen-unspecific trained immunity, we hypothesized that an imbalance between enhanced myeloid cell function and immune activation might have influenced the outcome of oral SIV challenge in AMtb-SIV-vaccinated infants. To address this question, we used archived samples from unchallenged animals from our previous AMtb-SIV vaccine studies and vaccinated additional infant macaques with BCG or AMtb only. Our

2017 Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI

9. Immune response profiles of calves following vaccination with live BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine candidates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immune response profiles of calves following vaccination with live BCG and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine candidates. Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable (...) control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations. The aim of this study was to compare the immune response profiles in response to parenteral vaccination with live BCG and two inactivated vaccine candidates in cattle. Twenty-four mixed breed calves (Bos taurus) aged 4-6 months, were

2017 PLoS ONE

10. Lactic acid Bacteria isolated from European badgers (Meles meles) reduce the viability and survival of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and influence the immune response to BCG in a human macrophage model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lactic acid Bacteria isolated from European badgers (Meles meles) reduce the viability and survival of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and influence the immune response to BCG in a human macrophage model Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is the most serious endemic disease affecting livestock in the UK. The European badger (Meles meles) is the most important wildlife reservoir of bTB transmission to cattle, making eradication particularly difficult. In this respect (...) , oral vaccination with the attenuated M. bovis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been suggested as a wide-scale intervention to reduce bTB infection in badgers. However, experimental studies show variable protection. Among the possibilities for this variation is that the resident gut bacteria may influence the success of oral vaccination in badgers; either through competitive exclusion and/or inhibition, or via effects on the host immune system. In order to explore this possibility, we have

2018 BMC microbiology

11. Transient Immune Activation in BCG-Vaccinated Infant Rhesus Macaques Is Not Sufficient to Influence Oral Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transient Immune Activation in BCG-Vaccinated Infant Rhesus Macaques Is Not Sufficient to Influence Oral Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. BCG vaccination has been demonstrated to increase levels of activated CD4+ T cells, thus potentially influencing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the risk of BCG vaccination in HIV infection, we randomly assigned newborn rhesus macaques to receive BCG vaccine or remain unvaccinated and then undergo oral (...) simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges 3 weeks later. We observed elevated levels of activated peripheral CD4+ T cells (ie, HLA-DR+CD38+CCR5+ CD4+ T cells) by week 3 after vaccination. BCG was also associated with an altered immune gene expression profile, as well as with monocyte activation in both peripheral blood and the draining axillary lymph node, indicating significant BCG vaccine-induced immune activation. Despite these effects, BCG vaccination did not increase the rate of SIV oral

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

12. Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK

Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination (...) , Elliman D, Lipman M & Rodrigues L C. Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK. Health Technology Assessment 2017; 21(39) Authors' objectives To assess the duration of protection of infant and school-age BCG vaccination against TB in the UK. Authors' conclusions Infant BCG vaccination in a population at high risk for TB was shown to provide protection for at least 10

2017 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

13. MVA85A vaccine to enhance BCG for preventing tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Specialized Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (Ovid); and four other databases. We searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov. All searches were run up to 10 May 2018.We evaluated randomized controlled trials of MVA85A vaccine given with BCG in people regardless of age or HIV status.Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of trials, and extracted and analyzed data. The primary outcome was active tuberculosis disease (...) MVA85A vaccine to enhance BCG for preventing tuberculosis. Tuberculosis causes more deaths than any other infectious disease globally. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine, but protection is incomplete and variable. The modified Vaccinia Ankara virus expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) is a viral vector vaccine produced to prevent tuberculosis.To assess and summarize the effects of the MVA85A vaccine boosting BCG in humans.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

2019 Cochrane

14. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity. The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against (...) experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity. Reduction of viremia was highly correlated with the upregulation of IL-1β, a heterologous cytokine associated with the induction of trained immunity, but not with the specific IFNγ response. The importance of IL-1β for the induction of trained immunity was validated through genetic, epigenetic, and immunological studies. In conclusion

2018 Cell host & microbe Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15. Heterologous effects of infant BCG vaccination: potential mechanisms of immunity Full Text available with Trip Pro

or nonspecific protection. This review summarizes the up-to-date evidence for this phenomenon, potential immunological mechanisms and implications for improved childhood vaccine design. BCG induces functional changes in infant innate and adaptive immune compartments, encouraging their collaboration in the first year of life. Understanding biological mechanisms beyond heterologous BCG effects is crucial to improve infant protection from infectious diseases. (...) Heterologous effects of infant BCG vaccination: potential mechanisms of immunity The current antituberculosis vaccine, BCG, was derived in the 1920s, yet the mechanisms of BCG-induced protective immunity and the variability of protective efficacy among populations are still not fully understood. BCG challenges the concept of vaccine specificity, as there is evidence that BCG may protect immunized infants from pathogens other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis - resulting in heterologous

2018 Future microbiology

17. Dissecting the Immune Stimulation Promoted by CSF-470 Vaccine Plus Adjuvants in Cutaneous Melanoma Patients: Long Term Antitumor Immunity and Short Term Release of Acute Inflammatory Reactants Full Text available with Trip Pro

-470 vaccine plus the adjuvants bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) demonstrated a significant benefit over IFN-alpha2B treatment in distant metastasis-free survival. Here we present on the short and long term immune monitoring results after completing the 2-year protocol; a continuation of the previous report by Mordoh et al. (1). We demonstrate that the repeated CSF-470 vaccinations stimulated a long term cellular (...) Dissecting the Immune Stimulation Promoted by CSF-470 Vaccine Plus Adjuvants in Cutaneous Melanoma Patients: Long Term Antitumor Immunity and Short Term Release of Acute Inflammatory Reactants As cutaneous melanoma (CM) currently remains with a bleak prognosis, thorough investigation of new treatment options are of utmost relevance. In the phase II/III randomized clinical trial (CASVAC-0401), the repeated immunization of stages IIB-III CM patients with the irradiated, allogeneic cellular CSF

2018 Frontiers in immunology

18. Aerosol vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin induces a trained innate immune phenotype in calves. Full Text available with Trip Pro

suggest that in young calves, the effects of BCG induced innate training can last for at least 3 months in circulating immune populations. Interestingly, however, aerosol BCG vaccination did not 'train' the innate immune response at the mucosal level, as alveolar macrophages from aerosol BCG vaccinated calves did not mount an enhanced inflammatory response to secondary stimulation, compared to cells isolated from control calves. Together, our results suggest that, like mice and humans, the innate (...) immune system of calves can be 'trained'; and that BCG vaccination could be used as an immunomodulatory strategy to reduce disease burden in juvenile food animals before the adaptive immune system has fully matured.

2019 PLoS ONE

19. The impact of supplementary immunization activities on routine vaccination coverage: An instrumental variable analysis in five low-income countries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The impact of supplementary immunization activities on routine vaccination coverage: An instrumental variable analysis in five low-income countries. Countries deliver vaccines either through routine health services or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), usually community-based or door-to-door immunization campaigns. While SIAs have been successful at increasing coverage of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries, they may disrupt the delivery of routine health services. We (...) as well as BCG, reductions ranged from 1.3 percentage points (Senegal) to 5.5 percentage points (Bangladesh).SIA exposure reduced routine vaccination rates in study countries. Efforts should be made to limit the detrimental impact of SIAs on the services provided by routine health systems.

2019 PLoS ONE

20. Induction and maintenance of a phenotypically heterogeneous lung tissue-resident CD4+ T cell population following BCG immunisation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Induction and maintenance of a phenotypically heterogeneous lung tissue-resident CD4+ T cell population following BCG immunisation Tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest cause of human mortality from an infectious disease. The only vaccine currently available, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), demonstrates some protection against disseminated disease in childhood but very variable efficacy against pulmonary disease in adults. A greater understanding of protective host immune responses is required (...) in order to aid the development of improved vaccines. Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are a recently-identified subset of T cells which may represent an important component of protective immunity to TB. Here, we demonstrate that intradermal BCG vaccination induces a population of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells within the lung parenchyma which persist for >12 months post-vaccination. Comprehensive flow cytometric analysis reveals this population is phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous

2018 Vaccine

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