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Athetosis

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101. Surgical Treatment of Parkinson Disease (Diagnosis)

is speech impairment with dysarthria and hypophonia. The risk of speech abnormalities is 30% after unilateral thalamotomy and greater than 60% after bilateral thalamotomy. Other complications include memory loss, contralateral hemiparesis, and, more rarely, hemineglect, dystonia, hemiballismus, athetosis, and dyspraxia. Preoperative memory and language evaluation can help identify patients who are at greatest risk for postoperative cognitive and language dysfunction. In the largest series, the mortality

2014 eMedicine.com

102. Tardive Dyskinesia (Follow-up)

movements Voluntary Involuntary Pathologic movements Paralysis, paresis, hyperreflexia, and spasticity Akathisia, athetosis, ballismus, chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, stereotypy, tic, and tremor Classic disorders of the extrapyramidal system include a variety of involuntary movement disorders. Some of these movement disorders include dyskinesias such as akathisia, chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, stereotypy, tic, and tremor. The pathophysiology of extrapyramidal disorders has been disputed on the grounds

2014 eMedicine.com

103. Surgical Treatment of Parkinson Disease (Follow-up)

is speech impairment with dysarthria and hypophonia. The risk of speech abnormalities is 30% after unilateral thalamotomy and greater than 60% after bilateral thalamotomy. Other complications include memory loss, contralateral hemiparesis, and, more rarely, hemineglect, dystonia, hemiballismus, athetosis, and dyspraxia. Preoperative memory and language evaluation can help identify patients who are at greatest risk for postoperative cognitive and language dysfunction. In the largest series, the mortality

2014 eMedicine.com

104. Surgical Treatment of Tremor (Follow-up)

is speech impairment with dysarthria and hypophonia. The risk of speech abnormalities is 30% after unilateral thalamotomy and greater than 60% after bilateral thalamotomy. Other complications include memory loss, contralateral hemiparesis, and, more rarely, hemineglect, dystonia, hemiballismus, athetosis, and dyspraxia. Preoperative memory and language evaluation can help identify patients who are at greatest risk for postoperative cognitive and language dysfunction. In the largest series, the mortality

2014 eMedicine.com

105. Communication Disorders (Follow-up)

, alcohol abuse, infection Hypokinetic Monopitch, reduced loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness (...) loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness Extrapyramidal Involuntary, purposeless movements Organic

2014 eMedicine.com

106. Methemoglobinemia (Diagnosis)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

107. Chorea in Adults (Diagnosis)

). [ ] Any discussion of chorea must also address the related terms athetosis, choreoathetosis, and ballism (also known as ballismus). The term athetosis comes from the Greek word athetos (not fixed). [ , ] It is a slow form of chorea. Because of the slowness, the movements have a writhing (ie, squirming, twisting, or snakelike) appearance. Choreoathetosis is essentially an intermediate form (ie, a bit more rapid than the usual athetosis, slower than the usual chorea, or a mingling of chorea (...) and athetosis within the same patient at different times or in different limbs). Given that the only difference between chorea, choreoathetosis, and athetosis is the speed of movement, some neurologists argue that the term athetosis is unnecessary and even confusing. They argue a simpler nomenclature would delineate fast, intermediate, and slow chorea. While the authors of this article understand the basis of that argument, they also believe that in some cases, the writhing movements are extremely prominent

2014 eMedicine.com

108. Cerebral Palsy (Diagnosis)

(AFO) in foot drop to prevent tripping over the toes in a patient with inadequate dorsiflexion. [ , ] If a patient has impaired mobility, a wheelchair and/or mobility aids such as a cane or walker may help. Seating adaptations should be included with a manual wheelchair to keep the back straight and protect the hips from excessive adduction or abduction. A power wheelchair may be needed for children with severe spasticity or athetosis; this device can be introduced to children who have the ability (...) augmentative communication devices if they have some motor control and adequate cognitive skills. Patients with athetoid cerebral palsy may benefit the most from speech therapy, because most of these individuals have normal intelligence, and communication is an obstacle that is secondary to the effect of athetosis on speech. Adequate communication is probably the most important goal for enhancing function in a patient with athetoid cerebral palsy. Many children with cerebral palsy have feeding difficulties

2014 eMedicine.com

109. Communication Disorders (Diagnosis)

, alcohol abuse, infection Hypokinetic Monopitch, reduced loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness (...) loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness Extrapyramidal Involuntary, purposeless movements Organic

2014 eMedicine.com

110. Chorea in Children (Diagnosis)

" Neoplastic See the list below: Primary and metastatic brain tumors Primary CNS lymphoma Nutritional See the list below: Vitamin B-12 deficiency in infants Toxins See the list below: Carbon monoxide Manganese Organophosphate poisoning Previous Next: Pathophysiology and General Principles in Treatment of Chorea Movement disorders (particularly chorea, athetosis, and dystonia) are thought to result from basal ganglia pathology. Connections of the basal ganglia can be categorized as follows: Input from (...) motor development, dysarthria, intention tremor, athetosis, and hypotonia. Severity is highly variable but choreic movements are typically continuous and not episodic. Intellectual function is typically normal. Intellectual impairment has been reported in one family in which affected individuals had intelligence quotient scores averaging 10 points lower than unaffected relatives. Functional neuroimaging showed decreased striatal FDG metabolism in one study. Routine imaging and EEG results are normal

2014 eMedicine.com

111. Epilepsy in Children with Mental Retardation (Diagnosis)

or athetosis. Sensory: Children with disabilities and ID are more likely than other children to have visual impairment and hearing deficits Skin: Findings can include hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules, such as café-au-lait macules (associated with neurofibromatosis type 1), as well as ash-leaf spots (associated with tuberous sclerosis), fibromas, and irregular pigmentation patterns Extremities: Although ID with multiple congenital anomalies and major malformations accounts for only 5-10% of all

2014 eMedicine.com

112. Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation (Diagnosis)

or athetosis. Sensory: Children with disabilities and ID are more likely than other children to have visual impairment and hearing deficits Skin: Findings can include hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules, such as café-au-lait macules (associated with neurofibromatosis type 1), as well as ash-leaf spots (associated with tuberous sclerosis), fibromas, and irregular pigmentation patterns Extremities: Although ID with multiple congenital anomalies and major malformations accounts for only 5-10% of all

2014 eMedicine.com

113. Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (Follow-up)

progresses to opisthotonus. Phase 3 is characterized by high-pitched cry, hearing and visual abnormalities, poor feeding, and athetosis. Long-term sequelae include choreoathetoid CP, upward gaze palsy, sensorineural hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia of the deciduous teeth, and, less often, mental retardation. The abnormal or reduced auditory brainstem response of wave I (auditory nerve) and wave II and V (auditory brainstem nuclei), depicted as decreased amplitudes, and increased interval I-III

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

114. Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder (Overview)

deprivation Factitious disorder with predominately physical signs and symptoms Mannerisms Myoclonus Neglect Neurologically based movement disorder (eg, chorea, dystonic movements, athetosis, myoclonus, hemiballismus, or spasms) Pain Poisoning (eg, with amphetamine or cocaine) Seizure disorder Self-mutilation associated with certain psychotic disorders and personality disorders Self-stimulatory behaviors in individuals with hearing impairment or other sensory deficits Consultation with a developmental

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

115. Methemoglobinemia (Diagnosis)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

116. Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (Treatment)

progresses to opisthotonus. Phase 3 is characterized by high-pitched cry, hearing and visual abnormalities, poor feeding, and athetosis. Long-term sequelae include choreoathetoid CP, upward gaze palsy, sensorineural hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia of the deciduous teeth, and, less often, mental retardation. The abnormal or reduced auditory brainstem response of wave I (auditory nerve) and wave II and V (auditory brainstem nuclei), depicted as decreased amplitudes, and increased interval I-III

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

117. Methemoglobinemia (Overview)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

118. Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder (Diagnosis)

deprivation Factitious disorder with predominately physical signs and symptoms Mannerisms Myoclonus Neglect Neurologically based movement disorder (eg, chorea, dystonic movements, athetosis, myoclonus, hemiballismus, or spasms) Pain Poisoning (eg, with amphetamine or cocaine) Seizure disorder Self-mutilation associated with certain psychotic disorders and personality disorders Self-stimulatory behaviors in individuals with hearing impairment or other sensory deficits Consultation with a developmental

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

119. Methemoglobinemia (Overview)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

120. PRRT2 mutation correlated with phenotype of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and drug response. (Abstract)

, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Chen Wan-Jin WJ Ni Wang W Wang Kai-Yan KY Liu Gong-Lu GL Wang Ning N Xiong Zhi-Qi ZQ Xu Jianfeng J Wu Zhi-Ying ZY eng Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2013 03 27 United States Neurology 0401060 0028-3878 0 Anticonvulsants 0 Membrane Proteins 0 Nerve Tissue Proteins 0 PRRT2 protein, human 33CM23913M Carbamazepine AIM IM Age of Onset Anticonvulsants therapeutic use Athetosis etiology genetics Carbamazepine therapeutic use Child China Disease

2013 Neurology

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