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Athetosis

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101. Communication Disorders (Diagnosis)

, alcohol abuse, infection Hypokinetic Monopitch, reduced loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness (...) loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness Extrapyramidal Involuntary, purposeless movements Organic

2014 eMedicine.com

102. Methemoglobinemia (Diagnosis)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

103. Multiple Sclerosis (Overview)

(medial rectus); upper eyelid elevation; and pupillary constriction. [ ] In rare cases, these lesions may be highly selective and may cause weakness of a single muscle, which can lead to diagnostic confusion. The oculomotor nerve runs in close proximity to numerous midbrain structures; therefore, features of a third nerve palsy can be associated with other neurological deficits, including contralateral hemiparesis (Weber syndrome), contralateral tremors (or chorea, athetosis) (Benedict syndrome

2014 eMedicine.com

104. Multiple Sclerosis (Treatment)

(medial rectus); upper eyelid elevation; and pupillary constriction. [ ] In rare cases, these lesions may be highly selective and may cause weakness of a single muscle, which can lead to diagnostic confusion. The oculomotor nerve runs in close proximity to numerous midbrain structures; therefore, features of a third nerve palsy can be associated with other neurological deficits, including contralateral hemiparesis (Weber syndrome), contralateral tremors (or chorea, athetosis) (Benedict syndrome

2014 eMedicine.com

105. Chorea in Adults (Treatment)

(7):853-7. . Gusella JF, MacDonald ME. Huntingtons disease: seeing the pathogenic process through a genetic lens. Trends Biochem Sci . July 2006. 31(pt 9):533-40. Nutting PA, Cole BR, Schimke RN. Benign, recessively inherited choreo-athetosis of early onset. J Med Genet . 1969 Dec. 6(4):408-10. . Fisher M, Sargent J, Drachman D. Familial inverted choreoathetosis. Neurology . 1979 Dec. 29(12):1627-31. . Wheeler PG, Dobyns WB, Plager DA, Ellis FD. Familial remitting chorea, nystagmus, and cataracts

2014 eMedicine.com

106. Chorea in Children (Treatment)

" Neoplastic See the list below: Primary and metastatic brain tumors Primary CNS lymphoma Nutritional See the list below: Vitamin B-12 deficiency in infants Toxins See the list below: Carbon monoxide Manganese Organophosphate poisoning Previous Next: Pathophysiology and General Principles in Treatment of Chorea Movement disorders (particularly chorea, athetosis, and dystonia) are thought to result from basal ganglia pathology. Connections of the basal ganglia can be categorized as follows: Input from (...) motor development, dysarthria, intention tremor, athetosis, and hypotonia. Severity is highly variable but choreic movements are typically continuous and not episodic. Intellectual function is typically normal. Intellectual impairment has been reported in one family in which affected individuals had intelligence quotient scores averaging 10 points lower than unaffected relatives. Functional neuroimaging showed decreased striatal FDG metabolism in one study. Routine imaging and EEG results are normal

2014 eMedicine.com

107. Communication Disorders (Treatment)

, alcohol abuse, infection Hypokinetic Monopitch, reduced loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness (...) loudness, inappropriate silences Extrapyramidal Rigidity, reduced range and speed of movement Parkinson disease, drug induced Hyperkinetic Quick Sudden variations in loudness, harsh quality, hypernasal Extrapyramidal Quick, involuntary, random movements Chorea, myoclonus, Tourette syndrome Slow Unsteady rate and loudness Extrapyramidal Sustained, distorted, slow movements Athetosis, dyskinesia Tremors Rhythmic alterations in pitch and loudness Extrapyramidal Involuntary, purposeless movements Organic

2014 eMedicine.com

108. Surgical Treatment of Tremor (Treatment)

is speech impairment with dysarthria and hypophonia. The risk of speech abnormalities is 30% after unilateral thalamotomy and greater than 60% after bilateral thalamotomy. Other complications include memory loss, contralateral hemiparesis, and, more rarely, hemineglect, dystonia, hemiballismus, athetosis, and dyspraxia. Preoperative memory and language evaluation can help identify patients who are at greatest risk for postoperative cognitive and language dysfunction. In the largest series, the mortality

2014 eMedicine.com

109. Surgical Treatment of Parkinson Disease (Treatment)

is speech impairment with dysarthria and hypophonia. The risk of speech abnormalities is 30% after unilateral thalamotomy and greater than 60% after bilateral thalamotomy. Other complications include memory loss, contralateral hemiparesis, and, more rarely, hemineglect, dystonia, hemiballismus, athetosis, and dyspraxia. Preoperative memory and language evaluation can help identify patients who are at greatest risk for postoperative cognitive and language dysfunction. In the largest series, the mortality

2014 eMedicine.com

110. Tardive Dyskinesia (Treatment)

movements Voluntary Involuntary Pathologic movements Paralysis, paresis, hyperreflexia, and spasticity Akathisia, athetosis, ballismus, chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, stereotypy, tic, and tremor Classic disorders of the extrapyramidal system include a variety of involuntary movement disorders. Some of these movement disorders include dyskinesias such as akathisia, chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, stereotypy, tic, and tremor. The pathophysiology of extrapyramidal disorders has been disputed on the grounds

2014 eMedicine.com

111. Neurological History and Physical Examination (Treatment)

with gravity eliminated 3 Movement against gravity 4 Movement against partial resistance 5 Full strength Involuntary movements Involuntary movements include fibrillations, fasciculations, asterixis, tics, myoclonus, dystonias, chorea, athetosis, hemiballismus, and seizures. Fibrillations are not visible to the naked eye except possibly those in the tongue. Fasciculations may be seen under the skin as quivering of the muscle. Although fasciculations are typically benign (particularly when they occur (...) dysphonia, and writer's cramp. In athetosis, the spasms have a slow writhing character and occur along the long axis of the limbs or the body itself; the patient may assume different and often peculiar postures. The term chorea means dance. Quasi-purposeful movements affect multiple joints with a distal preponderance. Hemiballismus is a violent flinging movement of half of the body. It is associated with lesions of the subthalamic nucleus (ie, body of Louis). Seizures may result in orofacial

2014 eMedicine.com

112. Methemoglobinemia (Overview)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine.com

113. Mental Retardation (Overview)

suggest a genetic disorder, fetal alcohol syndrome, or hypothyroidism; tall stature may suggest fragile X syndrome (FraX), Soto syndrome, or some other overgrowth syndrome associated with MR/ID Neurologic: This examination should include assessments of head growth (for microcephaly/macrocephaly), muscle tone (for hypotonia or spasticity), strength and coordination, deep tendon reflexes, persistent primitive reflexes, ataxia, and other abnormal movements, such as dystonia or athetosis. Sensory

2014 eMedicine.com

114. Movement Disorders in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities (Overview)

movements, such as dystonia or athetosis. Sensory: Children with disabilities and ID are more likely than other children to have visual impairment and hearing deficits Skin: Findings can include hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules, such as café-au-lait macules (associated with neurofibromatosis type 1), as well as ash-leaf spots (associated with tuberous sclerosis), fibromas, and irregular pigmentation patterns Extremities: Although ID with multiple congenital anomalies and major malformations

2014 eMedicine.com

115. Neurological History and Physical Examination (Overview)

with gravity eliminated 3 Movement against gravity 4 Movement against partial resistance 5 Full strength Involuntary movements Involuntary movements include fibrillations, fasciculations, asterixis, tics, myoclonus, dystonias, chorea, athetosis, hemiballismus, and seizures. Fibrillations are not visible to the naked eye except possibly those in the tongue. Fasciculations may be seen under the skin as quivering of the muscle. Although fasciculations are typically benign (particularly when they occur (...) dysphonia, and writer's cramp. In athetosis, the spasms have a slow writhing character and occur along the long axis of the limbs or the body itself; the patient may assume different and often peculiar postures. The term chorea means dance. Quasi-purposeful movements affect multiple joints with a distal preponderance. Hemiballismus is a violent flinging movement of half of the body. It is associated with lesions of the subthalamic nucleus (ie, body of Louis). Seizures may result in orofacial

2014 eMedicine.com

116. Methemoglobinemia (Diagnosis)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

117. Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder (Diagnosis)

deprivation Factitious disorder with predominately physical signs and symptoms Mannerisms Myoclonus Neglect Neurologically based movement disorder (eg, chorea, dystonic movements, athetosis, myoclonus, hemiballismus, or spasms) Pain Poisoning (eg, with amphetamine or cocaine) Seizure disorder Self-mutilation associated with certain psychotic disorders and personality disorders Self-stimulatory behaviors in individuals with hearing impairment or other sensory deficits Consultation with a developmental

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

118. Neurological History and Physical Examination (Diagnosis)

with gravity eliminated 3 Movement against gravity 4 Movement against partial resistance 5 Full strength Involuntary movements Involuntary movements include fibrillations, fasciculations, asterixis, tics, myoclonus, dystonias, chorea, athetosis, hemiballismus, and seizures. Fibrillations are not visible to the naked eye except possibly those in the tongue. Fasciculations may be seen under the skin as quivering of the muscle. Although fasciculations are typically benign (particularly when they occur (...) dysphonia, and writer's cramp. In athetosis, the spasms have a slow writhing character and occur along the long axis of the limbs or the body itself; the patient may assume different and often peculiar postures. The term chorea means dance. Quasi-purposeful movements affect multiple joints with a distal preponderance. Hemiballismus is a violent flinging movement of half of the body. It is associated with lesions of the subthalamic nucleus (ie, body of Louis). Seizures may result in orofacial

2014 eMedicine.com

119. Methemoglobinemia (Overview)

, microcephaly, hypertonia, athetosis, opisthotonos, strabismus, mental retardation, and growth retardation; cyanosis is evident at an early age. Type III – Although the entire hematopoietic system (platelets, RBCs, and white blood cells [WBCs]) is involved, the only clinical consequence is cyanosis. Type IV – As in type I, involvement is limited to the erythrocytes. This type results in chronic cyanosis Deficiency of NADPH-flavin reductase can also cause methemoglobinemia. Acquired methemoglobinemia

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

120. PRRT2 mutation correlated with phenotype of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and drug response. (Abstract)

, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Chen Wan-Jin WJ Ni Wang W Wang Kai-Yan KY Liu Gong-Lu GL Wang Ning N Xiong Zhi-Qi ZQ Xu Jianfeng J Wu Zhi-Ying ZY eng Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2013 03 27 United States Neurology 0401060 0028-3878 0 Anticonvulsants 0 Membrane Proteins 0 Nerve Tissue Proteins 0 PRRT2 protein, human 33CM23913M Carbamazepine AIM IM Age of Onset Anticonvulsants therapeutic use Athetosis etiology genetics Carbamazepine therapeutic use Child China Disease

2013 Neurology

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