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Aspartate Aminotransferase

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16801. The utility of aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index in HIV/hepatitis C-co-infected patients. (PubMed)

The utility of aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index in HIV/hepatitis C-co-infected patients. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard for determining the stage of liver fibrosis. There are risks associated with liver biopsy; therefore, surrogate markers to predict the severity of disease would be useful. We studied 50 patients with HIV/hepatitis C co-infection who had liver biopsies and determined that no patient with an aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI

2007 AIDS

16802. Aspartate aminotransferase-immunoglobulin complexes in patients with chronic liver disease (Full text)

Aspartate aminotransferase-immunoglobulin complexes in patients with chronic liver disease To determine the complex of AST and immunoglobulin and to investigate its clinical significance in patients with liver disease.The complex of AST and immunoglobulin was determined by encounter immunoelectrophoresis and its clinical significance was investigated in 128 patients with liver disease.AST was bound to immunoglobulin of anti-immunoglobulin A (IgA) class, but any binding to anti-immunoglobulin G (...) /alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly higher in patients with AST-IgA complex than in those without complex.These results suggest that AST-IgA complex in patients with progressive liver diseases and alcoholic liver injury can lead to elevation of the ratio of AST/ALT.

2005 World journal of gastroenterology : WJG

16803. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in pulp of orthodontically treated teeth. (PubMed)

Aspartate aminotransferase activity in pulp of orthodontically treated teeth. This study examines the aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of orthodontically treated teeth. Seventeen healthy male and female subjects (ages: 14.5-19.6; mean 16.8 +/- 1.6 years) who needed extraction of the maxillary first premolars for orthodontic reasons were enrolled in the study. One randomly chosen maxillary first premolar, included in a straight-wire fixed orthodontic appliance and supporting (...) orthodontic force, was considered as the test tooth. The contralateral first premolar, included in the orthodontic appliance but not subjected to mechanical stress, was used as the control tooth. After a week of treatment, the dental pulp tissues were extracted from both experimental teeth. Aspartate aminotransferase activity was significantly elevated in the test teeth as compared with the control teeth. These results demonstrate that in the early phases of treatment, orthodontic force application

2004 American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics

16804. Longitudinal monitoring of subgingival colonization by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and crevicular alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities around orthodontically treated teeth. (PubMed)

Longitudinal monitoring of subgingival colonization by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and crevicular alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities around orthodontically treated teeth. During orthodontic treatment, changes in subgingival plaque colonization and tissue inflammation and remodelling have been described. This study uses a longitudinal design to examine subgingival colonization of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP (...) ) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in order to assess whether these parameters have potential as biomarkers of tissue responses to orthodontic tooth movement in humans.Twenty-one patients (ages: 11.2-22.5; mean 17.1 +/- 3.3 years) participated in the study. An upper canine from each patient undergoing treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included

2004 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

16805. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of patients with different periodontal conditions. (PubMed)

Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of patients with different periodontal conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in saliva measured by Reflotron trade mark System of Diagnosis and periodontal condition indicated by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN).Fifteen patients were assigned to one of four groups C0, C1, C3 and C4, based on their largest CPITN code among the examined sites

2003 Journal of Clinical Periodontology

16806. Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index in patients with alcoholic liver fibrosis. (PubMed)

Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index in patients with alcoholic liver fibrosis. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) has been proposed as an easily determined and accurate noninvasive marker of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. To validate APRI in hepatitis C and to determine its usefulness in other liver diseases, we evaluated APRI in patients with liver fibrosis due to excessive alcohol consumption with or without viral hepatitis C.A total

2006 American Journal of Gastroenterology

16807. Development of macro-aspartate aminotransferase in a patient undergoing specific allergen injection immunotherapy. (PubMed)

Development of macro-aspartate aminotransferase in a patient undergoing specific allergen injection immunotherapy. Macro-aspartate aminotransferase (macro-AST), a complex between normal AST and an immunoglobulin, is recognized as a cause of isolated elevation of AST. Though its pathogenesis is unknown, previous reports have been suggestive of an autoimmune process. We describe a case of macro-AST formation in a patient with previously normal liver enzymes in whom an isolated AST elevation

2005 American Journal of Gastroenterology

16808. Diagnostic accuracy of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the prediction of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: a systematic review. (Full text)

Diagnostic accuracy of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the prediction of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: a systematic review. The development of noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis is a clinical and research priority. The aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) is a promising tool with limited expense and widespread availability. Our objective was to systematically review the performance of the APRI in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients

2007 Hepatology

16809. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase (Full text)

Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48,168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain

2007 Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications

16810. Liver fibrosis: noninvasive assessment with MR elastography versus aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index. (PubMed)

Liver fibrosis: noninvasive assessment with MR elastography versus aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index. To prospectively compare the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography with those of the routinely available aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) test for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients who have undergone liver biopsy for suspicion of chronic liver disease, with histopathologic examination as the reference standard.The study

2007 Radiology

16811. Crystallization and characterization of human liver kynurenine–glyoxylate aminotransferase. Identity with alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase and serine–pyruvate aminotransferase (Full text)

Crystallization and characterization of human liver kynurenine–glyoxylate aminotransferase. Identity with alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase and serine–pyruvate aminotransferase Kynurenine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and serine-pyruvate aminotransferase were co-purified and crystallized as yellow cubes from human liver particulate fraction. The crystalline enzyme was homogeneous by the criteria of electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, gel filtration (...) transamination between several l-amino acids and pyruvate or glyoxylate. The order of effectiveness of amino acids was alanine>serine>glutamine>glutamate>methionine>kynurenine = phenylalanine = asparagine>valine>histidine>lysine>leucine>isoleucine>arginine>tyrosine = threonine>aspartate, with glyoxylate as amino acceptor. The enzyme was active with glyoxylate, oxaloacetate, hydroxypyruvate, pyruvate, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxobutyrate, but showed little activity with phenylpyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate

1980 Biochemical Journal

16812. Observations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in THRIVE studies treated orally with ximelagatran. (Full text)

Observations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in THRIVE studies treated orally with ximelagatran. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prophylaxis of recurrent events has been investigated in the THRIVE (THRombin Inhibitor in Venous Thrombe Embolism) Treatment and the THRIVE III trial using the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran. Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) increased in 9.6% and 6.4% of patients in the THRIVE Treatment and THRIVE III trials (...) , respectively. The authors analysed the time course of the ALAT and in additionally of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) in blood from 52 and 23 patients participating in the THRIVE Treatment and the THRIVE III trials in Germany. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and t test were performed. In the THRIVE Treatment trial, ALAT was significantly higher at week 2 for enoxaparin/warfarin (p => .0039, t test) and at months 3 and 6 for ximelagatran (p = .0453, p = .0014, respectively). ASAT and ASAT/ALAT

2006 International journal of toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16813. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions. (Full text)

Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions. Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a beta-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [ S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine, S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S -(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-L-cysteine]. Transamination (...) . Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase activity towards S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine in crude kidney mitochondrial homogenates is due to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The possible involvement of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in the toxicity of halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also discussed.

2002 Biochemical Journal

16814. Crystalline aspartate aminotransferase: lattice-induced functional asymmetry of the two subunits. (Full text)

Crystalline aspartate aminotransferase: lattice-induced functional asymmetry of the two subunits. The enzymic activity of crystalline mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1) was determined in suspensions of noncrosslinked microcrystals in 30% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol. The crystals (average dimensions, 22 x 5 x 0.8 micron) were small enough to preclude diffusional rate limitation. They had the same habit as the triclinic crystals (...) subunit with Km values similar to those of the enzyme in solution (K'm = 0.5 mM for aspartate and 1.2 mM for 2-oxoglutarate) and a low-affinity subunit (K'm = 5.5 mM and 14.5 mM, respectively). The catalytic activity of the high-affinity subunit is 3% and that of the low-affinity subunit is 15% of the activity of the enzyme in solution. The functional asymmetry of the crystalline enzyme dimer could also be demonstrated by selective mechanism-based modification of either type of active sites. In view

1983 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

16815. Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. (Full text)

Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. X-ray diffraction studies to 2.8-A resolution have yielded the three-dimensional structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1), an isologous alpha 2 dimer (Mr = 2 x 45,000). The subunits are rich in secondary structure and contain two domains, one of which anchors the coenzyme, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Each active site

1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

16816. Removal of an N-terminal peptide from mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase abolishes its interactions with mitochondria in vitro. (Full text)

Removal of an N-terminal peptide from mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase abolishes its interactions with mitochondria in vitro. Treatment of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from rat liver with trypsin leads to specific cleavage of the bonds between residues 26 and 27, and residues 31 and 32. The proteolysed enzyme has only a small residual catalytic activity, but retains a conformation similar to that of the native form as judged by accessibility and reactivity of cysteine

1985 Biochemical Journal

16817. Specificity of Aspartate Aminotransferases from Leguminous Plants for 4-Substituted Glutamic Acids (Full text)

Specificity of Aspartate Aminotransferases from Leguminous Plants for 4-Substituted Glutamic Acids Aspartate aminotransferase (glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase) was partially purified from extracts of germinating seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), soybean (Glycine max), and Sophora japonica. The ability of these enzyme preparations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase purified from pig heart cytosol, to use 4-substituted glutamic acids as amino group (...) donors and their corresponding 2-oxo acids as amino group acceptors in the aminotransferase reaction was measured. All 4-substituted glutamic acid analogs tested were poorer substrates than was glutamate or 2-oxoglutarate. 2-Oxo-4-methyleneglutarate was least effective (lowest relative V(m)/K(m)) as a substrate for the enzyme from peanuts and honey locust, which are the two species studied that accumulate 4-methyleneglutamic acid and 4-methyleneglutamine. Of the different aminotransferases tested

1989 Plant physiology

16818. The unfolding and attempted refolding of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart. (Full text)

The unfolding and attempted refolding of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart. The unfolding of the mitochondrial isoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart in solutions of guanidinium chloride (GdnHCl) has been studied. By a number of criteria (enzyme activity, protein fluorescence, c.d., thiol-group reactivity), the enzyme was judged to be almost completely unfolded in 2 M-GdnHCl. On dilution of the GdnHCl, no re-activation of the enzyme could be observed

1990 Biochemical Journal

16819. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : II. Immunological Distinction between Two Forms of the Enzyme (Full text)

Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : II. Immunological Distinction between Two Forms of the Enzyme Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aspartate and asparagine, occurs as two forms in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), AAT-1 and AAT-2. Both forms were purified to near homogeneity, and high titer polyclonal antibodies produced to the native proteins. Alfalfa AAT-1 was purified from root suspension culture cells, while AAT-2 was purified from effective

1990 Plant physiology

16820. Kinetic studies of chicken and turkey liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. (Full text)

Kinetic studies of chicken and turkey liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The kinetic behaviour of chicken liver and turkey liver aspartate aminotransferases (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1) was studied. Steady-state data were obtained from a wide range of concentrations of substrates and product L-glutamate. The data were fitted by rational functions of degree 1:1, 1:2 and 2:2 with respect to substrates and 0:1, 1:1, 0:2 and 1:2 with regard to product (L (...) -glutamate), by using a non-linear regression program that guarantees the fit. The goodness of fit was improved by the use of a computer program that combines model discrimination parameter refinement and sequential experimental design. It was concluded that aspartate aminotransferase requires a minimum velocity equation of degree 2:2 for L-aspartate, 2:2 for 2-oxoglutarate and 1:2 for L-glutamate. Finally, a plausible kinetic mechanism that justifies these experimental results is proposed.

1988 Biochemical Journal

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