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Appearance, Behavior and Attitude Exam


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161. Interventions for reducing violence against children in low? and middle?income countries: An evidence and gap map Full Text available with Trip Pro

, or residential treatment centres) interventions involving social welfare services, Shelters and crisis centres Media and communication Awareness on access to services/reporting 7. Education and life skills Gender transformative approaches Including sexual and reproductive health education Life and social skills training Violence prevention, bullying prevention programmes, self‐defence, adolescent intimate partner violence/dating violence prevention (interventions to prevent abusive behaviour in adolescent (...) and caregiver support 5. Income and economic strengthening 6. Response and support services 7. Education and skills 5.1.6 Types of outcome categories The seven main outcome categories are listed in Table . Table 3. Outcome categories and subcategories Outcome categories Subcategories 1. Violence Sexual Physical Emotional/psychological 2. Norms and values Parenting beliefs and practices Gender roles, attitudes and social norms Delinquent, violent and other risk‐taking behaviour (including reoffending

2020 Campbell Collaboration

162. Voluntary work for the physical and mental health of older volunteers Full Text available with Trip Pro

on whether, and if so, how retirement influences health and wellbeing is however inconclusive (Biggs et al., ). The effects of retirement have been found to depend, for example, on the type of work (e.g., Vickerstaff, ) and whether the retirement is forced or voluntary (Hershey & Henkens, ). Nevertheless, for many people, work can provide meaningful roles, social contacts and structured everyday life experience (Jahoda, , , ; Seeman, ; Warr, ). Thus, loosing these aspects in one's life when transitioning (...) , ), and in Denmark the rate increased from 23% in 2004 to 34% in 2012 (Fridberg & Henriksen, ). A recent study in Denmark showed that while the rates of volunteering remained stable for younger seniors, there was a large increase over time among those aged 67–77 years (Amilon & Larsen, ). Researchers have partly explained the increasing in the rates of older volunteers by increasing heath and active ageing lifestyles among older adults (e.g., Amilon & Larsen, ; Schippers & Conen, ). Partly the development has

2020 Campbell Collaboration

163. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy

-19. 13 In non-pregnant individuals, a UK study of 20,133 patients admitted 8to high dependency and intensive care with COVID-19 found uncomplicated diabetes was one of the most common comorbidities (21%, 3650/17, 599); a further 7% (n=1299) of individuals had complicated diabetes. 35 Lifestyle measures such as regular exercise, a healthy diet and vitamin D supplementation are recommended in pregnancy and throughout life to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. 1.6 (...) professionals based on a combination of available evidence, good practice and expert consensus opinion. The priorities are: (i) The reduction of transmission of COVID-19 to pregnant women. (ii) The provision of safe, personalised and woman-centred care during pregnancy, birth and the early postnatal period during the COVID-19 pandemic. (iii) The provision of safe, personalised and woman-centred care to pregnant and postnatal women with suspected/confirmed COVID-19. Please be aware that this is very much

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

164. Artificial intelligence and health

– beyond publications. Industry perspective Pamela Spence, Global Health Sciences and Wellness Industry Leader and Life Sciences Industry Leader at Ernst & Young, introduced the area from an industry perspective. She observed that medicine is moving from a clinical science supported by data to a data science that will be supported by clinicians. Behaviour change is an area where AI and new digital technologies may be transformative. Many smaller companies are generating apps focussed on behaviour (...) , charities and industry to maximise the value of research to patients and the economy. The NIHR was established in 2006 to improve the health and wealth of the nation through research, and is funded by the Department of Health and Social Care. In addition to its national role, the NIHR supports applied health research for the direct and primary benefit of people in low- and middle-income countries, using UK aid from the UK government. Opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent

2020 Academy of Medical Sciences

165. Heritable mutations associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia - Clinical Utility Card application

gained from cascade testing, not testing of affected individuals. Diagnosing non-symptomatic family members can lead to a change in management through, for example, lifestyle and behavioural changes, and uptake of LLT. Five before-and-after case series (two of them Australian with overlapping populations) reported reductions in LDL cholesterol in family members (adults and children) after cascade screening. ESC noted that three qualitative publications were identified that examined the psychological (...) -utility analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis Outcomes Quality-adjusted life years gained Life-years gained Sources of evidence Systematic review of the literature (which had inconclusive findings). Additional AIHW data, published literature, unpublished data and expert opinion where required. Methods used to generate results Decision tree and Markov model. Cohorts modelled FH affected individuals Adult relatives of FH affected individuals Child/adolescent relatives of FH affected individuals Age

2020 Medical Services Advisory Committee

166. Suicide aftercare services

attitudes towards a person who has survived a suicidal crisis and possibly an attempt to end their life. Question 2: The components of effective care are inferred from examining the common components of models that have been shown to reduce suicide attempt risk in randomised controlled trials. With one exception, there has been no examination of mediating factors. This factor, client-rated therapeutic alliance, consistently emerges as predictive of better outcomes across a range of therapeutic models (...) -clinical services and general support services with improved coordination of clinical care and treatment programs appears to be the more effective model of service in terms of benefits to an individual’s quality of life and motivation, but also in achieving observable changes in suicidal behaviour. At the heart of all responses the need for empathic and respectful interactions with the person who has attempted suicide and their families and carers is essential as a measure of service quality. Careful

2020 Sax Institute Evidence Check

167. Mid-life support: Insights for employers

in the future + Wanting to avoid a perceived risk + Wanting to make sure certain aspects of life are preserved + Positive experience of planning Barriers – Issue seems a long way off – Risk appears low – Fatalistic attitude about survival to old age Practical Enablers + Sufficient financial resources + Knowledge and skills Barriers – Insufficient financial resources – Poor understanding of planning products and services – Difficulty predicting future timeline and understanding risk Social Enablers + Social (...) life, we conducted an evaluation of two group-based psychosocial courses for people approaching later life (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation UK Branch and Centre for Ageing Better, 2019). These courses employed well-known therapeutic approaches, such as cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness, and examined issues around ageism, resilience, transitions and the life course. Most participants experienced improvements in attributes key to managing transitions, thereby helping them have a more

2020 The Centre for Ageing Better

168. What research has been done to understand substance misuse within the UK student population, and what interventions have been introduced as a result?

that the use of drugs is a criminal offence (7, 17). University students may seek to enhance cognitive functioning by taking smart drugs in an effort to improve their academic performance; students who believed smart drugs to be harmless, and those who felt they knew how to use them safely, tended to have more positive attitudes towards smart drugs (18). Medical students appeared to be less likely to misuse drugs, compared with law students at the same university – the authors suggested that perhaps (...) due to irresponsible drinking; and a 50% reduction in both verbal assaults and major fights occurring during nights out (23). Alcohol reduction interventions should be tailored to suit the target population – those that highlight the negative consequences of binge drinking may modify intentions for first year undergraduates; in later years, attitudes, self-efficacy and perceived behavioural control predict intentions, suggesting that interventions targeting these variables would be effective

2020 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

169. What is the current evidence for the efficacy of drug consumption rooms?

BDL. Self-reported changes in drug use behaviors and syringe disposal methods following the opening of a supervised injecting facility in Copenhagen, Denmark. Harm Reduction Journal. 2014;11(1):29. 16. Bravo MJ, Royuela L, De la Fuente L, Brugal MT, Barrio G, Domingo-Salvany A. Use of supervised injection facilities and injection risk behaviours among young drug injectors. Addiction. 2009;104(4):614-9. 17. Patterson T, Bharmal A, Padhi S, Buchner C, Gibson E, Lee V. Opening Canada's first Health (...) to 11 th March 2019. Key messages • Research has found evidence of effectiveness of drug consumption rooms (DCRs) in reducing harms associated with drug use, particularly high- risk injection behaviours. Provision of sterile equipment to reduce infection transmission is a core function. • Some areas where DCRs are operating have had reductions in public drug consumption and publicly discarded drug-related litter, e.g. syringes. • People who use drugs are more likely to use a DCR if they are homeless

2020 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

170. Employment support for over 50s: Rapid evidence review

people aged 50 and over to access work > The potential for people in mid/later life to become self-employed 6 Centre for Ageing Better (2018), A silver lining for the UK economy? The intergenerational case for supporting longer working lives. London. Available at: sites/default/files/2018-02/Silver-lining-UK-economy-crucial.pdf7 © Centre for Ageing Better 2019 > The nature and effects of age-bias in recruitment, selection and other employment practices > Attitudes (...) for how advisor support might be developed further. - Motivational support and attitudinal challenge: Motivational, asset-based support to sustain engagement along with support to develop more positive attitudes and expectations of job search and employment appears to be a strong predictor of subsequent success in employment outcomes among this age group. - Conducive support and engagement environment: The environment in which support is provided must be one that older jobseekers are comfortable

2020 The Centre for Ageing Better

171. Navigating later life transitions: An evaluation of emotional and psychological interventions

speak up when you encounter ageist behaviour or attitudes? do you recognise them? skills audit individually read the statements on the back of the cards and sort into four groups to reflect on individual skills linked to people, data, things and ideas. to think about how your skills can be applied during this period of your life to enable you to plan for and develop a fulfilling and purposeful later life finance session the facilitator will share relevant information and as a group, if you feel able (...) on mindfulness, cognitive behavioural therapy and meditation); reflective journals and life satisfaction audit tools. The aim of the evaluation was to find out what impact the courses had on individual attributes that would help people be better prepared for later life transitions; what changes people make as a result of the courses; and what practice, resources or processes in the organisations are important in ensuring their implementation and efficacy. Because the two courses were similar, and because

2020 The Centre for Ageing Better

172. 2020 Adult Congenital Heart Disease (previously Grown-Up Congenital Heart Disease) (Management of) Guidelines Full Text available with Trip Pro

Laboratory precautions 25 Indications for intervention 25 Medical therapy 25 Follow-up recommendations 25 Additional considerations 26 3.5 Additional considerations 26 3.5.1 Sex differences 26 3.5.2 Adult congenital heart disease at more advanced age 26 3.5.3 Advance care planning and end-of-life care 26 3.5.4 Insurance and employment 26 3.5.5 Exercise and sports 27 3.5.6 Non-cardiac surgery 27 3.5.7 Pregnancy, contraception, and genetic counselling 27 Pregnancy (...) -up CHD no longer appears appropriate and was therefore replaced with adult CHD (ACHD) throughout the document. This is also in accordance with international literature. 2.2 Content of these Guidelines Decision making in ACHD involves accurate diagnosis, timing of intervention, risk assessment, and selection of the most suitable type of intervention. In addition, specific aspects of medical treatment for conditions such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and anticoagulation

2020 European Society of Cardiology

173. Preparing for a challenging winter 2020/21

for infection prevention and control in the care sector, including processes for containment and testing, outbreaks of COVID-19 in hospitals and care homes are likely to become common again and may be exacerbated by simultaneous transmission of influenza in these settings, as well as transmission between settings (see sections 3.2.3 and 4.2.1). Outbreaks are also likely in environments with groups at high risk, such as hostels for the homeless (especially dormitory-style night shelters); asylum seekers (...) death compared to White British 76 and Chinese/Indian/Pakistani/Other-Asian/Caribbean/Other-Black ethnicity have between 10-50% higher risk of death. 77 The reasons for this are not fully understood, but appear to include co-existing diabetes. ? The level of adherence to COVID-19 protection measures in various settings and communities. Although schools re-opening is known to increase the transmission of influenza, 78 this has not yet been demonstrated for SARS-CoV-2, and there is substantial

2020 Academy of Medical Sciences

174. The developing brain in health and disease - report

of the scientific meeting and this associated report. The Academy is also grateful to Alzheimer's Research UK, the Company of Biologists, F1000 Research, the Guarantors of the Brain, the International Brain Research Organization, the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience, the Loulou Foundation, Peak Labs and the Wellcome Trust, who kindly provided financial contributions towards the meeting. Opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent the views of all participants at the event (...) the lifespan. A better understanding of brain development will shed light not only on the processes underlying cognition and behaviour, but also on the underlying causes of many conditions with neurodevelopmental origins, such as autism and schizophrenia. There is widespread concern amongst professionals and government agencies in the UK about rising rates of mental health conditions in children and young people, supporting the view that new directions in research and ways of working are needed. There has

2020 Academy of Medical Sciences

175. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy

populations have also shown a similar trend of poorer outcomes and increased risk of death for individuals with BMI above 25 kg/m 2 , and for individuals with pre-existing diabetes and chronic hypertension. 10 17 Lifestyle measures, such as regular exercise and a healthy diet, are recommended in pregnancy and throughout life to maintain a healthy BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m²) and prevent the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1.6 Effect of COVID-19 on the fetus It is reassuring that, despite (...) should be particularly cognisant of evidence that BAME individuals are at particular risk of developing severe and life-threatening COVID-19 disease. • It is advisable to conduct appointments by virtual means only when physical examination is not required and there are no additional risk factors. • Healthcare professionals should proactively advise all pregnant women to contact emergency antenatal services if they have any concern about their or their baby’s wellbeing. • Carbon monoxide testing

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

176. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

. - Evidence level 2+ A review of the literature found no published evidence examining the use of ultrasound at the time of uterine removal for GTN. There is a consensus view, however, that this may be the preferred surgical option. Women who have an unrecognised molar pregnancy and undergo medical or surgical abortion of the pregnancy are at increased risk of life‐threatening complications of GTN, require more surgical intervention and chemotherapy. Evidence level 3 Poor vascularisation of the chorionic (...) a placental site trophoblastic tumour or epithelioid trophoblastic tumour be managed? All women with PSTT or ETT should be registered with and cared for within a GTD centre. Grade of recommendation: D PSTTs and ETTs are rare forms of GTD diagnosed by histological examination of retained pregnancy tissue. Their presentation and behaviour are different and less predictable. Hysterectomy is curative in many cases with localised disease. In women with a long time period since the antecedent pregnancy

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

178. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy

) of individuals had complicated diabetes. 40 Lifestyle measures such as regular exercise, a healthy diet and vitamin D supplementation are recommended in pregnancy and throughout life to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. 1.6 Effect of COVID-19 on the fetus There are currently no data suggesting an increased risk of miscarriage in relation to COVID-19. Case reports from early pregnancy studies with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have not demonstrated a significant relationship between (...) by telephone, may cause new challenges in relationship-building between healthcare professionals and women, especially among vulnerable groups, women for whom English is not their first language or women who are hearing impaired. o Healthcare professionals should be aware that women may have additional queries regarding their care if they have less face-to-face contact. • When in-person appointments are required (e.g. for blood tests, maternal examination or ultrasound scans), these should be arranged

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

179. 2020 ESC Guidelines on Sports Cardiology and Exercise in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

a higher prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and established CVD. Regular physical activity (PA), including systematic exercise, is an important component of therapy for most CVDs and is associated with reduced cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality. In an era where there is an increasing trend towards a sedentary lifestyle and a rising prevalence of obesity and associated CVDs, the promotion of PA and regular exercise is more crucial than ever and at the forefront of priorities for all (...) benefits provided by regular PA, intense exercise may paradoxically act as a trigger for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in the presence of underlying CVD. Indeed, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of sports and exercise-related mortality in athletes. CV safety during sports participation for individuals at all levels and ages is imperative to avoid catastrophic and often preventable SCD and has become a common goal among medical and sports governing organizations. Pre

2020 European Society of Cardiology

180. 2020 Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation (Management of) Guidelines Full Text available with Trip Pro

myocardial infarction 8 Type 2 myocardial infarction 9 Types 3–5 myocardial infarction 9 2.1.2 Unstable angina in the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays 9 2.2 Epidemiology 9 2.3 What is new? 9 2.4 Number and breakdown of classes of recommendations (Supplementary Data) 10 3 Diagnosis 10 3.1 Clinical presentation (Supplementary Data) 10 3.2 Physical examination (Supplementary Data) 10 3.3 Diagnostic tools 10 3.3.1 Electrocardiogram 10 3.3.2 Biomarkers: high-sensitivity cardiac (...) -ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1 Lifestyle management (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.1 Smoking (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.2 Diet and alcohol (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.3 Weight management (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.3 Physical activity (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.4 Cardiac rehabilitation (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.5 Psychosocial factors (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.6 Environmental factors (Supplementary Data) 47 9.1.7 Sexual activity (Supplementary Data) 47

2020 European Society of Cardiology

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