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Appearance, Behavior and Attitude Exam

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41. Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer

currently operating in the Northern Territory, 78 and Western Australia is reported to be committed to banning the commercial use of solaria. 79 Reducing individual risk of cancer and staying healthy Australian programs to reduce UV exposure and promote use of sunscreen and protective attire have changed attitudes regarding tanning and increasing protective behaviours, 3 , 75 , 80 and there has been a decrease in sunburn amongst both adolescents and adults. 75 , 81 Position Statement - Lifestyle risk (...) 3 Methodology and scope 4 Impact of cancer 5 Primary prevention of cancer 6 Lifestyle risk factors 7 Tobacco 8 Overweight and obesity 10 Physical activity and sedentary behaviour 13 Diet 15 Alcohol 18 UV radiation 20 Infections 22 Conclusion 24 References 25 Appendix 1 29 Appendix 2 31 Position Statement - Lifestyle risk factors and the primary prevention of cancer page 2 of 31Recommendations It is estimated that at least one third of all cancer cases are preventable, 1 and that potentially more

2015 Cancer Australia

42. Usefulness of an educational lecture focusing on improvement in public awareness of and attitudes toward depression and its treatments. Full Text available with Trip Pro

revealed that each subscale score at post-lecture was strongly dependent on its own baseline subscale score (p < 0.01), and that baseline disease-model attitudes also affected post-lecture scores on negative affect toward depression and non-medication solutions (p < 0.01).The educational intervention appears useful for acquiring accurate attitudes toward depression in a medical model. However, other strategies should be considered to enhance help-seeking behavior, especially in younger people. (...) in the present study. Next, we conducted two types of educational interventions and examined the results to clarify the difference in the quality of these lectures.Subjects were 834 citizens (245 males and 589 females) who received an anti-stigma-targeted (n = 467) or non-targeted lecture (n = 367). An 18-item questionnaire assessing levels of awareness and attitudes toward depression and its treatments was administered to each participant before and after the lecture. A chi-square test was used

2017 BMC health services research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

43. Children’s attitudes towards Electronic Gambling Machines: an exploratory qualitative study of children who attend community clubs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Children’s attitudes towards Electronic Gambling Machines: an exploratory qualitative study of children who attend community clubs This research sought to explore whether children's visual and auditory exposure to Electronic Gambling Machines (EGMs) in community clubs contributed to shaping their attitudes towards these types of potentially harmful gambling products. This research also examined children's knowledge of EGM behaviours in adults within their social networks.Qualitative (...) that influenced children's attitudes towards EGMs.In relation to attentional factors, children recalled having seen EGMs in clubs, including where they were located, auditory stimuli and the physical appearance of EGMs. Children also retained information about the behaviours associated with gambling on EGMs, most prominently why adults gamble on these machines. Attitudes towards EGMs were reinforced by the child's knowledge of adults EGM behaviours. Some older children's attitudes were positively reinforced

2017 Harm Reduction Journal

44. Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice. To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes.Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack (...) foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention).Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective

2017 Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

45. Medical Training to Achieve Competency in Lifestyle Counseling: An Essential Foundation for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases and Other Chronic Medical Conditions: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

and Other Chronic Medical Conditions: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association , MD, MMSc, FAHA, Chair , PhD, PT, FAHA , MD , PhD, FAHA , MD, MPH, FAHA , PhD, FAHA , PhD, FAHA , PhD , and PhD, FAHA MD, FAHAOn behalf of the American Heart Association Physical Activity Committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; the Behavior Change Committee, a joint committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health and the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention (...) ; the Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Secondary Prevention Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; and the Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Marie-France Hivert , Ross Arena , Daniel E. Forman , Penny M. Kris-Etherton , Patrick E. McBride , Russell R. Pate , Bonnie Spring , Jennifer Trilk , Linda V. Van Horn , and William E. Kraus and On behalf of the American Heart Association Physical Activity Committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; the Behavior Change

2016 American Heart Association

46. Mindfulness?based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary school students Full Text available with Trip Pro

executive function, attention, planning) and emotional self‐regulation (behavior and mental health; Duncan & Magnuson, 2009) and studied under the umbrella of executive function, which may also include working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control ( ). The ability to monitor and control one's thoughts, behaviors and emotions plays an important role across all life domains, including school related outcomes. Self‐regulation has been found to be related to, or a predictor for, a number (...) to attend to one's thoughts in the present moment and accept those thoughts without trying to change the thoughts or engage in action, promoting sustained attention and cognitive flexibility while also reducing emotional reactivity ( ). The emphasis on attending with acceptance and with a nonjudgmental attitude enables students to engage in more socially appropriate behavior and promote well‐being by viewing situations through a different perspective and engaging in a type of detachment, which allows

2017 Campbell Collaboration

47. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Behavioral Treatment of Obesity and Overweight in Children and Adolescents

strategies of family-based behavioral interventions (goals and planning, comparison of outcomes, self-monitoring of behavior, self-monitoring of outcome, reward and threat, stimulus control, modeling of healthy lifestyle behaviors by parents, motivational interview- ing, general parenting skills [e.g., positive parenting] or family conflict management) in the management of age/sex-stan- dardized BMI? Specifically: A. Are these strategies associated with the efficacy of the interventions? B. What (...) understanding of clinical implementation of a family-based, multicomponent behavioral intervention, the scope of this effort included an examination of evidence including comparative effectiveness studies that would inform implementation characteristics, child/family moderators, intervention strategies, and patient engagement to provide recommendations important for clinical implementation of the intervention. The panel commissioned the Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates Evidence-Based Practice Center

2018 American Psychological Association

48. Skin Cancer Prevention: Behavioral Counseling

counseling, and technology-based (text messages, online programs and modules, personal UV facial photographs) interventions. Suggestions for Practice Regarding the I Statement Potential Preventable Burden Counseling adults about performing skin self-examination appears to result in an increase of such examinations. The potential benefit of behavioral counseling about skin self-examination is uncertain because of the lack of evidence on the link between behavior change and skin cancer or other health (...) assessing sunscreen use found an increase in this outcome. Of 3 trials of self-reported indoor tanning behavior, only 1 trial using an appearance-focused intervention among young female adults noted a significant improvement compared with the control group. Effective interventions were more often of longer duration or had more frequent contacts with participants during the study period. Trials of counseling interventions that focused on counseling patients to perform skin self-examination as a means

2018 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

49. Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Adults: Screening and Behavioral Counseling Interventions

, and alcohol abuse or dependence). In accordance with the ASAM, the current recommendation uses the term “unhealthy use” rather than “misuse.” The ASAM defines “unhealthy use” as any use of alcohol that increases the risk of health consequences or that has already led to health consequences, including an AUD diagnosis. , The evidence review examined the effectiveness of screening to reduce unhealthy alcohol use, morbidity, mortality, or risky behaviors and to improve health, social, or legal outcomes (...) Interventions No trials examined the direct effects of screening for unhealthy alcohol use on alcohol use or health, social, or legal outcomes. Alcohol Use and Other Risky Behaviors Ten good-quality trials and 58 fair-quality trials (n = 36,528) reported on alcohol use and other risky behaviors. The majority of trials (60%) were conducted in the United States. Intervention settings were predominantly in primary care clinics (62%). Two trials were in adolescents, 22 in college-aged or young adults, 29

2018 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

50. RCEM guidelines for management of Acute Behavioural Disturbance

Behavioural Disturbance (ABD) 4 from mildly erratic to a state of extreme agitation and physical exertion. Patients have signs of hyper-adrenergic autonomic dysfunction such as significant tachycardia, marked metabolic acidosis and hyperthermia and these are associated with multi organ failure and death. 3 The identification of ABD can be challenging clinically as the spectrum of behaviours and signs overlap with many other disease presentations and there is no definitive diagnostic test. ABD appears (...) blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med 2013; 61:72-81. 12. Ibister GK, Calver LA, Page CB et al. Randomised controlled trial of intramuscular droperidol versus midazolam for violence and acute behavioral disturbance: The DORM study. Ann Emerg Med 2010; 56:392 - 401. 13. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 6 th Edition January 2011. Guidelines for the Management of Excited Delirium / Acute Behavioural Disturbance (ABD) 11 Other useful publications ? Di Maio TG

2016 Royal College of Emergency Medicine

51. Behaviour change techniques for telephone-delivered and supported health coaching interventions

is described as follows: Where the ‘comparator’ refers to the concept of comparing the current state (e.g. current weight) to the target (desired weight). Therefore, control theory involves setting goals, acting to achieve the goal and monitoring progress: i.e. noting current standing with regards to the goal, and the effect of one’s action on the environment Theory of Planned Behaviour The Theory of Planned Behaviour 3 holds that behaviour is driven by intention. Intention is determined by attitudes (how (...) , and action planning. ? More studies are needed to assess the effect of providing behaviour substitution, implementing a behavioural contract and providing information from a credible source, as these were the most successful BCTs in the few studies that used them. 4 CHANGING BEHAVIOUR BY TELEPHONE: WHAT WORKS | SAX INSTITUTE Question 2: What BCTs have been shown to be effective in interventions designed to support parents delivered via telephone? ? Ten studies were identified that examined

2015 Sax Institute Evidence Check

52. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing agitation in older adults with dementia

Helen Snooks Professor of Health Services Research, Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, UK Please visit the website for a list of members of the NIHR Journals Library Board: www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/about/editors Editorial contact: nihredit@southampton.ac.uk NIHR Journals Library www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.ukAbstract A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing (...) . Advantages were not demonstrated with ‘therapeutic touch’ or individualised activity. Aromatherapy and light therapy did not show clinical effectiveness. Training family carers in behavioural or cognitive interventions did not decrease severe agitation. The few studies reporting activities of daily living or quality-of-life outcomes found no improvement, even when agitation had improved. We identi?ed two health economic studies. Costs of interventions which signi?cantly impacted on agitation were

2014 NIHR HTA programme

53. Testing and interpreting measures of ovarian reserve: a committee opinion

initial pool of oocytes, or simply the extreme end of a normal bell-shaped population distribution of the number of oocytes at a given age. A loss of oo- cytes and fertility potential are associ- ated with exposure to systemic chemotherapy, pelvic irradiation, and genetic abnormalities (e.g., 45,X chro- mosomal mosaicism, FMR1 premuta- tions). Decreased ovarian reserve has not been associated with other lifestyle behaviors, with the possible exception of cigarette smoking (2). WHYMEASUREOVARIAN (...) Testing and interpreting measures of ovarian reserve: a committee opinion Testing and interpreting measures of ovarian reserve: a committee opinion Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama Currently there is no uniformly accepted de?nition of decreased ovarian reserve (DOR), as the term may refer to three related but distinctly different outcomes: oocyte quality, oocyte quantity, or reproductive

2015 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

54. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion

Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama Diagnosticevaluationforinfertilityinwomenshouldbeconductedinasystematic,expeditious,andcost-effectivemannertoidentifyall (...) or amenorrhea Known or suspected uterine/tubal/ peritoneal disease or stage III–IV endometriosis Knownorsuspectedmalesubfertility Where applicable, evaluation of both partners should begin at the same time. Methods for the evaluation of the male partner are described in a separate document (5). Women who are planning to attempt pregnancy via inseminationwithspermfromaknown or anonymous donor may also merit evaluation before such treatment begins. HISTORYANDPHYSICAL EXAMINATION Ideally, the initial

2015 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

55. Committee Opinion: Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Committee Opinion: Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia ABSTRACT: Endometrial hyperplasia is of clinical significance because it is often a precursor lesion to adeno- carcinoma of the endometrium. Making the distinction between hyperplasia and true precancerous lesions or true neoplasia has significant clinical effect because their differing cancer risks must be matched with an appropriate intervention to avoid undertreatment or overtreatment. Pathologic (...) behavior). The accuracy of dilation and curettage compared with endometrial suction curette in diagnosing precancer and excluding concurrent carcinoma is unclear. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is more sensitive than dilation and curettage in the diagnosis of uterine lesions. When clinically appropriate, total hysterectomy for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia provides definitive assessment of a possible concurrent carcinoma and effectively treats premalignant lesions. Systemic or local

2015 Society of Gynecologic Oncology

56. Second Opinion for Morphological/Interpretive Pathology

opinion was correct, without sufficient follow up, therefore making the results uninterpretable or unreliable. MSAC also noted a lack of data addressing how a change in diagnosis might impact on clinically relevant endpoints such as morbidity, mortality or quality of life. MSAC agreed that no evidence was provided to support positive changes in patient care and patient outcomes. Similarly, MSAC also discussed that no studies quantified harms due to delay in diagnosis. Due to the limited data (...) significant change in diagnosis. A sensitivity analysis including both histopathology and cytopathology calculated incremental costs up $5,279 for one significant change in diagnosis. MSAC also discussed the effect that this proposal could have on changes in behaviour, and new, medical business models. In particular, MSAC questioned whether this could lead to a more inefficient medical business model. For example, whether the proposal would lead to clinicians uniformly requesting expert second opinions

2014 Medical Services Advisory Committee

57. Modification of lifestyle and nutrition interventions for management of early chronic kidney disease

Modification of lifestyle and nutrition interventions for management of early chronic kidney disease _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Early Chronic Kidney Disease July 2012 Page 1 of 50 Modification of lifestyle and nutrition interventions for management of early chronic kidney disease Date written: July 2012 Author: Maria Chan, David Johnson GUIDELINES Dietary modification Protein a. We suggest that patients (...) to aim for a Body Mass Index (BMI) closer to 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m 2 and waist circumference =102 cm for men and =88 cm for women (2C). ? This is in line with the Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults recommended by the NHMRC and Australian better health initiatives. Fruit and vegetables l. We suggest adults with early CKD consume a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, as these appear to reduce blood pressure and have renoprotective effects comparable to sodium bicarbonate (2C). Mediterranean

2013 KHA-CARI Guidelines

58. What is the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in changing risk behaviours (e.g. sex, drug use, medication adherence) for people living with HIV?

rates. Two studies reported a significant decrease in viral loads and one study showed an increase in CD4 cell counts. The varying definition of adherence across studies was a challenge when comparing improvements. Nonetheless motivational interviewing still appeared to be a promising intervention to improve HAART adherence in HIV-positive individuals. Sexual Risk Behaviours It is estimated that 13% to 50% of HIV-positive individuals engage in risky sexual practices (23;28). HIV prevention (...) focuses on decreasing or eliminating this risk behaviour from the person’s life. Healthy Choices (5;14) Over a 12-week period, four hour-long sessions are conducted between the participant and a trained therapist, utilizing structured, personalized feedback to elicit behaviour change. During the first two sessions, the problem behaviour is discussed, the willingness to change is assessed and a behaviour change plan is completed. The goal of the third session is to review progress, reinforce positive

2014 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

59. Management of suicidal behaviour ? evidence for models of care: a rapid review

), authors gave this evidence a ‘C–D’ rating based on low quality studies and expert opinion Study ID Design Setting Protocol/ intervention Findings Quality assessment Quality rating persistent; past attempts; family history; psychosocial factors including stressors, life events, coping styles, cognitive factors; as well as the ability to start treatment Protocol for hospitalisation or discharge following emergency assessment Patients should be considered for hospitalisation in the following conditions (...) and not downplayed Inpatient admission may be required in the presence of acute life stressor, or comorbid presence of an Axis I disorder Authors gave this evidence a ‘C–D’ rating based mostly on expert opinion NICE 2004 UK Evidence-based guideline N not reported General medical/ED Protocols for immediate management of suicidal thoughts or behaviours These protocols are reported in many other clinical management guidelines; however, the guideline provided additional assessment of evidence sources and reliability

2014 Sax Institute Evidence Check

60. Mental Status Exam

Patient must be able to understand questions and communicate answers VI. Protocol Interview patient alone, and then again with family Full Mental State Exam evaluates 11 criteria VII. Exam: General Approach (components) ( , ) ( , , , , ) ( , , ) VIII. Exam: General appearance, behavior and attitude See Appearance Clothing and grooming Old or young appearing Healthy or sickly appearing Angry, puzzled, frightened, anxious, contemptuous, apathetic, paranoid Effeminate or masculine Scars or s Grooming (...) or hygiene Behavior Mannerisms, gestures, twitches, picking Hand wringing or other Combative, hostile, guarded or irritable Rapid or pressured speech Candid, congenial or cooperative Psychomotor retardation, to , withdrawn or shy Clumsy Eye contact (fleeting, good, sporadic or none) Attitude toward examiner Cooperative or hostile Defensive, seductive, evasive, ingratiating Interpretation Psychotic: Disheveled, odd, grimacing Schizophrenic: Stare or blank look Paranoid: Agitated or hostile Depressed

2018 FP Notebook

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