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Aphasia

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4281. Comparison of formal language therapy with supportive counseling for aphasia due to acute vascular accident. (Abstract)

Comparison of formal language therapy with supportive counseling for aphasia due to acute vascular accident. A total of 60 right-handed patients with acute aphasia due to left hemispheral stroke were randomly assigned to two modes of therapy for six months, beginning one month after the ictus. Conventional speech therapy provided by professional speech pathologists twice weekly was compared with emotionally supportive counseling therapy, also provided by professional speech pathologists

1987 Archives of neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4282. Anxiety, alcohol, aphasia, and ums. (Abstract)

Anxiety, alcohol, aphasia, and ums. Although several studies have documented a link between anxiety and filled pauses (ums, ers, and uhs), numerous failures make it impossible to believe that the two are linked in any simple way. This article suggests anxiety may increase ums not when it makes the speech task harder but when it causes the speaker to pay attention to the speech. Two experiments examined this idea. One manipulated evaluation apprehension, and the other manipulated self (...) -consciousness. Both showed dramatic increases in ums. Two more studies examined the real-world implications of this approach. Alcohol, which makes speaking harder but also makes speakers care less about what they say, was found to reduce ums. The second study found that Broca's aphasics, who produce simple speech but must deliberate over every word, produce many ums. Wernicke's aphasics may not talk well, but do not mind, and manage with few ums.

1996 Journal of personality and social psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4283. Bromocriptine treatment of nonfluent aphasia. (Abstract)

Bromocriptine treatment of nonfluent aphasia. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, we studied the effect of bromocriptine (15 mg daily) in 20 men with chronic nonfluent aphasia. The study was conducted over a 28-week period in two phases. In phase I, the patients received either bromocriptine or placebo; in phase II the treatments were crossed over. We evaluated each patient's language and nonverbal cognitive skills at the beginning and end of each phase and 6 weeks after (...) completion of phase II. When compared with placebo treatment, bromocriptine did not significantly improve the patient's speech fluency, language content, overall degree of aphasia severity, or nonverbal cognitive abilities. Based on these results, bromocriptine is not recommended as monotherapy for the treatment of chronic nonfluent aphasia.

1995 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4284. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of bromocriptine in nonfluent aphasia. (Abstract)

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of bromocriptine in nonfluent aphasia. We carried out a double-blind and placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of bromocriptine in the treatment of nonfluent aphasia. Seven patients received bromocriptine (up to 60 mg/d) and an identical placebo in a randomized order. End points were the number of content words, content units, and pauses > 3 seconds during the description of a figure; verbal naming; and verbal fluency. There were

1995 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4285. Piracetam as an adjuvant to language therapy for aphasia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. (Abstract)

Piracetam as an adjuvant to language therapy for aphasia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. To determine whether piracetam 4.8 g/day together with intensive language therapy improved language function more than language therapy alone.Double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study.Referral speech and language clinic of a university department of neurology.Sixty-six inpatients with aphasia present between 4 weeks and 36 months.Intensive language therapy for 6 weeks (...) in all patients. Thirty-two patients received piracetam 4.8 g daily and 34 patients received placebo.The Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), a standardized procedure for evaluating the severity of aphasia, was performed at baseline and after 6 weeks' treatment.In 50 patients evaluated for efficacy, a trend toward improvement in the active group was observed in all subtests of the AAT. This trend was statistically significant for absolute differences in recovery of "written language" and "profile level

1997 Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4286. The efficacy of computer-provided reading treatment for chronic aphasic adults. (Abstract)

The efficacy of computer-provided reading treatment for chronic aphasic adults. We examined the effects of computer-provided reading activities on language performance in chronic aphasic patients. Fifty-five aphasic adults were assigned randomly to one of three conditions: computer reading treatment, computer stimulation, or no treatment. Subjects in the computer groups used computer 3 hours each week for 26 weeks. Computer reading treatment software consisted of visual matching and reading (...) improvement on the Porch Index of Communicative Ability "Overall" and "Verbal" modality percentiles and on the Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia "Quotient" and "Repetition" subtest than the other two groups. The results suggest that (a) computerized reading treatment can be administered with minimal assistance from a clinician, (b) improvement on the computerized reading treatment tasks generalized to non-computer language performance, (c) improvement resulted from the language content of the software

1997 Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4287. Intact higher-level constraints on the pronunciation of new written words by nonfluent dysphasics. (Abstract)

Campbell and Besner's effect in our normal control group and in the dysphasic group, with no significant difference between the two groups. We conclude that syntactic influences on pronunciation may be unimpaired in nonfluent dysphasia, and that the task used resembles the class of online tasks, in its capacity to elicit unimpaired processing. We argue that this result is compatible with the account of agrammatism discussed if the latter is grounded in a distributed, constraint-based processing device (...) Intact higher-level constraints on the pronunciation of new written words by nonfluent dysphasics. Nonfluent, Broca-type dysphasics are characterized by impaired syntactic processing. However, grammaticality judgements and certain on-line tasks have shown some preservation of this processing in such subjects. We report an experiment with nonfluent dysphasics in which they read aloud th-initial nonwords (e.g., thuz) in sentential contexts that predicted a function word or a content word

1998 Brain and language Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4288. The neurology of empty categories aphasics' failure to detect ungrammaticality. (Abstract)

The neurology of empty categories aphasics' failure to detect ungrammaticality. A direct investigation into the grammatical abilities of Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics sought to obtain critical evidence for a revised model of the functional neuroanatomy of language. We examined aphasics' ability to make grammaticality judgments on a set of theoretically selected, highly complex syntactic structures that involve, most prominently, fine violations of constraints on syntactic movement. Although (...) both groups have been thought to possess intact abilities in this domain, we discovered severe deficits; Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics (whose performances differed) exhibited clear, delineated, and grammatically characterizable deficits - they follow from the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis, which is motivated by independent comprehension results. These conclusions have both linguistic and neurological implications; Linguistically, they show that the aphasic deficit interacts with more than one module

1998 Journal of cognitive neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4289. Bilingual aphasia: semantic organization, strategy use, and productivity in semantic verbal fluency. (Abstract)

Bilingual aphasia: semantic organization, strategy use, and productivity in semantic verbal fluency. A semantic verbal fluency task (Animals, Foods) was administered to 16 aphasic, bilingual adults in French and English. Each subject was tested twice in each language. The two goals of the study were to compare performance across languages and to determine the effect of a deliberate grouping strategy on productivity. All subjects claimed approximately equal prestroke abilities in both languages

1998 Brain and language Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4290. EXPESSIVE DYSPHASIA POSSIBLY RELATED TO FK506 IN TWO LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS Full Text available with Trip Pro

EXPESSIVE DYSPHASIA POSSIBLY RELATED TO FK506 IN TWO LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS 1701571 1991 01 23 2018 11 13 0041-1337 50 6 1990 Dec Transplantation Transplantation Expressive dysphasia possibly related to FK506 in two liver transplant recipients. 1043-5 Reyes J J Veterans Administration Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh. Gayowski T T Fung J J Todo S S Alessiani M M Starzl T E TE eng R01 DK029961-19 DK NIDDK NIH HHS United States Case Reports Journal Article United States (...) Transplantation 0132144 0041-1337 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Carrier Proteins 0 Immunosuppressive Agents EC 5.1.1.- Amino Acid Isomerases EC 5.2.1.8 Peptidylprolyl Isomerase WM0HAQ4WNM Tacrolimus IM Adult Amino Acid Isomerases antagonists & inhibitors Anti-Bacterial Agents adverse effects Aphasia chemically induced Carrier Proteins antagonists & inhibitors Female Humans Immunosuppressive Agents adverse effects Liver Transplantation Male Peptidylprolyl Isomerase Postoperative Complications Tacrolimus 1990 12 1

1990 Transplantation

4291. Aphasia in Clinical Practice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aphasia in Clinical Practice Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management (...) of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician.

1983 Canadian Family Physician

4292. Spontaneous recovery of language in patients with aphasia between 4 and 34 weeks after stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spontaneous recovery of language in patients with aphasia between 4 and 34 weeks after stroke. The paper describes the spontaneous recovery of language abilities of 52 stroke patients who were aphasic for more than 4 weeks. These patients had been randomly allocated to receive no speech therapy and had been assessed at 6-weekly intervals after a stroke. There was improvement in language abilities over time. Age, sex and aphasia type were not related to the amount of improvement. An aphasic

1985 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

4293. Unaccusative verb production in agrammatic aphasia: the argument structure complexity hypothesis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unaccusative verb production in agrammatic aphasia: the argument structure complexity hypothesis This study examined patterns of verb production in narrative samples of eight individuals with agrammatic aphasia and seven education- and age-matched normal subjects. Comprehension and constrained production of two types of intransitive verbs-unaccusatives whose argument structure triggers a complex syntactic derivation and unergatives that are considered syntactically simple- was also tested (...) . Results showed that in narrative tasks a hierarchy of verb production difficulty as seen in previous studies [Aphasiology 11 (1997) 473; Brain and Language 74 (2000) 1] emerged for the aphasic participants, with a preference noted for production of verbs with a fewer number of arguments. Both normal and agrammatic subjects also showed fewer productions of unaccusative intransitive verbs in their narrative samples as compared to other verb types (supporting findings reported by Kegl [Brain and Language

2003 Journal of neurolinguistics

4294. Effect of typicality on online category verification of animate category exemplars in aphasia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of typicality on online category verification of animate category exemplars in aphasia Normal young, elderly, Broca's aphasic, and Wernicke's aphasic individuals participated in an online category verification task where primes were superordinate category labels while targets were either typical or atypical examples of animate categories or nonmembers belonging to inanimate categories. The reaction time to judge whether the target belonged to the preceding category label was measured (...) . Results indicated that all four groups made significantly greater errors on atypical examples compared to typical examples. Young and elderly individuals, and Broca's aphasic patients performed similarly on the verification task; these groups demonstrated faster reaction times on typical examples than atypical examples. Wernicke's aphasic patients made the most errors on the task and were slowest to respond than any other participant group. Also, these participants were not significantly faster

2003 Brain and language

4295. Volunteer stroke scheme for dysphasic patients with stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Volunteer stroke scheme for dysphasic patients with stroke. 7448535 1981 03 17 2018 11 13 0007-1447 281 6255 1980 Dec 13 British medical journal Br Med J Volunteer stroke scheme for dysphasic patients with stroke. 1605-7 Griffith V E VE Miller C L CL eng Case Reports Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 AIM IM Aged Aphasia etiology rehabilitation Cerebrovascular Disorders complications rehabilitation Economics Female Humans Male Middle Aged Morale Volunteers 1980 12 13 1980 12 13

1980 British medical journal

4296. Observations on patients dysphasic after stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Observations on patients dysphasic after stroke. 7448536 1981 03 17 2018 11 13 0007-1447 281 6255 1980 Dec 13 British medical journal Br Med J Observations on patients dysphasic after stroke. 1608-9 Griffith V E VE eng Journal Article England Br Med J 0372673 0007-1447 AIM IM Aphasia etiology rehabilitation Cerebrovascular Disorders complications psychology rehabilitation Communication Humans Morale Motivation 1980 12 13 1980 12 13 0 1 1980 12 13 0 0 ppublish 7448536 PMC1715087 Br Med J. 1980

1980 British medical journal

4297. Non-specific X linked mental retardation with aphasia exhibiting genetic linkage to chromosomal region Xp11. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Non-specific X linked mental retardation with aphasia exhibiting genetic linkage to chromosomal region Xp11. A new type of non-specific X linked mental retardation is described in a three generation family. The three affected males had severe mental retardation (IQ 20 to 30), mutism, growth failure, frequent infections, seizures, and the following minor anomalies: brachycephaly, frontal hair whorl, square face, large mouth, thick lips, and prognathism. There was not a characteristic facies

1992 Journal of Medical Genetics

4298. Aphasia, deafness, or mental retardation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aphasia, deafness, or mental retardation. 8474112 1993 05 20 2018 11 13 0022-2593 30 3 1993 Mar Journal of medical genetics J. Med. Genet. Aphasia, deafness, or mental retardation. 262 Gordon A G AG eng Case Reports Comment Letter England J Med Genet 2985087R 0022-2593 IM J Med Genet. 1992 Sep;29(9):629-34 1357179 Aphasia complications diagnosis Deafness complications Genetic Linkage Humans Intellectual Disability complications genetics Language Development Disorders etiology Male X Chromosome

1993 Journal of Medical Genetics

4299. LANGUAGE DEFICITS, LOCALIZATION, AND GRAMMAR: EVIDENCE FOR A DISTRIBUTIVE MODEL OF LANGUAGE BREAKDOWN IN APHASIC PATIENTS AND NEUROLOGICALLY INTACT INDIVIDUALS Full Text available with Trip Pro

LANGUAGE DEFICITS, LOCALIZATION, AND GRAMMAR: EVIDENCE FOR A DISTRIBUTIVE MODEL OF LANGUAGE BREAKDOWN IN APHASIC PATIENTS AND NEUROLOGICALLY INTACT INDIVIDUALS Selective deficits in aphasic patients' grammatical production and comprehension are often cited as evidence that syntactic processing is modular and localizable in discrete areas of the brain (e.g., Y. Grodzinsky, 2000). The authors review a large body of experimental evidence suggesting that morpho-syntactic deficits can be observed (...) in a number of aphasic and neurologically intact populations. They present new data showing that receptive agrammatism is found not only over a range of aphasic groups, but is also observed in neurologically intact individuals processing under stressful conditions. The authors suggest that these data are most compatible with a domain-general account of language, one that emphasizes the interaction of linguistic distributions with the properties of an associative processor working under normal

2001 Psychological Review

4300. Aphasia severity: Association with cerebral perfusion and diffusion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aphasia severity: Association with cerebral perfusion and diffusion BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the relationship between perfusion, diffusion, and stroke suggest that the extent of cerebral hypoperfusion may be a better indicator of neurological status than lesion size in the early phases of recovery. It is not clear how these factors are related to aphasia severity. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral perfusion, diffusion, and aphasia (...) severity in stroke. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURE: Nine participants were examined within 24 hours of stroke onset and six were re-examined at 1 month post stroke. The examination included administration of an aphasia test, a face recognition task, and a neuroimaging session including T2-, perfusion-, and diffusion-weighted MRI. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Participants with a variety of aphasia types and severity were included in the study. Visual inspection suggested larger

2002 Aphasiology

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