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Aphasia

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3581. Meningiomas of the lateral ventricle - a report of 15 cases. (Abstract)

operative complications included motor deficits in 3, contralateral homonymous hemianopia in 2, dysphasia in 1, refractory seizures in 2 and loculated hydrocephalus in one. We had no operative mortality. At last follow-up for 10 patients were in GOS 5, two were in GOS 4 and three in GOS 3. Lateral ventricular meningiomas are difficult tumours to operate. Total surgical excision through a superior parietal lobule or middle temporal gyrus approach is possible in most cases with minimal morbidity.

2009 British Journal of Neurosurgery

3582. Fulminant JC virus encephalopathy with productive infection of cortical pyramidal neurons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fulminant JC virus encephalopathy with productive infection of cortical pyramidal neurons. The polyomavirus JC (JCV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and of JCV granule cell neuronopathy. We present a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who experienced development of multiple cortical lesions, aphasia, and progressive cognitive decline after chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Brain biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction

2009 Annals of Neurology

3583. Recurrent Wernicke's aphasia: migraine and not stroke! Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent Wernicke's aphasia: migraine and not stroke! We report the clinical findings of a 40-year-old woman with recurrent migraine presenting with Wernicke's aphasia in accordance with the results of a standardized battery for language assessment (Boston Aphasia Diagnostic Examination). The patient had no evidence of parenchymal or vascular lesions on MRI and showed delta and theta slowing over the left posterior temporal leads on the EEG. Although the acute onset of a fluent aphasia (...) suggested stroke as a likely etiology, the recurrence of aphasia as the initial symptom of migraine was related to cortical spreading depression and not to stroke.

2009 Headache

3584. Subcortical and deep cortical atrophy in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. (Abstract)

Semantic Dementia [SD], 6 Progressive Non-Fluent Aphasia [PNFA]), and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HC). ANOVA showed significant (P<0.001) main effect of diagnosis, and significant interactions for diagnosis and region, and diagnosis and hemisphere. Post-hoc comparisons with HC showed bilateral GM atrophy in the caudate, putamen and thalamus, in bvFTD; a left-confined GM reduction in the amygdala in SD; and bilateral GM atrophy in the caudate and thalamus, and left-sided GM reduction in the putamen

2009 Neurobiology of Aging

3585. Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neurology of anomia in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a semantic category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word-object (...) ; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for semantic dementia.

2009 Brain

3586. Different impairments of semantic cognition in semantic dementia and semantic aphasia: evidence from the non-verbal domain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Different impairments of semantic cognition in semantic dementia and semantic aphasia: evidence from the non-verbal domain. Disorders of semantic cognition in different neuropsychological conditions result from diverse areas of brain damage and may have different underlying causes. This study used a comparative case-series design to examine the hypothesis that relatively circumscribed bilateral atrophy of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic dementia (SD) produces a gradual degradation (...) of core semantic representations, whilst a deficit of cognitive control produces multi-modal semantic impairment in a subset of patients with stroke aphasia following damage involving the left prefrontal cortex or regions in and around the temporoparietal area; this condition, which transcends traditional aphasia classifications, is referred to as 'semantic aphasia' (SA). There have been very few direct comparisons of these patient groups to date and these previous studies have focussed on verbal

2009 Brain

3587. Grammatical dissociation during acquired childhood aphasia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Grammatical dissociation during acquired childhood aphasia. We report the case of a 6-year-old female who suffered a left hemisphere stroke attributed to a genetically determined prothrombotic state. She presented a fluent speech pattern with selective difficulty in retrieving names but not verbs. An evaluation was designed to clarify whether her symptoms represented a specific impairment of name retrieval.The child undertook an experimental battery of visual naming tasks requiring

2009 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

3588. Emergence from minimally conscious state: insights from evaluation of posttraumatic confusion. (Abstract)

to questions of varied difficulty, including simple orientation questions, using all items from the Yes/No Subscale of the Mississippi Aphasia Screening Test.Prospective observational study of a cohort of responsive patients recovering from traumatic brain injury in an acute inpatient brain injury rehabilitation program.Of the 629 observations from 144 participants, name recognition was the easiest yes/no question, with nonconfused individuals responding with 100% accuracy, whereas only 75% to 78

2009 Neurology

3589. Historical perspective: Neurological advances from studies of war injuries and illnesses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

by Holmes and Lister, and the functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex by Riddoch), but there were also other important descriptive studies concerning war-related aphasia, cerebellar injuries, and spinal cord injuries (eg, cerebellar injuries by Holmes, and autonomic dysreflexia by Head and Riddoch). Later progress, during and shortly after World War II (WWII), included major progress in understanding the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injuries by Denny-Brown, Russell

2009 Annals of Neurology

3590. Non-verbal sound processing in the primary progressive aphasias. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Non-verbal sound processing in the primary progressive aphasias. Little is known about the processing of non-verbal sounds in the primary progressive aphasias. Here, we investigated the processing of complex non-verbal sounds in detail, in a consecutive series of 20 patients with primary progressive aphasia [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia; eight with semantic dementia]. We designed a novel experimental neuropsychological battery to probe complex sound processing at early perceptual (...) , apperceptive and semantic levels, using within-modality response procedures that minimized other cognitive demands and matching tests in the visual modality. Patients with primary progressive aphasia had deficits of non-verbal sound analysis compared with healthy age-matched individuals. Deficits of auditory early perceptual analysis were more common in progressive non-fluent aphasia, deficits of apperceptive processing occurred in both progressive non-fluent aphasia and semantic dementia, and deficits

2009 Brain

3591. classical migraine

may rotate, oscillate, or 'boil' simple flashes, specks, and shimmerings paraesthesiae are the second most common type of aura. Numbness usually starts in the hand, migrates up the arm, then involves the face, lips, and tongue. The leg is sometimes involved. Numbness may follow the paraesthesia. Sensory auras rarely occur alone, and usually follow visual auras speech disturbances are the third most common type of aura. These are usually dysphasia, but are often hard to categorise most people who

2010 GP Notebook

3592. migraine syndromes

, or 'boil' simple flashes, specks, and shimmerings paraesthesiae are the second most common type of aura. Numbness usually starts in the hand, migrates up the arm, then involves the face, lips, and tongue. The leg is sometimes involved. Numbness may follow the paraesthesia. Sensory auras rarely occur alone, and usually follow visual auras speech disturbances are the third most common type of aura. These are usually dysphasia, but are often hard to categorise most people who have migraine with aura also

2010 GP Notebook

3593. parietal lobe signs

sensation: impairment of postural sensation and sensation of passive movement impairment of tactile sensation - accurate localisation of light touch, two point discrimination agraphism, astereognosis sensory and visual inattention Dominant hemisphere lesions: involving Wernicke's speech area - receptive dysphasia Gerstmann's syndrome dyslexia Non-dominant lesions: neglect of contralateral limb, even if densely hemiplegic denial of weakness - anosognosia spatial neglect disappreciation of three

2010 GP Notebook

3594. speech and language disorders

speech and language disorders speech and language disorders - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search speech and language disorders There are several key terms that are crucial to the description of speech and language disorder: dysphasia / aphasia, which is a disorder in the use of symbols whether, spoken, heard, written or read. It may be: expressive: usually the result of a lesion in the front of the lower end

2010 GP Notebook

3595. migraine with typical focal aura

dysphasia, but are often hard to categorise most people who have migraine with aura also have episodes of migraine without aura NICE state with respect to aura and migraine: Suspect aura in people who present with or without headache and with neurological symptoms that: are fully reversible and develop gradually, either alone or in succession, over at least 5 minutes and last for 5-60 minutes Diagnose migraine with aura in people who present with or without headache and with one or more of the following

2010 GP Notebook

3596. migraine with focal aura

, which are often 'C'-shaped scotoma objects may rotate, oscillate, or 'boil' simple flashes, specks, and shimmerings paraesthesiae are the second most common type of aura. Numbness usually starts in the hand, migrates up the arm, then involves the face, lips, and tongue. The leg is sometimes involved. Numbness may follow the paraesthesia. Sensory auras rarely occur alone, and usually follow visual auras speech disturbances are the third most common type of aura. These are usually dysphasia

2010 GP Notebook

3597. head trauma

or learning disabilities) the pre-injury baseline GCS may be less than 15 Recovery depends upon the nature of the injury residual effects are both physical, e.g. hemiparesis, dysphasia; and mental, e.g. impaired intellect, memory, and behavioural problems. The extent of recovery is often correlated with the duration of post-traumatic amnesia. As a guide, post- traumatic amnesia of more than 28 days is rarely associated with a return to work. Post-traumatic amnesia of more than one week is likely to impair

2010 GP Notebook

3598. head injury

or learning disabilities) the pre-injury baseline GCS may be less than 15 Recovery depends upon the nature of the injury residual effects are both physical, e.g. hemiparesis, dysphasia; and mental, e.g. impaired intellect, memory, and behavioural problems. The extent of recovery is often correlated with the duration of post-traumatic amnesia. As a guide, post- traumatic amnesia of more than 28 days is rarely associated with a return to work. Post-traumatic amnesia of more than one week is likely to impair

2010 GP Notebook

3599. frontal lobe signs

is not an uncommon presentation of frontal lobe tumours Related to Broca's area: expressive/Broca's dysphasia if in dominant hemisphere Related to supplementary motor area: paralysis of head and eye movements to opposite side - head and eyes deviated towards side of lesion Related to prefrontal area: change in personality - inappropriate jocularity, loss of initiative and concern, akinetic mutism, disinhibition, general retardation primitive reflexes - grasp, pout, palmar-mental, brisk jaw-jerk; changes in deep

2010 GP Notebook

3600. Clopidogrel versus acetylsalicylic acid for the secondary prevention of vascular diseases

patient-relevant outcomes, also from the viewpoint of patients (on 12 May 2005: a representative of the Federal Association of PAD Self-help Groups [AVK-Selbsthilfegruppen Bundesverband e.V.]; on 8 June 2005: a representative of the Federal Association for the Rehabilitation of Aphasic Patients [Bundesverband für die Rehabilitation der Aphasiker e.V.]; on 10 June 2005: a representative of the Association of the Self-help Initiative HFI – Circulation and Metabolism [Selbsthilfe-Initiative HFI e.V

2006 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

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