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Antithyroid Antibody

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61. Turner's syndrome

karyotype audiology testing bone age echocardiogram cardiac MRI serum FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) skeletal survey pelvic ultrasound renal ultrasound TFTs antithyroid antibodies LFTs/gamma GT fasting glucose and HbA1c serum lipids IgA level and tissue transglutaminase IgA Treatment algorithm ACUTE ONGOING Contributors Authors Medical Director Disorders of Sex Development Program Seattle Children’s Hospital Associate Professor of Pediatrics University of Washington Seattle WA Disclosures PYF

2018 BMJ Best Practice

62. Urticaria and angio-oedema

ESR C-reactive protein anti-IgE receptor antibody and related tests thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) antithyroid antibodies antinuclear antibodies (ANA) skin biopsy C4 level C1-esterase inhibitor level C1-esterase inhibitor function C1q levels Treatment algorithm ACUTE ONGOING Contributors Authors Allergy and Clinical Immunology Rochester Regional Health Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Rochester NY Disclosures SSM is on the speakers

2018 BMJ Best Practice

63. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis

recent viral infection myalgia malaise tremor heat intolerance viral infection HLA-Bw35 and B35 Diagnostic investigations thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) total T4, total T3, T3 resin uptake, free thyroxine index T3:T4 ratio radioactive iodine uptake ESR CRP antithyroid antibodies (thyroid peroxidase antibodies) fine needle aspiration biopsy ultrasonography of thyroid salivary CRP Treatment algorithm ACUTE Contributors Authors Associate Chief Director of the Thyroid Health Center Section

2018 BMJ Best Practice

64. Primary hypothyroidism

antithyroid peroxidase antibodies Treatment algorithm ONGOING Contributors Authors Adjunct Clinical Professor Department of Family Medicine University of North Carolina Chapel Hill NC Disclosures WM declares that he has no competing interests. Peer reviewers Professor of Medicine Chair of Family Medicine University of Chicago Medical Center Chicago IL Disclosures BE declares that he has no competing interests. Consultant Endocrinologist Queen Elizabeth Hospital Gateshead UK Disclosures SR declares that he

2018 BMJ Best Practice

65. Pregnancy outcomes in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies. (PubMed)

Pregnancy outcomes in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies. To estimate the prevalence of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies in the general obstetric population and to compare pregnancy outcomes in women who are antithyroid peroxidase-antibody positive with those who are antithyroid peroxidase-antibody negative.Between November 2000 and April 2003, all women who presented for prenatal care underwent thyroid screening. Serum samples from women without clinical hypothyroidism who had been (...) screened in the first 20 weeks of gestation and delivered a singleton newborn weighing 500 g or more were analyzed for concentrations of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. Serum thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were determined using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Pregnancy outcomes in women with positive antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (more than 50 international units/mL) were compared with those with negative levels.Serum samples from 17,298 women were tested. Of these, 1,012 (6%) women were

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2010 Obstetrics and Gynecology

66. Investigations of Thyroid Hormones and Antibodies in Obesity: Leptin Levels Are Associated with Thyroid Autoimmunity Independent of Bioanthropometric, Hormonal, and Weight-Related Determinants. (PubMed)

the susceptibility to develop autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD).This cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary care center.Free thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroglobulin, and antithyroid antibodies levels were tested in 165 obese and 118 lean subjects. Results were plotted against variables related to body composition, leptin levels, glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, and pattern of weight accrual.Compared with controls, obese patients had lower free T3 levels and free T4 levels (P<0.01), greater (...) prevalence of hypothyroidism (P<0.05), and higher commonness of antithyroid antibodies (P<0.05). As a marker of AITD, thyroid peroxidase antibodies were more frequent in the obese group (P<0.01). Correlation analysis showed that leptin levels were associated with AITD (P<0.01) independent of bioanthropometric variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis in pooled groups identified female sex and leptin as significant predictors of AITD.Obesity increases the susceptibility to harbor AITD

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2010 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

67. The role of immunotherapy in IVF: a guideline

; anti-nuclear antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear antibody; antiphospholipid antibody; antiphospholipid antibodies; antithyroid antibody; antithyroid antibodies; aspirin; assisted reproduction; autoantibodies; corticosteroid/s; corticotropin-releasinghormone;cost;cytokine;cytokines; dexamethasone; drug costs; embryo implantation; embryo transfer; Enbrel; estrogen/s; etanercept; fertility agents, fe- male/adverseeffects;fertilizationinvitro/methods;?lgras- tim; G (...) treatment Aspirin as monotherapy for IVF outcomes Agents that are both immunomodulating and have other progestational effects Corticosteroids during ovarian stimulation Anticardiolipin studies that focus on recurrent pregnancy loss Peri-implantation corticosteroids Anticoagulants G-CSF and GM-CSF and embryo development, aneuploidy, endometrial thickness, or IVF outcomes Antithyroid antibodies DHEA Intravenous fat emulsions and IVF outcomes IUI IVIG and IVF outcomes Metformin Adalimumab and IVF outcomes

2018 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

68. National minimum retesting intervals in pathology: A final report detailing consensus recommendations for minimum retesting intervals for use in pathology

guidelines for the use of thyroid function tests. London: Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Thyroid Association, 2006. B-P14 Pregnancy sub- clinical hypothyroidism Women with subclinical hypothyroidism who are not initially treated should be monitored for progression to overt hypothyroidism with serum fT4 and TSH every 4 weeks until 16–20 weeks gestation and at least once between 26–32 weeks (Euthyroid women (not receiving LT4) who are antithyroid antibody positive should be monitored during (...) , Finnigan DI, Wilson D, Freedman D, McNulty CA, Clark GJ. Methodology for constructing guidance. J Clin Pathol 2005;58:249–253. 5. Glaser EM. Using Behavioral Science Strategies for Defining the State-of-the-Art. J App Behavioral Sci 1980;16:79–92. 6. Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollman BC (eds). Goodman and Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (12th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. CEff 161215 7 V7 Final 2 Abbreviations AACE American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Ab Antibody

2016 Royal College of Pathologists

69. The Management of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum

and raised free thyroxine levels with or without a suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. These patients rarely have thyroid antibodies and are euthyroid clinically. The biochemical thyrotoxicosis resolves as the HG improves 22 and treatment with antithyroid drugs is inappropriate. Liver function tests are abnormal in up to 40% of women with HG, 23 with the most likely abnormality being a rise in transaminases. Bilirubin levels can be slightly raised but without jaundice, and amylase levels can (...) is considered safe in pregnancy. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori can be associated with NVP and HG and testing for H. pylori antibodies may be considered. 27,28 6. What is the initial management of NVP and HG? 6.1 How should the woman be managed? Women with mild NVP should be managed in the community with antiemetics. Ambulatory daycare management should be used for suitable patients when community/primary care measures have failed and where the PUQE score is less than 13. RCOG Green-top

2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

70. Long-term Methimazole Therapy in Juvenile Graves' Disease: A Randomized Trial

Long-term Methimazole Therapy in Juvenile Graves' Disease: A Randomized Trial Recent studies show that long-term (LT) antithyroid drugs reduce relapse of hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' disease. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT methimazole treatment and to compare remission rates in Graves' disease patients after LT and short-term (ST) therapy.In this randomized, parallel group trial, 66 consecutive patients with untreated juvenile Graves (...) of methimazole therapy. Serum free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, and thyrotropin receptor antibody remained normal, and the required daily dosage of methimazole was gradually decreased from 5.17 ± 1.05 mg at 22 months to 3.5 ± 1.3 mg between 96 and 120 months of treatment (P < .001). Hyperthyroidism was cured in 92% and 88% of LT patients and in 46% and 33% of ST patients, 1 and 4 years after methimazole withdrawal, respectively.LT methimazole treatment of 96 to 120 months is safe and effective

2019 EvidenceUpdates

71. Thyroidectomy Versus Medical Management for Euthyroid Patients With Hashimoto Disease and Persisting Symptoms: A Randomized Trial. (PubMed)

medical therapy.Randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02319538).Secondary care hospital in Norway.150 patients aged 18 to 79 years with persistent Hashimoto-related symptoms despite euthyroid status while receiving hormone replacement therapy and with serum antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody titers greater than 1000 IU/mL.Total thyroidectomy or medical management with hormone substitution to secure euthyroid status in both groups.The primary outcome was general health score on the Short (...) Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) at 18 months. Secondary outcomes were adverse effects of surgery, the other 7 SF-36 subscores, fatigue questionnaire scores, and serum anti-TPO antibody titers at 6, 12, and 18 months.During follow-up, only the surgical group demonstrated improvement: Mean general health score increased from 38 to 64 points, for a between-group difference of 29 points (95% CI, 22 to 35 points) at 18 months. Fatigue score decreased from 23 to 14 points, for a between-group difference

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

72. AACE/ACE/AME Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules

are still insufficient, close follow-up is recommended [BEL 3, GRADE B]. 5. Laboratory Evaluation 5.1. Thyroid Hormones • Always measure serum thyrotropin (TSH) [BEL 1, GRADE A]. • If TSH level is decreased, measure free thy- roxine (FT 4 ) plus total or free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ); if TSH level is increased, measure FT 4 and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) [BEL 2, GRADE A]. • Test for Tg antibody in patients with US or clinical findings suggestive of chronic lym - phocytic thyroiditis, when (...) sestamibi; Tg = thyroglobulin; Thy 3 = neoplasm possible-atypia nondiagnostic; TIRADS = Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System; TPOAb = anti- thyroid peroxidase antibody; TRAb = antithyrotropin- receptor antibody; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin); UK-RCPath = UK Royal College of Pathologists; US = ultrasonography, ultrasonographic. ABSTRACT Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 50 to 60% of healthy subjects. Most nodules do not cause clinically sig- nificant symptoms, and as a result

2016 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

73. Current Diagnostic and Treatment Strategies for Specific Dilated Cardiomyopathies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

the type of amyloidosis, because this is instrumental in determining treatment strategy and prognosis. Immuno- histochemistry can be performed on the tissue samples with antibodies against amyloid A, ?- and ?-light chains, and TTR amyloid. 41 If TTR amyloid is detected, DNA mu- tational analysis can help differentiate between senile and hereditary amyloidosis. 54 The presence of serum or urine monoclonal gammopathy suggests the presence of AL amyloidosis but does not establish the diagnosis (...) and there is early evidence that potent proteasome inhibi- tors, such as bortezomib and carfilzomib, have molecu- lar targets that are common to cancerous tissue and the vulnerable myocardium, resulting in cardiomyopathy. 125 Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the HER2 receptor, is widely used for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer and has a major impact on overall outcomes of those patients 121 ; however, there is clearly a signal of cardiac dysfunction in susceptible pa- tients

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2016 American Heart Association

74. Hyperthyroidism

hyperthyroidism. Specialist treatment options such as antithyroid drugs, radioiodine treatment, or thyroid surgery. All women with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism who are planning a pregnancy should be referred to an endocrinologist for pre-pregnancy counselling, and should be advised to seek medical advice immediately if pregnancy is suspected. All women with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism who are pregnant should be referred urgently to a joint obstetric and endocrinology clinic, if available (...) changes January to June 2013 — reviewed. A literature search was conducted in December 2012 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made. The evidence on antithyroid drug regimens in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism has been updated. April 2011 — topic structure revised to ensure consistency across CKS topics, no changes

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

75. Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. (PubMed)

Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. Thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy (both hyper- and hypothyroidism) is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes for mothers and infants in the short- and long-term. Managing the thyroid dysfunction (e.g. thyroxine for hypothyroidism, or antithyroid medication for hyperthyroidism) may improve outcomes. The best method of screening (...) screening (screening all women) versus case finding (screening only those at perceived increased risk) in pregnancy for thyroid dysfunctionOne trial (4562 women) compared universal screening with case finding for thyroid dysfunction. Before 11 weeks' gestation, women in the universal screening group, and 'high-risk' women in the case finding group had their sera tested for TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), fT4 (free thyroxine) and TPO-Ab (thyroid peroxidase antibody); women with hypothyroidism (TSH

2015 Cochrane

76. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

of thyroid hormone and controls how fast follicular thyroid cells grow. The blood may also be checked for high levels of the hormone and antithyroid antibodies. : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as , released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease. Ultrasound exam : A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off (...) are not cancer. Your doctor may find a lump ( ) in your thyroid during a routine medical exam. A thyroid nodule is an growth of thyroid in the thyroid. Nodules may be solid or -filled. When a thyroid nodule is found, an of the thyroid and a are often done to check for of . to check thyroid hormone levels and for antithyroid in the may also be done to check for other types of thyroid disease. Thyroid nodules usually don't cause or need treatment. Sometimes the thyroid nodules become large enough

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

77. Study of the Factors Leading to Fetal and Neonatal Dysthyroidism in Children of Patients With Graves Disease (PubMed)

Study of the Factors Leading to Fetal and Neonatal Dysthyroidism in Children of Patients With Graves Disease Neonatal hyperthyroidism was first described in 1912 and in 1964 was shown to be linked to transplacental passage of maternal antibodies. Few multicenter studies have described the perinatal factors leading to fetal and neonatal dysthyroidism.To show how fetal dysthyroidism (FD) and neonatal dysthyroidism (ND) can be predicted from perinatal variables, in particular, the levels of anti (...) -thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) circulating in the mother and child.This was a retrospective multicenter study of data from the medical records of all patients monitored for pregnancy from 2007 to 2014.Among 280,000 births, the medical records of 2288 women with thyroid dysfunction were selected and screened, and 417 women with Graves disease and positive for TRAbs during pregnancy were included.Using the maternal TRAb levels, the cutoff value of 2.5 IU/L best predicted for FD, with a sensitivity

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2017 Journal of the Endocrine Society

78. An association of myasthenia gravis with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a multinodular goitre (PubMed)

hyperthyroidism secondary to Hashimoto's thyroiditis in multinodular goitre was diagnosed with generalised MG after 2 years. She presented with right eye ptosis (ocular) and difficulty in swallowing and chewing (bulbar). The diagnosis of MG was confirmed by fatigability testing, electromyography and the presence of AChR antibodies. Her symptoms showed improvement with pyridostigmine (Mestinon) 60 mg 6-hourly. Her antithyroid drug was tapered down according to her thyroid function test. Throughout a year

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2017 Malaysian family physician : the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia

79. Effect of Vitamin D on Thyroid Autoimmunity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Among Ethnic Minorities (PubMed)

in Oslo, Norway.A total of 251 presumed healthy men and women, aged 18 to 50 years, with backgrounds from South Asia, the Middle East, and Africa were included.Daily supplementation with 25 µg (1000 IU) vitamin D3, 10 µg (400 IU) vitamin D3, or placebo for 16 weeks.Difference in preintervention and postintervention antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels. Additional outcomes were differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free fraction of thyroxine (fT4).There were no differences

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2017 Journal of the Endocrine Society Controlled trial quality: predicted high

80. Elevated Antithyroid Peroxidase and Antinuclear Autoantibody Titers in Ménière's Disease Patients: More than a Chance Association? (PubMed)

Elevated Antithyroid Peroxidase and Antinuclear Autoantibody Titers in Ménière's Disease Patients: More than a Chance Association? The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the possible association between Ménière's disease (MD) and autoantibodies.Fifty-five patients with definite MD (51 unilateral and 4 bilateral) were matched with 55 patients with unilateral vestibular paresis without cochlear involvement and 55 healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from all study subjects (...) for the determination of serum TSH, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, anti-TSH receptor antibody, antithyroperoxidase antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and of antibodies to non-organ-specific antigens, namely antinuclear antibodies, antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies.Thirty-three subjects (60%) of the MD group had 1 or more elevated serum autoantibody levels, both organ and non-organ specific; 16 patients (29.1%) with unilateral vestibular paresis had 1

2009 Audiology & Neuro-Otology

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