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Antithyroid Antibody

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61. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis

recent viral infection myalgia malaise tremor heat intolerance viral infection HLA-Bw35 and B35 Diagnostic investigations thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) total T4, total T3, T3 resin uptake, free thyroxine index T3:T4 ratio radioactive iodine uptake ESR CRP antithyroid antibodies (thyroid peroxidase antibodies) fine needle aspiration biopsy ultrasonography of thyroid salivary CRP Treatment algorithm ACUTE Contributors Authors Associate Chief Director of the Thyroid Health Center Section

2018 BMJ Best Practice

62. Primary hypothyroidism

antithyroid peroxidase antibodies Treatment algorithm ONGOING Contributors Authors Adjunct Clinical Professor Department of Family Medicine University of North Carolina Chapel Hill NC Disclosures WM declares that he has no competing interests. Peer reviewers Professor of Medicine Chair of Family Medicine University of Chicago Medical Center Chicago IL Disclosures BE declares that he has no competing interests. Consultant Endocrinologist Queen Elizabeth Hospital Gateshead UK Disclosures SR declares that he

2018 BMJ Best Practice

63. Graves' disease

of hyperthyroidism. Diagnostic tests are suppressed serum TSH, elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones, detectable TSH receptor antibodies, and high thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine (or technetium 99). Treatment options are antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy, and thyroid surgery. Untreated hyperthyroidism, particularly in older people, may result in cardiac arrhythmias, high-output cardiac failure, bone mineral loss, and, rarely, thyroid storm. Unusual complications include vision loss (...) Graves' disease Graves' disease - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Graves' disease Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: April 2018 Summary Most common cause of hyperthyroidism in countries with sufficient iodine intake. Caused by TSH receptor antibodies. Extrathyroidal manifestations include orbitopathy, pretibial myxoedema (thyroid dermopathy), or acropachy, which do not occur with other causes

2018 BMJ Best Practice

64. The role of immunotherapy in IVF: a guideline

; anti-nuclear antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear antibody; antiphospholipid antibody; antiphospholipid antibodies; antithyroid antibody; antithyroid antibodies; aspirin; assisted reproduction; autoantibodies; corticosteroid/s; corticotropin-releasinghormone;cost;cytokine;cytokines; dexamethasone; drug costs; embryo implantation; embryo transfer; Enbrel; estrogen/s; etanercept; fertility agents, fe- male/adverseeffects;fertilizationinvitro/methods;?lgras- tim; G (...) treatment Aspirin as monotherapy for IVF outcomes Agents that are both immunomodulating and have other progestational effects Corticosteroids during ovarian stimulation Anticardiolipin studies that focus on recurrent pregnancy loss Peri-implantation corticosteroids Anticoagulants G-CSF and GM-CSF and embryo development, aneuploidy, endometrial thickness, or IVF outcomes Antithyroid antibodies DHEA Intravenous fat emulsions and IVF outcomes IUI IVIG and IVF outcomes Metformin Adalimumab and IVF outcomes

2018 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

65. Atezolizumab (Tecentriq) - Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma or Transitional Cell Carcinoma

Page 4/205 List of abbreviations 1L first-line treatment 2L second-line treatment 2L+ = second-line treatment AC acceptance criterion AE adverse event AESI adverse event of special interest ADCC antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ADE acceptable daily exposure AST aspartate aminotransferase ATA/ATAG anti-therapeutic antibody AUC area under the curve BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guerin BSC best supportive care BOR best overall response CL clearance Cmax maximum observed serum concentration Cmin (...) /153102/2018 Page 10/205 provided to T lymphocytes, thereby allowing their activation and consequently a cytotoxic attack on tumour cells. Checkpoint proteins that are targeted by checkpoint inhibitors in the clinic include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)–associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), PD-1, and PD-L1. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-PD-L1 antibodies, have shown impressive clinical activity as monotherapy in a broad range of tumors, including NSCLC and UC. Atezolizumab targets human PD-L1

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

67. Long-term Methimazole Therapy in Juvenile Graves' Disease: A Randomized Trial (Abstract)

Long-term Methimazole Therapy in Juvenile Graves' Disease: A Randomized Trial Recent studies show that long-term (LT) antithyroid drugs reduce relapse of hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' disease. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT methimazole treatment and to compare remission rates in Graves' disease patients after LT and short-term (ST) therapy.In this randomized, parallel group trial, 66 consecutive patients with untreated juvenile Graves (...) of methimazole therapy. Serum free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, and thyrotropin receptor antibody remained normal, and the required daily dosage of methimazole was gradually decreased from 5.17 ± 1.05 mg at 22 months to 3.5 ± 1.3 mg between 96 and 120 months of treatment (P < .001). Hyperthyroidism was cured in 92% and 88% of LT patients and in 46% and 33% of ST patients, 1 and 4 years after methimazole withdrawal, respectively.LT methimazole treatment of 96 to 120 months is safe and effective

2019 EvidenceUpdates

68. Thyroidectomy Versus Medical Management for Euthyroid Patients With Hashimoto Disease and Persisting Symptoms: A Randomized Trial. (Abstract)

medical therapy.Randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02319538).Secondary care hospital in Norway.150 patients aged 18 to 79 years with persistent Hashimoto-related symptoms despite euthyroid status while receiving hormone replacement therapy and with serum antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody titers greater than 1000 IU/mL.Total thyroidectomy or medical management with hormone substitution to secure euthyroid status in both groups.The primary outcome was general health score on the Short (...) Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) at 18 months. Secondary outcomes were adverse effects of surgery, the other 7 SF-36 subscores, fatigue questionnaire scores, and serum anti-TPO antibody titers at 6, 12, and 18 months.During follow-up, only the surgical group demonstrated improvement: Mean general health score increased from 38 to 64 points, for a between-group difference of 29 points (95% CI, 22 to 35 points) at 18 months. Fatigue score decreased from 23 to 14 points, for a between-group difference

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

69. Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. (Abstract)

Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. Thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy (both hyper- and hypothyroidism) is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes for mothers and infants in the short- and long-term. Managing the thyroid dysfunction (e.g. thyroxine for hypothyroidism, or antithyroid medication for hyperthyroidism) may improve outcomes. The best method of screening (...) screening (screening all women) versus case finding (screening only those at perceived increased risk) in pregnancy for thyroid dysfunctionOne trial (4562 women) compared universal screening with case finding for thyroid dysfunction. Before 11 weeks' gestation, women in the universal screening group, and 'high-risk' women in the case finding group had their sera tested for TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), fT4 (free thyroxine) and TPO-Ab (thyroid peroxidase antibody); women with hypothyroidism (TSH

2015 Cochrane

70. National minimum retesting intervals in pathology: A final report detailing consensus recommendations for minimum retesting intervals for use in pathology

guidelines for the use of thyroid function tests. London: Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Thyroid Association, 2006. B-P14 Pregnancy sub- clinical hypothyroidism Women with subclinical hypothyroidism who are not initially treated should be monitored for progression to overt hypothyroidism with serum fT4 and TSH every 4 weeks until 16–20 weeks gestation and at least once between 26–32 weeks (Euthyroid women (not receiving LT4) who are antithyroid antibody positive should be monitored during (...) , Finnigan DI, Wilson D, Freedman D, McNulty CA, Clark GJ. Methodology for constructing guidance. J Clin Pathol 2005;58:249–253. 5. Glaser EM. Using Behavioral Science Strategies for Defining the State-of-the-Art. J App Behavioral Sci 1980;16:79–92. 6. Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollman BC (eds). Goodman and Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (12th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. CEff 161215 7 V7 Final 2 Abbreviations AACE American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Ab Antibody

2016 Royal College of Pathologists

71. The Management of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum

and raised free thyroxine levels with or without a suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. These patients rarely have thyroid antibodies and are euthyroid clinically. The biochemical thyrotoxicosis resolves as the HG improves 22 and treatment with antithyroid drugs is inappropriate. Liver function tests are abnormal in up to 40% of women with HG, 23 with the most likely abnormality being a rise in transaminases. Bilirubin levels can be slightly raised but without jaundice, and amylase levels can (...) is considered safe in pregnancy. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori can be associated with NVP and HG and testing for H. pylori antibodies may be considered. 27,28 6. What is the initial management of NVP and HG? 6.1 How should the woman be managed? Women with mild NVP should be managed in the community with antiemetics. Ambulatory daycare management should be used for suitable patients when community/primary care measures have failed and where the PUQE score is less than 13. RCOG Green-top

2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

72. Benefit of short-term iodide supplementation to antithyroid drug treatment of thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. (Abstract)

Benefit of short-term iodide supplementation to antithyroid drug treatment of thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. Combined treatment with anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs) and potassium iodide (KI) has been used only for severe thyrotoxicosis or as a pretreatment before urgent thyroidectomy in patients with Graves' disease. We compared methimazole (MMI) treatment with MMI + KI treatment in terms of rapid normalization of thyroid hormones during the early phase and examined the later induction (...) and TSH were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassays. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) was assayed with TRAb-ELISA. Goitre size was estimated by ultrasonography.After 2 weeks of treatment, normal FT4 was observed in 29% of patients in Group 1 and 59% (P < 0.05) of patients in Group 2. Furthermore, normal FT4 after 2 weeks of treatment was observed in 27% of patients in Group 3 and 54% (P < 0.05) of patients in Group 4. Similarly, FT3 normalized more rapidly in Groups 2 and 4 than in Groups 1 and 3. None

2010 Clinical endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

73. Preconception steroid treatment in infertile women with antithyroid autoimmunity undergoing ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination: a double-blind, randomized, prospective cohort study. (Abstract)

Preconception steroid treatment in infertile women with antithyroid autoimmunity undergoing ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination: a double-blind, randomized, prospective cohort study. This study investigated the role of a steroid pretreatment on the pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcomes in patients positive for antithyroid antibodies who were undergoing induction of ovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI).A double-blind, randomized, prospective cohort study was conducted (...) autoimmunity. The patients with antithyroid autoimmunity were randomly assigned in a blinded manner to an intervention group treated with prednisone (administered orally for 4 weeks before IUI) or a group given matching placebo. The primary objective was to compare the pregnancy and miscarriage rates among all 3 the groups.The study included 98 infertile women: 48 with antithyroid autoimmunity (antibody positive) and 50 without antithyroid autoimmunity (antibody negative). The study groups were comparable

2010 Clinical therapeutics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

74. Hyperthyroidism

hyperthyroidism. Specialist treatment options such as antithyroid drugs, radioiodine treatment, or thyroid surgery. All women with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism who are planning a pregnancy should be referred to an endocrinologist for pre-pregnancy counselling, and should be advised to seek medical advice immediately if pregnancy is suspected. All women with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism who are pregnant should be referred urgently to a joint obstetric and endocrinology clinic, if available (...) changes January to June 2013 — reviewed. A literature search was conducted in December 2012 to identify evidence-based guidelines, UK policy, systematic reviews, and key randomized controlled trials published since the last revision of the topic. No major changes to clinical recommendations have been made. The evidence on antithyroid drug regimens in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism has been updated. April 2011 — topic structure revised to ensure consistency across CKS topics, no changes

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

75. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it. The blood may be checked for abnormal levels of (TSH). TSH is made by the in the brain. It stimulates the release of thyroid hormone and controls how fast follicular thyroid cells grow. The blood may also be checked for high levels of the hormone and antithyroid antibodies. : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances (...) are not cancer. Your doctor may find a lump ( ) in your thyroid during a routine medical exam. A thyroid nodule is an growth of thyroid in the thyroid. Nodules may be solid or -filled. When a thyroid nodule is found, an of the thyroid and a are often done to check for of . to check thyroid hormone levels and for antithyroid in the may also be done to check for other types of thyroid disease. Thyroid nodules usually don't cause or need treatment. Sometimes the thyroid nodules become large enough

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

76. Urticaria

antithyroid antibodies are associated with lasting duration of chronic urticaria. At least 20% of people with chronic urticaria requiring referral to secondary care are still symptomatic 10 years after first presentation. About 25% of children with chronic spontaneous urticaria are disease-free 3 years after presentation, and 96% are asymptomatic after 7 years. Spontaneous resolution of chronic urticaria usually occurs in up to 50% of people within 1 year and in 80% of people by 5 years. However

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

77. Effect of Vitamin D on Thyroid Autoimmunity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Among Ethnic Minorities (Full text)

in Oslo, Norway.A total of 251 presumed healthy men and women, aged 18 to 50 years, with backgrounds from South Asia, the Middle East, and Africa were included.Daily supplementation with 25 µg (1000 IU) vitamin D3, 10 µg (400 IU) vitamin D3, or placebo for 16 weeks.Difference in preintervention and postintervention antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels. Additional outcomes were differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free fraction of thyroxine (fT4).There were no differences

2017 Journal of the Endocrine Society Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

78. An association of myasthenia gravis with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a multinodular goitre (Full text)

hyperthyroidism secondary to Hashimoto's thyroiditis in multinodular goitre was diagnosed with generalised MG after 2 years. She presented with right eye ptosis (ocular) and difficulty in swallowing and chewing (bulbar). The diagnosis of MG was confirmed by fatigability testing, electromyography and the presence of AChR antibodies. Her symptoms showed improvement with pyridostigmine (Mestinon) 60 mg 6-hourly. Her antithyroid drug was tapered down according to her thyroid function test. Throughout a year

2017 Malaysian family physician : the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia PubMed abstract

79. Study of the Factors Leading to Fetal and Neonatal Dysthyroidism in Children of Patients With Graves Disease (Full text)

Study of the Factors Leading to Fetal and Neonatal Dysthyroidism in Children of Patients With Graves Disease Neonatal hyperthyroidism was first described in 1912 and in 1964 was shown to be linked to transplacental passage of maternal antibodies. Few multicenter studies have described the perinatal factors leading to fetal and neonatal dysthyroidism.To show how fetal dysthyroidism (FD) and neonatal dysthyroidism (ND) can be predicted from perinatal variables, in particular, the levels of anti (...) -thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) circulating in the mother and child.This was a retrospective multicenter study of data from the medical records of all patients monitored for pregnancy from 2007 to 2014.Among 280,000 births, the medical records of 2288 women with thyroid dysfunction were selected and screened, and 417 women with Graves disease and positive for TRAbs during pregnancy were included.Using the maternal TRAb levels, the cutoff value of 2.5 IU/L best predicted for FD, with a sensitivity

2017 Journal of the Endocrine Society PubMed abstract

80. Current Diagnostic and Treatment Strategies for Specific Dilated Cardiomyopathies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association (Full text)

the type of amyloidosis, because this is instrumental in determining treatment strategy and prognosis. Immuno- histochemistry can be performed on the tissue samples with antibodies against amyloid A, ?- and ?-light chains, and TTR amyloid. 41 If TTR amyloid is detected, DNA mu- tational analysis can help differentiate between senile and hereditary amyloidosis. 54 The presence of serum or urine monoclonal gammopathy suggests the presence of AL amyloidosis but does not establish the diagnosis (...) and there is early evidence that potent proteasome inhibi- tors, such as bortezomib and carfilzomib, have molecu- lar targets that are common to cancerous tissue and the vulnerable myocardium, resulting in cardiomyopathy. 125 Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the HER2 receptor, is widely used for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer and has a major impact on overall outcomes of those patients 121 ; however, there is clearly a signal of cardiac dysfunction in susceptible pa- tients

2016 American Heart Association PubMed abstract

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