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Antifungal Medications

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1. Oral antifungal medication for toenail onychomycosis. (PubMed)

Oral antifungal medication for toenail onychomycosis. Fungal infection of the toenails, also called onychomycosis, is a common problem that causes damage to the nail's structure and physical appearance. For those severely affected, it can interfere with normal daily activities. Treatment is taken orally or applied topically; however, traditionally topical treatments have low success rates due to the nail's physical properties. Oral treatments also appear to have shorter treatment times (...) and better cure rates. Our review will assist those needing to make an evidence-based choice for treatment.To assess the effects of oral antifungal treatments for toenail onychomycosis.We searched the following databases up to October 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We

2017 Cochrane

2. Antifungal activity of well-defined chito-oligosaccharide preparations against medically relevant yeasts. (Full text)

Antifungal activity of well-defined chito-oligosaccharide preparations against medically relevant yeasts. Due to their antifungal activity, chitosan and its derivatives have potential to be used for treating yeast infections in humans. However, to be considered for use in human medicine, it is necessary to control and know the chemical composition of the compound, which is not always the case for polymeric chitosans. Here, we analyze the antifungal activity of a soluble and well-defined chito (...) -oligosaccharide (CHOS) with an average polymerization degree (DPn) of 32 and fraction of acetylation (FA) of 0.15 (C32) on 52 medically relevant yeast strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varied widely among yeast species, strains and isolates (from > 5000 to < 9.77 μg mL-1) and inhibition patterns showed a time- and dose-dependencies. The antifungal activity was predominantly fungicidal and was inversely proportional to the pH, being maximal at pH 4.5, the lowest tested pH. Furthermore

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed

3. Prevalence of time-related bias in pharmacoepidemiology studies on the use of anti-emetics, antifungal, and antibiotic medications during pregnancy: a systematic review

Prevalence of time-related bias in pharmacoepidemiology studies on the use of anti-emetics, antifungal, and antibiotic medications during pregnancy: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability

2019 PROSPERO

4. A systematic screen reveals a diverse collection of medications induce antifungal resistance in <i>Candida</i> species. (PubMed)

A systematic screen reveals a diverse collection of medications induce antifungal resistance in Candida species. The increasing incidence and high mortality rates associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) impose an enormous clinical, social, and economic burden on humankind. In addition to microbiological resistance to existing antifungal drugs, the large number of unexplained treatment failures is a serious concern. Due to the extremely limited therapeutic options available (...) , it is critical to identify and understand the various causes of treatment failure if patient outcomes are to improve. In this study, we examined one potential source of treatment failure: antagonistic drug interactions. Using a simple screen, we systematically identified currently approved medications that undermine the antifungal activity of three major antifungal drugs - fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B - upon four prevalent human fungal pathogens - Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

5. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 358 Trichosporon clinical isolates collected in 24 medical centres. (PubMed)

Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 358 Trichosporon clinical isolates collected in 24 medical centres. To provide species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 358 Trichosporon clinical isolates collected from 24 tertiary care hospitals.Species identification was performed by sequencing the IGS1 region of rDNA. Antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) for amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole followed the CLSI reference method (...) . Tentative epidemiological cutoff values (97.5% ECVs) of antifungals for T. asahii were also calculated.Isolates were cultured mostly from urine (n=155/358, 43.3%) and blood (n=82/358, 23%) samples. Trichosporon asahii was the most common species (n=273/358, 76.3%), followed by Trichosporon inkin (n=35/358, 9.7%). Isolation of non-T. asahii species increased substantially over the last 11 years [n=11/77 (14.2%) from 1997-2007 vs. n=74/281 (26.3%) from 2008-2018, p=0.03]. AST showed high AMB MICs against

2019 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

6. Antiparasitic and Antifungal Medications for Targeting Cancer Cells Literature Review and Case Studies. (PubMed)

Antiparasitic and Antifungal Medications for Targeting Cancer Cells Literature Review and Case Studies. Chronic inflammation is a new catch phrase for the explanation of all chronic degenerative diseases, from asthma, arthritis, heart disease, auto-immune disease, and irritable bowel disease to cancer. Occult infections from oncovirus, bacterial, and fungal infections as well as from lesser known parasitic infections are driving forces in the cellular evolution and degeneration of cancer cells (...) . An approach using currently available medications that target both fungal and parasitic metabolism appears to interfere with the metabolic synergy that is associated with tumor growth and aggressiveness.The review examined whether antiparasitic and antifungal medications that interfere with the metabolism of cancers, can be useful in cancer therapy by treating cancer as an infectious disease and as a metabolic parasite.The research team searched the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI

2019 Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine

7. Topical and systemic antifungal therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis. (Full text)

Topical and systemic antifungal therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis. This review adds to a series of reviews looking at primary medical management options for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.Chronic rhinosinusitis is common and characterised by inflammation of the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses leading to nasal blockage, nasal discharge, facial pressure/pain and loss of sense of smell. The condition can occur with or without nasal polyps. Antifungals have been suggested (...) as a treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis.To assess the effects of systemic and topical antifungal agents in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, including those with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) and, if possible, AFRS exclusively.The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished

2018 Cochrane PubMed

8. Pre-emptive compared with empirical antifungal strategies for invasive Aspergillus infection

current diagnostic methods have poor sensitivity and can be slow, overuse of empirical antifungal therapies in this clinical setting is a significant problem which exposes patients to potential harms of treatment from which they derive no benefit. Resistance to antifungal medications is emerging as a serious threat. Our review assesses whether pre-emptive antifungal strategies incorporating novel biomarker tests could potentially address these issues. What was our approach? We produced an evidence (...) . To avoid delayed diagnosis, and owing to the poor sensitivity of microbial culture and histological methods, standard care to reduce morbidity and mortality in this patient group is empirical treatment with antifungal agents during fever refractory to broad spectrum antibacterial medications 4 . A wide range of diagnosis and treatment strategies have been proposed as alternatives to empiric treatment in order to reduce unnecessary antifungal therapy 1-3 . These include the use of pre-emptive strategies

2019 SHTG Advice Statements

9. Correlation between antifungal consumption and the distribution of Candida species in different hospital departments of a Lebanese medical Centre. (Full text)

Correlation between antifungal consumption and the distribution of Candida species in different hospital departments of a Lebanese medical Centre. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections attributed to Candida species worldwide, with a major shift toward non-albicans Candida (NAC). In this study, we have described the distribution of Candida species among different hospital departments and calculated the antifungal consumption in our facility (...) . We also correlated the consumption of certain antifungals and the prevalence of specific Candida species.This was a retrospective review of all the Candida isolates recovered from the computerised microbiology laboratory database of Makassed General Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Beirut, Lebanon, between January 2010 and December 2015. Data on antifungal consumption between January 2008 and December 2015 were extracted from the hospital pharmacy electronic database. We used Spearman's

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed

10. Variability in antifungal utilization among neonatal, pediatric, and adult inpatients in academic medical centers throughout the United States of America. (Full text)

Variability in antifungal utilization among neonatal, pediatric, and adult inpatients in academic medical centers throughout the United States of America. Identification of factors associated with antifungal utilization in neonatal, pediatric, and adult patient groups is needed to guide antifungal stewardship initiatives in academic medical centers.For this hospital-level analysis, we analyzed antifungal use in hospitals across the United States of America, excluding centers only providing care (...) for hematology/oncology patients. Analysis of variance was used to compare antifungal use between patient groups. Three multivariable linear regression models were used to determine independent factors associated with antifungal use in the neonatal, pediatric, and adult patient groups.For the neonatal, pediatric, and adult patient groups, 54, 44, and 60 hospitals were included, respectively. Total antifungal use was significantly lower in the neonatal patient group (14 days of therapy (DOT)/1000 patient days

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed

11. Topical Antiviral and Antifungal Medications in Pregnancy: A Review of Safety Profiles. (PubMed)

Topical Antiviral and Antifungal Medications in Pregnancy: A Review of Safety Profiles. Medications should be employed with caution in women of childbearing age who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Compared to oral or parenteral agents, topical medications have limited systemic absorption and are deemed safer. However, their safety profile must be assessed cautiously due to the limited available data. In this article, we aggregate human and animal studies to provide recommendations (...) on utilizing topical antiviral and antifungal medications in pregnancy. For antiviral medications, acyclovir and trichloroacetic acid are safe to use in pregnancy. Docosanol, imiquimod and penciclovir are likely safe, but should be utilized as second-line agents. Podofilox and podophyllin resin should be avoided. For antifungal medications, clotrimazole, miconazole and nystatin are considered first-line agents. Butenafine, ciclopirox, naftifine, oxiconazole and terbinafine may be utilized after the above

2017 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

12. Revisiting Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Latin American Medical Centers (Full text)

Revisiting Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Latin American Medical Centers The epidemiology of candidemia varies geographically, and there is still scarce data on the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America (LA). After extensive revision of medical literature, we found reliable and robust information on the microbiological aspects of candidemia in patients from 11 out of 21 medical centers from LA countries and 1 out of 20 from (...) . Echinocandin resistance has been reported in a few surveys, but no single study confirmed the resistant phenotype reported by using molecular methods. We highlight the importance of conducting continuous surveillance studies to identify new trends in terms of species distribution of Candida and antifungal resistance related to episodes of candidemia in LA. This information is critical for helping clinicians to prevent and control Candida bloodstream infections in their medical centers.

2017 Journal of Fungi PubMed

13. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal medications (Full text)

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal medications The sterilization of the entire root canal system represents the main goal of every endodontist, given the fact that the control of the microbial flora is the key point of every root canal treatment. The diversity of microorganisms found inside the root canal and also the resistance of some bacterial species to intracanal medications led to a continuous development of new endodontic products. The present study focuses (...) on the comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal properties of different endodontic products, two commercially available, one experimental plant based extract, and two control substances.The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, a mix extract between Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe barbadensis Miller gel, Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and Fluconazole (as control substances). Two of the most common microorganisms

2017 Clujul Medical PubMed

14. Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring: a preliminary study (Full text)

Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring: a preliminary study Vaginal candidiasis is frequent among pregnant women and it is treated with anti-fungal medication (conazoles). Conazoles have anti-androgenic properties and prenatal exposure in rodents is associated with a shorter (less masculine) anogenital distance (AGD) in male offspring. To our knowledge this has never been studied in humans.In the Odense Child Cohort pregnant women residing (...) development between 8 and 14 weeks of gestation was associated with a larger reduction in AGDas than exposure outside this window. Antifungal medicine intake was not associated with AGDap and penil width.Our preliminary findings prompted us to hypothesize that maternal use of conazole antifungal medication during pregnancy may affect the masculinization of male offspring. If confirmed, pregnant women should be advised to use antifungal medicine with caution.

2017 Environmental Health PubMed

15. Medical cost analysis for antifungal prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies: a systematic simulation analysis.

Medical cost analysis for antifungal prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies: a systematic simulation analysis. We assessed the medical costs of different antifungal agents for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients in Japan with a cost simulation model designed for the study.We used probabilities of prophylaxis failure, possible cases for empiric therapy, probable proportions of infections caused by fungus species among prophylaxis failure (...) patients, and incidence of adverse events caused by any reason, based on systematic analysis of previously reported randomized trials identified by a computerized search of the PubMed database. Antifungal agents were limited to oral fluconazole, oral itraconazole, micafungin, and liposomal amphotericin B. The range of the expected medical cost was simulated as a sensitivity analysis using 95% of confidence interval of a mean.Fifteen studies were identified for our analysis. The prophylactic efficacy

2017 Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer

16. Tinea Cruris Skin Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals

Tinea Cruris Skin Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals Tinea Cruris Skin Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals - medSask Home - College of Pharmacy and Nutrition - University of Saskatchewan Toggle Menu Search the U of S Search Tinea Cruris Skin Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals Fungal or tinea infections of the skin are common, with tinea corporis (ringworm) and tinea cruris (jock itch) affecting 10 to 20% of the general (...) Reddened areas can extend down inner leg or upwards to stomach or buttocks Edges are bumpy or scaling Burning and itching are common Often co-morbid with tinea pedis and tinea unguium (toe-nail infection) Rule out the following conditions which can resemble tinea cruris: (candida intertrigo) - yeast infection which covers penis and scrotum as well as groin area with diffuse, red papular lesions. This may be treated with OTC antifungals - appears as yellow, greasy, scales on scalp and may extend down

2017 medSask

17. Tinea Corporis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals

Tinea Corporis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals Tinea Corporis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals - medSask Home - College of Pharmacy and Nutrition - University of Saskatchewan Toggle Menu Search the U of S Search Tinea Corporis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals Fungal or tinea infections of the skin are common, with tinea corporis (ringworm) and tinea cruris (jock itch) affecting 10 to 20% of the general population (...) to 10 cm in circumference Itchiness and burning sensation are common, but may be asymptomatic Outbreaks common in close-contact sports Rule out the following conditions which can resemble tinea corporis. With the exception of seborrheic dematitis, these conditions do not respond to topical antifungal treatment. Bacterial infections such as - pustules with honey-colored crusts or fluid-filled blisters. - appears as yellow, greasy, scales on scalp and may extend down to face and upper chest

2017 medSask

18. Tinea Pedis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals

Tinea Pedis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals Tinea Pedis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals - medSask Home - College of Pharmacy and Nutrition - University of Saskatchewan Toggle Menu Search the U of S Search Tinea Pedis Infection - Guidelines for Prescribing Topical Antifungals Fungal or tinea infections of the skin are common. Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot) has an incidence of up to 50% of the general population. More common in men and teenagers (...) or shoes (e.g. latex). Refer to Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis - yeast infection between the toes - moist, white peeling skin. This can be treated with OTC antifungals - appears as yellow, greasy, scales on scalp and may extend down to face and upper chest in the form of circular scaly pink patches. In some cases can also affect areas between the toes. May respond to self-care treatment. More severe cases should be referred to the patient's primary care provider – discrete, focused callus

2017 medSask

19. Guideline for Primary Antifungal Prophylaxis for Pediatric Patients with Cancer or Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Search Results 11 ? Health Question 1: Should primary antifungal prophylaxis be used to prevent IFI in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT? If so, what medication (dose and duration) should be used? 12 o Recommendation 1.1: Allogeneic HSCT 12 ? Evidence Summary 12 ? Discussion 16 o Recommendation 1.2: Allogeneic HSCT with Acute Grade II-IV GVHD or Chronic Extensive GVHD 21 ? Evidence Summary 21 ? Discussion 21 ? Health Question 2: Should primary antifungal prophylaxis be used to prevent IFI (...) in children undergoing autologous HSCT? If so, what medication (dose and duration) should be used? 23 o Recommendation 2.1: Autologous HSCT with anticipated neutropenia >7 days 23 ? Evidence Summary 23 ? Discussion 25 ? Health Question 3: Should primary antifungal prophylaxis be used to prevent IFI in children with AML or MDS? If so, what medication (dose and duration) should be used? 27 o Recommendation 3.1: Patients with AML or MDS 27 ? Evidence Summary 27 ? Discussion 32 ? Health Question 4: Should

2016 SickKids Supportive Care Guidelines

20. Antifungal Effects of Bee Venom Components on Trichophyton rubrum: A Novel Approach of Bee Venom Study for Possible Emerging Antifungal Agent (Full text)

Antifungal Effects of Bee Venom Components on Trichophyton rubrum: A Novel Approach of Bee Venom Study for Possible Emerging Antifungal Agent Bee venom (BV) has been widely investigated for potential medical uses. Recent inadvertent uses of BV based products have shown to mitigate signs of fungal infections. However, the component mediating the antifungal effect has not been identified.This investigation compares bee venom in its whole and partial forms to evaluate the possible component (...) responsible for the antifungal effect.Forty-eight plates inoculated with Trichophyton rubrum were allocated into four groups. The groups were treated with raw BV (RBV), melittin, apamin and BV based mist (BBM) respectively and each group was further allocated accordingly to three different concentrations. The areas were measured every other day for 14 days to evaluate the kinetic changes of the colonies.The interactions of ratio differences over interval were confirmed in groups treated with RBV and BBM

2018 Annals of dermatology PubMed

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