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Antibiotics in Pregnancy

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101. Management of pregnancy loss in the first trimester: a retrospective audit. (PubMed)

Management of pregnancy loss in the first trimester: a retrospective audit. Early pregnancy loss occurs in 10% of all clinically recognised pregnancies. 80% of pregnancy losses occur in the first trimester. Offering choice and participation in the management decisions is essential to patient-centred care. The aim of this study was to assess the management of first trimester pregnancy loss at the Emirati Hospital in Rafah, Gaza Strip.In this retrospective audit, we compared the management (...) of first trimester pregnancy loss at Emirati Hospital using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines (ACOG, No. 150, May 2015). Data were obtained from patients' medical records.50 cases were identified in November and December, 2015. 32 (64%) cases were missed miscarriages (an ultrasound finding of a non-viable pregnancy in an asymptomatic patient), 13 (26%) were incomplete miscarriages, and five (10%) were complete miscarriages. All cases were haemodynamically stable. Only

2018 Lancet

102. Early clindamycin for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy (PREMEVA): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

[0·6%] participants) versus none in the placebo group (p=0·034). No severe adverse event was reported in any group. Adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes did not differ significantly between groups in the high-risk subtrial.Systematic screening and subsequent treatment for bacterial vaginosis in women with low-risk pregnancies shows no evidence of risk reduction of late miscarriage or spontaneous very preterm birth. Use of antibiotics to prevent preterm delivery in this patient population should (...) Early clindamycin for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy (PREMEVA): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Preterm delivery during pregnancy (<37 weeks' gestation) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Treating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy can reduce poor outcomes, such as preterm birth. We aimed to investigate whether treatment of bacterial vaginosis decreases late miscarriages or spontaneous very preterm birth.PREMEVA was a double-blind randomised

2018 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

103. Increasing use of antibiotics in pregnancy during the period 2000-2010: prevalence, timing, category, and demographics. (PubMed)

Increasing use of antibiotics in pregnancy during the period 2000-2010: prevalence, timing, category, and demographics. The aim of this study was to describe the use of antibiotics in a national population-based cohort of pregnant Danish women between 2000 and 2010.Register-based, population-wide, cohort study.Denmark, from 2000 to 2010.All pregnancies among Danish residents during the period 2000-2010 were included for analysis.Data were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (...) , the Danish National Patient Registry, and the Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. The filled prescriptions for systemic antibacterial, antimycotic, and antiviral drugs, as well as intravaginally applied antibiotics, were analysed. Associations with demographic variables were assessed using multivariate analysis.Filled prescriptions for antibiotic drugs during pregnancy.We included 987 973 pregnancies in Denmark from 2000 to 2010; 38.9% of women with a delivery and 14.8% of women with a miscarriage

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2014 BJOG

104. Antibiotic prophylaxis in prelabor spontaneous rupture of fetal membranes at or beyond 36 weeks of pregnancy. (PubMed)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in prelabor spontaneous rupture of fetal membranes at or beyond 36 weeks of pregnancy. To assess the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics compared with placebo in preventing neonatal and maternal infection-related morbidity associated with prelabor spontaneous rupture of membranes at or beyond 36 weeks of pregnancy.In the present randomized controlled trial conducted during 2009-2011, 1640 women with prelabor spontaneous rupture of fetal membranes at or beyond 36 (...) weeks of pregnancy were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics or placebo on admission to the labor ward of Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The participants, caregivers, and investigators were blinded to the group assignment. The primary outcome measure was early-onset neonatal sepsis. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed.Early-onset neonatal sepsis occurred in 34 (4.1%) and 24 (2.9%) neonates in the antibiotics and placebo groups, respectively

2014 International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

105. Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women. (PubMed)

with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012), contacted investigators and other content experts known to us for unpublished trials and scanned the reference lists of retrieved articles.We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effectiveness of various types of antibiotic therapies or antibiotic therapy versus alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis.Two review (...) Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women. Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment.This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women

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2013 Cochrane

106. Intrapartum antibiotics for known maternal Group B streptococcal colonization. (PubMed)

Intrapartum antibiotics for known maternal Group B streptococcal colonization. Maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal infection by vertical transmission. Administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) during labor has been associated with a reduction in early onset GBS disease (EOGBSD). However, treating all colonized women during labor exposes a large number of women and infants to possible adverse effects without (...) benefit.To assess the effect of IAP for maternal GBS colonization on neonatal: 1) all cause mortality and 2) morbidity from proven and probable EOGBSD, late onset GBS disease (LOD), maternal infectious outcomes and allergic reactions to antibiotics.We updated the search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register on 10 November 2012.Randomized trials assessing the impact of maternal IAP on neonatal GBS infections were included.We independently assessed eligibility and quality

2013 Cochrane

107. Prophylactic antibiotics for inhibiting preterm labour with intact membranes. (PubMed)

benefit or causes harm, prior to membrane rupture.To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics administered to women in preterm labour with intact membranes, on maternal and neonatal outcomes.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013).Randomised trials that compared antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment for women in preterm labour (between 20 and 36 weeks' gestation) with intact membranes.Two review authors independently assessed trial (...) Prophylactic antibiotics for inhibiting preterm labour with intact membranes. The aetiology of preterm birth is complex and there is evidence that subclinical genital tract infection influences preterm labour in some women but the role of prophylactic antibiotic treatment in the management of preterm labour is controversial. Since rupture of the membranes is an important factor in the progression of preterm labour, it is important to see if the routine administration of antibiotics confers any

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2013 Cochrane

108. Use of Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Dental Patients

and chro- nic recurrent submandibular sialadenitis, antibiotic therapy is included as part of the treatment. 27 Oral contraceptive use Whenever an antibiotic is prescribed to a female patient taking oral contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, the patient must be advised to use additional techniques of birth control during antibiotic therapy and for at least one week beyond the last dose, as the antibiotic may render the oral contraceptive ineffective. 28,29 Rifampicin has been documented to decrease (...) Use of Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Dental Patients AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES 383 Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ( AAPD) recognizes the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance in the proper and judicious use of anti- biotic therapy in the treatment of oral conditions. 1 Methods Recommendations on the use of antiobiotic therapy were developed

2014 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

109. Antibiotics for the prevention of post-cesarean section complications: clinical evidence and safety

complications. Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Cesarean Sections; Postoperative Complications; Pregnancy Language Published English Country of organisation Canada Province or state Ontario English summary An English language summary is available. Address for correspondence Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), 865 Carling Avenue, Suite 600, Ottawa, Ontario Canada, K1S 5S8 Email: requests (...) Antibiotics for the prevention of post-cesarean section complications: clinical evidence and safety Antibiotics for the prevention of post-cesarean section complications: clinical evidence and safety Antibiotics for the prevention of post-cesarean section complications: clinical evidence and safety CADTH Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA

2014 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

110. Reducing the Risk - Thrombosis and Embolism during Pregnancy and the Puerperium

risk assessment Any surgical procedure in pregnancy or puerperium except immediate repair of the perineum, e.g. appendicectomy, postpartum sterilisation Bone fracture Hyperemesis, dehydration Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (first trimester only) Assisted reproductive technology (ART), in vitro fertilisation (IVF) Admission or immobility (= 3 days’ bed rest) e.g. pelvic girdle pain restricting mobility Current systemic infection (requiring intravenous antibiotics or admission to hospital) e.g (...) Reducing the Risk - Thrombosis and Embolism during Pregnancy and the Puerperium Reducing the Risk of V enous Thromboembolism during Pregnancy and the Puerperium Green-top Guideline No. 37a April 2015RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 37a © Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2 of 40 Reducing the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism during Pregnancy and the Puerperium This is the third edition of this guideline, first published in 2004 under the title ‘Thromboprophylaxis during Pregnancy

2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

111. Management of Beta Thalassaemia in Pregnancy

(chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cell-free fetal DNA) if appropriate. Take a clinical history to establish the extent of thalassaemia complications. Women with diabetes to be referred to joint diabetes pregnancy clinic with haematology input. Review medications e.g. chelators such as deferiprone or deferasirox. Women should be taking 5 mg folic acid. Women who have had a splenectomy should receive antibiotic prophylaxis. Discuss vaccinations with those women who have had a splenectomy. Offer (...) Management of Beta Thalassaemia in Pregnancy Management of Beta Thalassaemia in Pregnancy Green-top Guideline No. 66 March 2014RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 66 2of 17 © Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Management of Beta Thalassaemia in Pregnancy This is the first edition of this guideline. 1. Purpose and scope The purpose of this guideline is to produce evidence-based guidance on the management of women with beta ( ß) thalassaemia major and intermedia in pregnancy

2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

112. Nausea/vomiting in pregnancy

Nausea/vomiting in pregnancy Nausea/vomiting in pregnancy - NICE CKS Share Nausea/vomiting in pregnancy: Summary The majority of women vomit or feel nauseated in early pregnancy. Symptoms usually begin between the fourth and seventh weeks of gestation and usually resolve around the 20th week of pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum is a diagnosis of exclusion characterized by prolonged and severe nausea and vomiting, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, ketonuria, and body weight loss of more than 5 (...) % of pre-pregnancy weight. Findings which may suggest an alternative diagnosis include: Onset of symptoms after 11 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pain or tenderness (more than mild epigastric tenderness after retching). Fever. Headache or abnormal neurological examination. Goitre. Complications are more likely in women with severe vomiting and include: Maternal — weight loss, dehydration, hyponatraemia, vitamin deficiencies, Mallory-Weiss tear or oesophageal rupture, increased risk of venous

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

113. Antibiotics prior to embryo transfer in ART. (PubMed)

Antibiotics prior to embryo transfer in ART. Embryo transfer (ET) involves the placement of one or more embryos into the uterine cavity, usually by passing a catheter through the cervical os. ET is the final step in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle, where a woman has undergone controlled ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval and in vitro fertilisation of her eggs. Despite the transfer of high quality embryos, many ETs do not result in a pregnancy. There are many factors which may (...) affect the success of ET, including the presence of upper genital tract microbial colonisation. The administration of antibiotics prior to ET has been suggested as an intervention to reduce levels of microbial colonisation and hence improve pregnancy rates.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic administration prior to ET during ART cycles.We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL

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2012 Cochrane

114. WITHDRAWN: Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. (PubMed)

WITHDRAWN: Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. Prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section have been shown to reduce the incidence of maternal postoperative infectious morbidity. Many different antibiotic regimens have been reported to be effective.The objective of this review was to determine which antibiotic regimen is most effective in reducing the incidence of infectious morbidity in women undergoing cesarean section.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy (...) and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The date of the most recent search was October 1998.Randomized trials that included women undergoing cesarean section were included. Trials were required to compare at least two different antibiotic regimens. Trials that compared placebo with a single antibiotic regimen were not included as these are studies which have been analyzed in another Cochrane review.Data were extracted from each publication independently

2012 Cochrane

115. Preterm Labour, Antibiotics and Cerebral Palsy

Preterm Labour, Antibiotics and Cerebral Palsy Preterm Labour, Antibiotics, and Cerebral Palsy Scientific Impact Paper No. 33 February 2013Preterm Labour, Antibiotics, and Cerebral Palsy 1. Introduction The rate of preterm birth (pregnancy under 37 +0 weeks of gestation) is 5–9% of all births in Europe, and 12–13% in the United States of America (USA); the rates in both continents increased up to 2008, partly due to the higher number of multiple births associated with assisted conceptions. 1 (...) has been demonstrated. 25 4. Short term effect of antenatal antibiotics on preterm birth Subclinical infection is implicated in a large proportion of preterm births, so theoretically, the acute use of antibiotics could eradicate the infection, prolong the pregnancy and improve neonatal outcome. Alternatively, antibiotics might suppress the infection, thus prolonging the pregnancy, but leaving the fetus in a hostile inflammatory environment. 4.1 Asymptomatic women at risk of preterm labour A recent

2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

116. General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care

function (creatinine clearance in elderly patients), fragility (diabetes, immunodeficiency), pregnancy and breastfeeding; • the choice of an antibiotic with the narrowest possible spectrum; • the shortest possible duration of treatment to avoid selection of resistant strains. ´ It is recommended to: • give preference to oral administration; • comply with the recommended dosages and treatment durations; • evaluate the efficacy of the antibiotic treatment on the symptoms between 48 and 72 hours after (...) (without obstruction); • acute exacerbation of a mild or moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in the absence of purulent secretions; • bronchiolitis and tracheobronchitis of favourable progress within 72 hours, in the absence of an associated AOM; • maxillary sinusitis in a child or adult when progress under symptomatic treatment is favourable. ´ There is no need to prescribe an antibiotic in asymptomatic bacteriuria (urinary colonisation) outside of pregnancy , including catheterisation

2014 HAS Guidelines

117. Differentiating Streptococcus pseudoporcinus from GBS: Could this have implications in pregnancy? (PubMed)

Differentiating Streptococcus pseudoporcinus from GBS: Could this have implications in pregnancy? Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a common pathogen known to cause neonatal and maternal infectious morbidity. Streptococcus pseudoporcinus (S. pseudoporcinus) is a separate, recently identified beta-hemolytic gram positive coccus that can cause false positive results on standard GBS agglutination testing assays.To determine the prevalence and clinical implications of S. pseudoporcinus colonization (...) in pregnancy.This is a 2-year retrospective cohort study comparing pregnant women colonized with GBS to those colonized with S. pseudoporcinus. We used a proteomics method of identification, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, to distinguish between S. pseudoporcinus and GBS colonization. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out on all specimens. Maternal and neonatal chart reviews were conducted to identify predictors of S. pseudoporcinus colonization

2019 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

118. SMFM Consult Series #: Sepsis during pregnancy and the puerperium. (PubMed)

SMFM Consult Series #: Sepsis during pregnancy and the puerperium. Maternal sepsis is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and is a preventable cause of maternal death. The purpose of this guideline is to summarize what is known about sepsis and to provide guidance for the management of sepsis in pregnancy and the postpartum period. The following are SMFM recommendations: (1) we recommend that sepsis and septic shock be considered medical emergencies and that treatment (...) and resuscitation begin immediately (GRADE 1B); (2) we recommend that providers consider the diagnosis of sepsis in pregnant patients with otherwise unexplained end organ damage in the presence of an infectious process, regardless of the presence of fever (GRADE 1B); (3) we recommend that empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics be administered as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour, in any pregnant woman in whom sepsis is suspected (GRADE 1B); (4) we recommend obtaining cultures (blood, urine, respiratory

2019 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

119. Pregnancy Zone Protein is Associated with Airway Infection, Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Disease Severity in Bronchiectasis. (PubMed)

Pregnancy Zone Protein is Associated with Airway Infection, Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Disease Severity in Bronchiectasis. Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is a broad-spectrum immunosuppressive protein believed to suppress T-cell function during pregnancy to prevent fetal rejection. It has not previously been reported in the airway.To characterise PZP in the bronchiectasis airway including its relationship with disease severity.Label free liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (...) microscopy confirmed the presence of PZP in NETs, while fluorescence and electron microscopy localised PZP to the cytoplasm and nuclei of neutrophils. Effective antibiotic therapy reduced sputum PZP.PZP is released into NETs. We report a novel link between airway infection, NET formation and disease severity in bronchiectasis during chronic airway inflammation.

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2019 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

120. Chlamydia trachomatis and the Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Ectopic Pregnancy, and Female Infertility: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Primary Care Patients. (PubMed)

antibiotics.This was a retrospective study of women aged 12-25 years at start of follow-up within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD database linked to index of multiple deprivation quintiles, 2000-2013. CT test status and antibiotic use were determined in a time-dependent manner. Risk of PID, ectopic pregnancy, or female infertility were evaluated using of Cox proportional hazard models.We studied 857 324 women, contributing 6 457 060 person-years. Compared with women who tested CT-negative, women (...) who tested CT-positive had an increased risk of PID (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-2.79), ectopic pregnancy (aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.38-2.54), and infertility (aHR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.27-2.68). The PID risk was higher for women with 2 or more positive CT tests than those with 1 positive test. PID risk increased with the number of previous antibiotic prescriptions, regardless of CT test status.We showed an association between CT-positive tests and 3 adverse

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

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