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Antibiotics in Pregnancy

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21. Virulence-associated genes and antibiotic susceptibility among vaginal and rectal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pregnant women in Poland Full Text available with Trip Pro

Virulence-associated genes and antibiotic susceptibility among vaginal and rectal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pregnant women in Poland Vaginal and/or rectal Escherichia coli colonization of pregnant women is sometimes associated with neonatal infections. Despite the relevance of these strains, they have been rarely described before. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare vaginal (VEC) and rectal E. coli (REC) isolates in respect of antimicrobial susceptibility and the frequency (...) of virulence-associated genes (VAGs). The antimicrobial susceptibility of 50 VEC and 50 REC isolates was performed by using the disc diffusion method, and VAGs were detected by PCR. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial resistance between VEC and REC. Both VEC and REC isolates were mostly resistant to ticarcillin (36 and 30%) and ampicillin (36 and 22%). None of the tested isolates was positive for ESBL. Gene's fimH, fimA, sfa/foc, iutA, ibeA, hlyF, and neuC were detected, respectively

2018 Folia microbiologica

22. Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections — United States, 2014 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections — United States, 2014 Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient (...) safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate

2018 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

23. Colonization prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Group B Streptococcus in pregnant women over a 6-year period in Dongguan, China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Colonization prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Group B Streptococcus in pregnant women over a 6-year period in Dongguan, China. This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35-37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were (...) serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers. Of 153 GBS isolates available for typing, 6 serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, V, VI and VIII) were identified with type III being predominant, while 9 (5.9%) were non-typable isolates. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ceftriaxone, linezolid and vancomycin, whereas 52.4% were resistant to clindamycin, 25.9% were resistant

2017 PLoS ONE

24. Bacterial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated factors among pregnant women with Urinary Tract Infection in Goba and Sinana Woredas, Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bacterial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated factors among pregnant women with Urinary Tract Infection in Goba and Sinana Woredas, Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest infections affecting millions worldwide, especially pregnant women. It can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. So the objective of present study was to determine the bacterial (...) profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated factors of UTI among pregnant women in Goba and Sinana Woredas, Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia.The overall prevalence of UTI was 44/169 (26%) with 18/51 (35.3%) in symptomatic and 26/118 (22%) in asymptomatic pregnant women, respectively. Of the 44 bacterial isolates, E. coli 12/44 (27.3%), K. pneumonia 9/44 (20.5%) and S. marcescens 4/44 (9.1%) were the commonest bacterial pathogens. C. freundii 3/44 (6.8%), M. morganii 3/44 (6.8%), P

2018 BMC research notes

25. Antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant with premature rupture of ovular membranes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant with premature rupture of ovular membranes: systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated

2020 PROSPERO

26. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy

for antibiotics at presentation, with early review and rationalisation of antibiotics if COVID-19 is confirmed.’ 9 13.5.20 3.6: Statement added: ‘A woman with moderate or severe COVID symptoms who happens to be pregnant but with no immediate pregnancy issue should be cared for by the same multidisciplinary team as a non-pregnant woman with additional input from the maternity team. The labour ward should not be the default location for all pregnant women.’6 1. Introduction7 1. Introduction The following advice (...) Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy 1 Information for healthcare professionals Version 9: Published Wednesday 13 May 2020 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in Pregnancy2 Contents Summary of updates 3-5 1. Introduction 6-11 2. Advice for health professionals to share with pregnant women 12-19 3. Advice for all midwifery and obstetric services caring for pregnant women 20-36 4. Advice for services caring for women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 37-39 Acknowledgements 40 Appendix 1

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

27. Updated SOGC Committee Opinion – COVID-19 in Pregnancy

on how to prevent or manage infection with COVID-19. Due to physiologic changes that occur in pregnancy, when compared with their non-pregnant counterparts, pregnant women with lower respiratory tract infections often experience worse outcomes, including higher rates of hospital and intensive care unit admission. (3) Since 2002 there have been two other global outbreaks of highly-pathogenic coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). While SARS (...) with SARS and MERS infection. The only published case-control study showed that pregnant women with SARS experienced worse outcomes than non-pregnant women of similar age.(10) Reports varied with respect to the effects of SARS and MERS on pregnancy outcomes. Spontaneous abortion has been reported among women infected with SARS and MERS in the first trimester.4 As well, stillbirth, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm birth have been reported in pregnancies affected by SARS and MERS in the second

2020 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

28. Management of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease During Pregnancy

with a tick bite or suspected Lyme disease should be managed similarly to non-pregnant adults, including the consideration of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment. The primary objective of this committee opinion is to inform practitioners about Lyme disease and provide an approach to managing the care of pregnant women who may have been infected via a blacklegged tick bite. Intended users Health care providers who care for pregnant women or women of reproductive age. Target population Women (...) terms and keywords including Lyme Disease, Pregnancy, Pregnant Women, Pregnancy Complications, Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Babesiosis, Tularemia, Powassan Virus, Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne, Tick-Borne Diseases, Colorado Tick Fever, Q Fever, Relapsing Fever, and Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness. All articles on Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases with a target population of pregnant women were included; other groups and populations were excluded

2020 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

29. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy

professionals based on a combination of available evidence, good practice and expert consensus opinion. The priorities are: (i) The reduction of transmission of COVID-19 to pregnant women. (ii) The provision of safe, personalised and woman-centred care during pregnancy, birth and the early postnatal period during the COVID-19 pandemic. (iii) The provision of safe, personalised and woman-centred care to pregnant and postnatal women with suspected/confirmed COVID-19. Please be aware that this is very much (...) . We will update the RCOG guidance if these change. 1.3 Transmission Most global cases of COVID-19 have evidence of human-to-human transmission. This virus can be readily isolated from respiratory secretions, faeces and fomites (objects). Transmission of the virus is known to occur through close contact with an infected person (within 2 metres) or from contaminated surfaces. Pregnant women do not appear more likely to contract the infection than the general population. 5 6 Pregnancy itself alters

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

30. Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy

with or for COVID-19. 15 Similar findings were reported in a large systematic review of 2,567 pregnancies with COVID-19, where 50.8% of women were from a BAME background. 38.2% of the women were obese and 32.5% had chronic comorbidities such as asthma and hypertension. 28 The association with BAME is particularly apparent and echoes previous findings that UK BAME pregnant women generally have worse outcomes in pregnancy and birth. 23 Furthermore, 13% of the UK’s total population identifies as being from a BAME (...) affects 5% of pregnant women in the UK, with the majority (88%) of women with diabetes in pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes. 39 In the UKOSS study, comorbidities such as diabetes were associated with pregnant women being admitted to hospital with COVID-19. 15 In non-pregnant individuals, a UK study of 20,133 patients admitted to high dependency and intensive care with COVID-19 found uncomplicated diabetes was one of the most common comorbidities (21%, 3650/17599); a further 7% (n=1299

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

31. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI). 2. Increase in the incidence (rate) of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria established through the use of chlorhexidine identifying dosage form, exposure and specific population and / or setting. Antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria through the use of chlorhexidine to be recorded. 3. Increases (...) to chlorhexidine in a specific population and / or setting. To address the question ‘Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increases the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? ’ the outcomes included: ? ‘Resistance against antibiotics’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial

2018 National Health and Medical Research Council

32. Proposals for a more effective antibiotic policy in Belgium

(BAPCOC) 24 1.1.6 Difficult to obtain significant improvements 24 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS & SCOPE 25 1.3 TERMINOLOGY 25 1.4 METHODOLOGY 26 1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 26 2 ANTIBIOTIC USE AND ITS LINK WITH ANTIBACTERIAL RESISTANCE 27 2.1 WHAT IS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE? 27 2.1.1 Antibacterial resistance, a natural phenomenon 27 2.1.2 How do bacteria become resistant? 27 2.1.3 How does antibiotic resistance spread? 28 2.1.4 Multidrug resistant organisms 28 2.1.1 Resistance in community and healthcare (...) . This document is available on the website of the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre. KCE Report 311 Antibiotic policy in Belgium 1 ? TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES 8 LIST OF TABLES 10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 13 ? SCIENTIFIC REPORT 23 1 INTRODUCTION 23 1.1 SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM 23 1.1.1 Antibiotic resistance 23 1.1.2 Antibiotic use in Belgium 24 1.1.3 The concept of prudent antimicrobial/antibiotic use 24 1.1.4 One Health approach 24 1.1.5 Belgian Antibiotic Policy Coordination Committee

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

33. Pregnancy-induced periodontal inflammation: Influence of salivary cytokines and antimicrobial proteins Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pregnancy-induced periodontal inflammation: Influence of salivary cytokines and antimicrobial proteins The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pregnancy-induced periodontal inflammation and levels of some salivary cytokines and antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). The study was a cohort longitudinal study that included pregnant women attending a secondary health facility. Consented participants had oral examination and saliva sampling during pregnancy and post-partum (three (...) months after pregnancy). Saliva samples were used for the analysis of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-gamma and IL-1β) and AMPs (Lactoferin, Lysozyme, and β defensin-1) using ELISA. Data are presented as median with interquartile range and compared using related sample Wilcoxon signed rank test. Correlations between levels of the salivary factors and indices of periodontal inflammation were determined using Spearman's correlation test. Salivary flow rate, pH, levels of salivary IL-1β and IFN-gamma were

2018 The Saudi dental journal

34. HTA of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing

a range of health services, in conjunction with the Department of Health and the HSE. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority iv Foreword Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria adapt in response to the use of medicines. When bacteria become antibiotic resistant, infections become more difficult to manage and treat. Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health, and widely acknowledged to be associated with the excessive (...) , but not for those with acute bronchitis. ? Overprescribing of antibiotics for RTIs in primary care is common in most industrialised countries, with high levels of inappropriate prescribing documented. Antibiotic treatment of RTIs can expose patients to an increased risk of an adverse event, with one out of five patients experiencing mostly minor and self-limiting adverse events. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health, and it is widely recognised that antibiotic

2019 Health Information and Quality Authority

35. The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)

-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 3 Consultation of the draft Rapid Assessment External experts [V.1.3] Elizabeth Beech, National Project Lead – Healthcare Acquired Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance, NHS Improvement, England Dr Nuala O’Connor, Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) GP Lead HSE Clinical Programme HCAI-AMR Professor Martin Cormican, National Clinical Lead (...) ) RECOMMENDATIONS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FOR CRP POCT 248 Figures FIGURE 1: ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT 67 FIGURE 2: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (COMBINED NON-SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR PENICILLINS AND MACROLIDES) VERSUS STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN EU/EEA COUNTRIES, 2017 68 FIGURE 3: CONSUMPTION OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR SYSTEMIC USE IN THE COMMUNITY, EU/EEA COUNTRIES, 2016 (EXPRESSED AS DDD PER 1 000 INHABITANTS PER DAY) 69 FIGURE 4: FLOW CHART SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 1 (EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY) 83 C-reactive protein point

2019 EUnetHTA

36. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

infectious puerperal morbidities in women undergoing operative vaginal deliveries including vacuum or forceps deliveries, or both.We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (12 July 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (12 July 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies.All randomised trials comparing any prophylactic antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment in women undergoing vacuum or forceps deliveries were (...) eligible. Participants were all pregnant women without evidence of infections or other indications for antibiotics of any gestational age undergoing vacuum or forceps delivery for any indications. Interventions were any antibiotic prophylaxis (any dosage regimen, any route of administration or at any time during delivery or the puerperium) compared with either placebo or no treatment.Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Two review authors extracted the data

2017 Cochrane

37. Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of infection after vaginal birth is high. However, available evidence is unclear concerning the role of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing infections after an episiotomy.To assess whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis before or immediately after incision or repair of episiotomy for women with an uncomplicated vaginal birth, compared with either placebo or no antibiotic prophylaxis, prevents maternal infectious morbidities and improves outcomes.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials (...) (e.g. endometritis) were reported in either the antibiotic or control group.The trial did not report on any of the secondary outcomes of interest for this review, including severe maternal infectious morbidity, discomfort or pain at the episiotomy wound site, sexual function postpartum, adverse effects of antibiotics, costs of care, women's satisfaction with care, and individual antimicrobial resistance.There was insufficient evidence to assess the clinical benefits or harms of routine antibiotic

2017 Cochrane

38. Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing

or if flucloxacillin is unsuitable is clarithromycin clarithromycin or erythromycin erythromycin (in pregnancy). The committee agreed that these antibiotics are effective against the common pathogens that cause impetigo, and the evidence indicated that macrolides are as effective as penicillins for treating impetigo. The committee discussed that in its experience, MRSA infection in impetigo is rare and that appropriate antibiotic choice may depend on local antimicrobial resistance rates. Therefore, the committee (...) T erms used in the guideline 11 Recommendation for research 13 1 Antiseptics compared with antibiotics for impetigo 13 Rationales 14 Advice to reduce the spread of impetigo 14 Initial treatment 14 Reassessment and further treatment 16 Referral and seeking specialist advice 17 Choice of antimicrobial 18 Context 21 Summary of the evidence 22 Antimicrobials 22 Choice of antibiotics 23 Course length 25 Route of administration 25 Other considerations 27 Medicines safety 27 Medicines adherence 27

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

39. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing

26 Medicines safety 26 Medicines adherence 27 Resource implications 27 Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults with leg ulcer infection. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary (...) antibiotic use. 1.1.4 Give oral antibiotics if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. 1.1.5 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics if possible. T o find out why the committee made the recommendations on treatment for adults with an infected leg ulcer, see the rationales. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

40. Antibiotics in Pregnancy

Antibiotics in Pregnancy Antibiotics in Pregnancy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Antibiotics in Pregnancy Antibiotics (...) in Pregnancy Aka: Antibiotics in Pregnancy , Antifungal Medications in Pregnancy , Antiparasitic Medications in Pregnancy , Antiviral Medications in Pregnancy II. Background Pregnancy Categories will be replaced on medication bottles with specific warnings and precautions by 2020 in U.S. Although are no longer FDA designated, they are included here As of 2018, succinct guidance (to replace ABCDX) on specific drugs in pregnancy is lacking III. Class B: No risk in controlled animal studies Topical Agents

2018 FP Notebook

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